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Sketches of Church History 



IN 



North Carolina. 



ADDRESSES AND PAPERS 



HY 



CLERGYMKN AND LAYMKN 



OF THK 



DIOCESES OF NORTH AND EAST CAROLINA. 



PREPARKI) 

FOR thp: joint crntenxiai. convkntion at 

TARBOROrOH, MAY. 1890. 






PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE JOINT CONVENTION 



WIIvMINGTON, N. C : 
WM. h. DK ROSSKT, JR., PUBUSHKR, 

1892. 



169580 



ERRATA. 



Page 20, l)ottom line, for "George," read "(»regory." 

•* 52, ninth line from bottom, after the name "Mr. John Blount" 
insert "Mr. James Long." 
67, tenth line from bottom, "17 16" read "1715." 
74, fourth line from bottom, for "Mills" read "Wills." 
78, fourteenth line from top, for "Bertie" read "Northamptom." 
139, line 5, for "Harell," read "Hasell." 

144, line 5, for "DeHern^," read "DeHerv^." 

145, next to bottom line, for "Richard," read "Kdward." 
154, line 16, for "E. Hall," read "Edward Hare." 
154, line 16, for "W. McKinnon," read "Wm. McKinne." 
154, line 21, for "M. Hall," read "Moses Hare." 
154, line 23, for "S. Comue," read "Saml. Cornell." 
154, line 24, for "J. Moore," read "A. Moore." 
198, third line from bottom, for "Bonaroa," read "Bonarva." 
2i\y foot-note^ for "Edward Jones,'' read "James Macaj-tney." 
226, line 21, for "Grapy Creek," read "Grassy Creek." 
238, in th^foot-uotey the Editor meant to say that at this time, 1797, 

the Rev. David Caldwell stood at the head of the Presbyterians 
of North Carolina, rather than the Rev. Joseph Caldwell. The 
latter at that time was a young man of twenty-four years of 
age, and a stranger in the State, haNnng but recently come 
from the North. 

256, line 7, fill blank with the word "Presbyterian." 

276, line 7 from bottom the period (.) after "1822," should be a 
comma (,), and the word following should be "she" instead 
of "He." 

315, seventh line from the bottom, for "Wm. P. Bynum," read 
'Wm. S. Bynum." 

35/j. Ime 4, for "LL. D.," read "S. T, !)•" 

359, line 12, after the fourth word "fact" place a period (,), and let 
a new sentence follow with "As a matter of fact," &c. 

390, fifth line from bottom replace the period (.) with a comma (,). 

422, last line "1782" should be "1792." 






if 




TO THK MKMORV 



CHARLES I'KTTIC.RKW, JAMf;s I,. WILSON, 
NATHANIEL HLOUNT, SOLOMON HAL- 
LING, DR. JOHN LEIGH, WILLIAM CLKII- 
ENTS, AND THEIR A.SSOCIATES 
CLERICAL AND LAY, 

WHOSE F.AITH \V.\S TRIHI) HV I'AILrRH. 
BIT THK FRIIT OI" WHO.SR I.AHdRS \VR i;XJ{»V, 

THI.S VOU'ME I,S IiKlUC.^TKI), 

IN CRATITT'DI! TO CSOI) FOR THKIR I'AITM AND I'ATIlvNCK 

' ^ Super Pauca Fidelia. ' ' 



Let us now praise famous men, and our fathers that begat us. 
* * * * 

There be some of them that have left a name behind them, that their 
praises might be reported 

And some there be zvhich have no memorial, 7i>ho are perished^ as 
though they had never been. 

The Wise Son of Sir a ch. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The occasion of the followinjj; Addresses and other pa])ers, as well as 
their character and purpose, will be sufficiently explained ])v the extracts 
from the Journals of the Dioceses of North and Kast Carolina, which oc- 
cupy the first place in this volume. The members of the Joint Conven- 
tion at Tarborough, who heard the Addresses delivered upon that occa- 
sion, thought them worthy of preservation. The resolution authorizing 
and directing their publication was purposely so framed as to include one 
or two other papers which had been prej^ared for the meeting, but which 
had not been read. 

It has been thought proper to include also the proceedings of the four 
meetings at Tarborough in the years 1790, 1793 and 1794, which the 
Joint Convention of 1890 was intended to commemorate. No records of 
their proceedings were known to exist until they were published by the 
present writer in a small pamphlet in the year 1SS2. The minutes of the 
meeting of November 12th, 1790, had been discovered by the Hon. Kemp 
P. Battle, LL. D., I*resident of the University of North Carolina, in an 
old news-paper, and were by him communicated to the writer, who him- 
self exhumed the proceedings of the other meetings from a mass of MSS. 
kindly loaned him by the Rev. Wni. S. Pettigrew. Up to that time 
Bishop White's Memoirs of the American Church contained all the scanty 
intormation accessible concerning this period of our history, except a few- 
additional particulars mentioned by Parson Miller in his letter to Dr. 
Hawks. This pamphlet having had a very limited circulation, it has 
seemed proper to print the proceedings of these Conventions as an Ap- 
pendix to this volume. It is eminently fitting that we should preserve 
in permanent form the record of those meetings which the Joint Conven- 
tion of 1890 was held to commemorate. The brief notes appended to the 
pamphlet of 1882 are retained, but the Introdution is omitted, since all 
that is valuable in it is contained in other parts of this volume. 

The proceedings of the Joint Convention were not exactly in accor- 



Xll 



(lance with the pro-am ])repared and rei>orte(l by the Committee. Cir- 
cnnistances hindered some of those who had been appointed to write or 
to speak, from fulfilUnj^ the tasks assigned to them, and some papers which 
•had been ])rei)ared conld not be read for want of time. Special rej^et 
was felt that the H(m. John S. Henderson, and the late Hon. William L. 
Sannders, the one from the press of official duties, the other from con- 
tinued sickness, were unable to prepare the i)apers which they had hoped 
to present to this meeting. 

vSomething perhaps ought to be .said in regard to the principle upon 
which the program for the Joint Convention was prepared, and the 
method by which it was sought to make the proceedings lx)th interesting 
at the time and worthy of preservation. 

Leaving out those brief addres.ses which served merely as the formal 
()})ening and closing of the Convention, the program falls natually into 
three divisions. First, the two longer Addresses Friday evening, were 
intended to set forth the true position of our branch of the Church, both 
historically in its connection with our Anglo Saxon race, and ecclesiasti- 
cally as it is related to the primitive Apostolic Church, and to the Catho- 
lic Church in all ages. vSecondly, the Addresses Saturday morning and 
after-noon were intended to present a series of studies in North Carolina 
history from an ecclesia.stical point of view. And thirdly, the Sunday 
after-noon and evening proceedings were designed to set forth the Church 
in these two Dioceses as it is to-day — its present work, responsibilities, 
and duties. Bishop Watson's sermon Sundav morning fittingly connected 
the past with the present. 

It will be a])parent to all that the vSaturday proceedings were the most 
important in their connection with the special character of the meeting, 
and the interest likely to be aroused by the commemoration of such an 
event in our local Church history. It was hoped that the persons to 
whom the several topics upon the Saturday's program had been assigned 
would endeavor to develop their themes with such fulness as might 
seem to be demanded, and as the materials should allow, without refer- 
ence to that brevity ])roper to >)e observed in a popular address. This, to 
some extent, was done. The pa])ers numbered III, IV, VI, and IX, were 
read only in part; they are however printed in full, with many interesting 
and ini))ortant details which had to be omitted at the time of their de- 
livery. ' 

The subject of the paper numbered VII was assigned to the Rev. Dr. 
Huske. It is nmch to be regretted that continued sickness made it im- 
possible for him to undertake the proper treatment of this most interest- 
ing and important topic. Finding that there was no hope of his being 
able to do so, the editor, upon whom, as Secretary of the Joint Committee, 
the respoUvSibility of seeing that the program was carried out had been 
imposed, ventured to prepare the paper which appears under the title, 
"Decay and Rrvival," since its ommission would have lefl a verj' 
serious gap in the program. The writer will not with an affectation of 
diffidence profess himself entirely unfitted for this task. Very great inter- 



XUl 

est in the questions involved, much time and pains s])ent in their inves- 
tigation, coupled with some special advantaj^es of local and family tra- 
ditions, rendered him in some respects as well (|ualified as any other to 
treat this period of our Church history. But at the same time he is of 
the opinion that if Dr. Huske had been able to address himself to this 
task, he could have produced a paper of j<reater value in many respects 
than the one which now stands in its place. 

The members of the Protestant Hpisco])al Church in the Dioceses of 
North and East Carolina feel that their position as Churchmen 
binds them in bands of special love and loyalty to the Commonwealth of 
North Carolina. In the Joint Convention at Tarlx)rough they were cele- 
brating the inauguration of that ecclesiastical freedom which was one of 
the greatest blessings connected with and growing out of our civil inde- 
pendence. The Addresses and other papers prepared for that meeting, 
we respectfull}' offer to all our brethren and fellow citizens of North Car- 
olina, as a contribution to the history' of the good old State which we all 
love. Whatever may be thought of the success of this attempt to treat 
the history of North Carolina topically and in detail, the writer is strongly 
of opinion that the attempt has been made in the right direction. We 
hear much of the unsatisfactory character of the histories of our State. 
During the last four or five years we have had opened to us a vast store- 
house of the richest historical material in the noble volumes of "The 
Colonial Records of North Carolina," illuminated l)y the "Prefatory 
Notes" of Col. Saunders. The wish is very frequently expressed that 
some one would at once turn this material into a narrative history of the 
State. It is much to be feared that some rash author, or would be 
author, will endeavor to gratify this wish. It would be most unfortunate 
if any one should attempt this at present. vSo great a mass of jnaterial 
cannot be taken into the mind, and so digested as to allow of its proper 
assifnilatiofty in a short space of time. To })erceive the relations and 
proportions of the innumerable details of fact, to a])i)reciate the force and 
tendency of the subtle currents of cause and effect working under the 
confusion of the surface, to discern and to portray that which is the real 
life of the community, and to relegate all minor matters to their proi)er 
place in the back-ground; — this cannot be done by any mind at once; and 
it is much to be doubted whether it can ever be done by a man who at- 
tempts to deal with the whole confused mass of these materials. The 
several periods of our history should be taken u]) separately, and the 
different parts making up the whole should be minutely studied by many 
minds. In this way the preliminary work should be done, and the chaff 
sifted from the wheat. A vast amount of criticism must be ap])licd 
to the crude materials of history, as they exist in contenii)orary docu- 
ments, before it can be ascertained precisely how much their testimony is 
worth, and the exact sense in which we must understand the witnesses. 
When this has all been done, then will some skilful hand gather up the 
results of the labors of many, and combine them in a narrative for the 
entertainment and instruction of all. 



It :« h';.^i ili.M t::--^- iiapers :n. *'•::' lei: :r. this volume which deal with 
T-rr-...::> a:i.: rvc:::s Jii:V»rc thr yc.ir :'^^. . ^^:'.'. V rbuntl to b«r a contribu- 
*.: or :■ ^-A .-. r U : '.::'- T ■re '. : tu : :: .ir\ u .. ir k . r ■ -t «-:: !k«i: I 5<.»me value. Certainly 
::■• '.art ■■:'■ ur ;:>:.. cy :i.i> "h.-v" ^t 5;;c::«.r.%'.*.y lui'-undrrstooil. aud so con- 
->tr::-.ly ::i:>re'rc>^:-.tc':. .i^ :!u c\vlc^:js:i,.a' jffairs of the ProWncc of 
Si^n'r. yl.'.T' 1 :::.». \V:'l:.i::'.«-'!i a:*.«i M.irt:::. -^ur carlicM historians, wrote 
• i y vri'. - '. w ! : t- :: y re ; '.: • i : o «j .i »;; .i : : : «>: i :i c- C h ur*: li was >toii);cst. and tliey 
■ill '■::!;. till- v.-.;^^:t^: .11: : :::i*^: 4:t-!icr.i' :Ic.-.^ ::p*.»n the >uhject. They 
'-*rt:rrM :•• !..-.v. !; -. : .n.\ x-^s :o ::-• i.v;n:xt::> ri-*..ii:nj: in ihc establishment 
■r ZT'j] i^..:"":i '-:" ::u- v.'::::r«.*': :v. :he I*ro\:::vc. rxccpt the Colonial 
>*..i". :: t •: < ■.::■:'. ;: : t ■ 1 : ! i : :: t- K t- \ : >.i " > :Vo:! ! i ~ % ^ * lo w :i w an I : ai.d . bv reason of 
.. ::■■*. \ir.:'. r.v.T '.'. v.Tirusio:; ::: ilit- ::.i::ic. t:i«:\ atiribulci the most nujust 
ir. \ ■.r:V:>:-. V :::t.*'.;:r«.«» of :::«.- S':::': Carolina >;»«vvnimcnt to our North 
v." \T*y. : : : a vJ • .. lo:: •■ .,•' A ! * -^xix .ir' c . J o; :: : :: i: •.■- : : !s : hi-i :>ni*-"*s"»i" cr a theory. 
:::*rr''- ..: v^r: .::i r w::':: I'.'.c- f.ti*:'* :::a: Nv^rtl: vjari»!:iia hail been settled 
■>y rr'.:'.,'Ti::- ■rt:\:;;i«.'» :V"'::i \:ri;":!r..i axul New Krijc'.ainl. they were likely to 
:.ik-. .ir.ythi":: : -.i: j ;•.;'»: vii-w o:'.".ir \Ji»I»'!i:a*. hi^t.-^rj- and le^ni^lation upon 
:•..•« i-....Ioi.i<:^.ii •'Mc. Ar.ii ..fter ::;ci:: o'jr otlur hi«itorians ha\-e told the 
•*.i:::v s:.»r'.-. r.r.- liriv: i: «.-.i>:tr :•• f.i'.'. ir.in t>.c vurren: ;han 10 discover the 
tht- tr-c ^''.ir-K: fur ;!k::i"»c'.\v'*. 

I: :> *.•--:::•.:» ;i lu ;;.»:v tha: :ht rv wi'.l K :;v» errors in ;he folloi*in)j pa^es. 
''•iVcr:n>: ^i cMirniU- 1 a :>rrit>«i. ar.ii for tlso m«»>: part iraversinjj entirely 
i;eu vfro'.'.irl. In >'ir.li:i;^ ov.: iljc niisiako of u^nner writers, who had 
:v : ''-r :::e.i::- --f knowlcdye. ii is not meant to ^*Ia:ui any exemption fVoni 
thf -i^jrie :nij>t:rfev' lions. IU;l i: is to Sv hojKii that the sum of error is con- 
tin ■.:»'.!} '.f.-s-eiiftl. a!:«l ihal wcry honoi ami inle:iii;ent investigator can 
•^i\v -iome .I'll in liie wtirk The writers and s|K\ikers \vlu»se vvntributions 
:n ike uri thi-i volnini.-. .irt: not free from ihe oomnion prejudice in fa^•or of 
th'-i^- ihi:it:> wliich they have l>een lauj^ht to reverence. Tlie Church in 
t:u-:r cyt^ ati-l to their lie.iris i> a very "^acreti and a verv- precious thin>;. 
Ii::t 'if t::"Se uho It^-'.ieve tlia: the Church in its outward v'>nler aiul niin- 
:>try i^ "trie Tii*iern.ir'.e which llie Lord hath ]»iicluHl and not man," this 
m.T. 'if -ai'I . i:;:it no: lia'^ini: their olaim^i for the Church ujhmi the j»tKxl- 
nci^ of its nie:n?»er««. ami imi >>eiievinji thai il> ai'.thoriiy is ahrogatetl by 
th» ::n'AVirt;'.i::t— . iif :!io<e who ailminister its atfair<. Uu y are le?vs liable to 
^n: '.*:'i :nlo the errors of parti>anship than if the\ Un^k a 'ower view. We 
arc I ons.t i'i::s that tliere are nianv thi:ii»'* in the hi<tor\ 01 the Church in 
mortify it- deviuil Tnem>H'r>^: wc iH'iicve thai there art* many nu»re to give 
i:*" ran-c for ;r)y ami thankfnines>. Uui jjihhI or iMd. we wish to have the 
truth di«^|iMyfd. and ue know that ItOP has lessons for us all in the 
t-vf-nt*. of pM'ii H>;e-.. whether the memory of them caust* jox or grief. 

In ;':^tii I to the writer-^ of the pa]>crs following, which Ireal of the period 
jii'-l ]irif tiAwv^ the Rtvohition. ii i»ughl to he said, that those paper* were 
;.rc-p;irfd U fr-re the pnMicati«Mi of volumes Vll — X of the North Carolina 
Cfilonia". R*.« nri^. .in«i with only such reference to the ecclesiastical docu- 
nHiit" 'otraiMe*'. therein ;is was ]H^ssible l»y the use i^^t verv brief notes 
li;i«''Jiy m;id< from the MSS. *ieveral years ago. li has Ihhmi thought 



XV 



best not to endeavor to recast those parts of the several papers, even 
where a more thorough acquaintance with the original (iocumeuts gives 
a somewhat different coloring to the picture. 

The editor must apologize for the delay in the appearance of this vol- 
ume. He trusts that the Churchmen of North Carolina will feel satisfied 
that it has not been caused by any indifference or neglect. He has done 
his best to discharge the trust re|>osed in him, and he asks indulgence 
for the many imperfections of his performance. The work had to be 
done at a distance from his residence, and he wius unable to give it that 
personal supervision which he would gladly have done had he been able 

He desires to thank his friends, Col. \Vm. L. I)eRos.set, Col. James (i. 

Burr, and the Rev. Fretlerick N. Skinner, for their kindness in seeing the 

KTealer part of the work through the press. 

JOS. KLOl'NT CHIvSHlRK. JR. 
Charlottu, N. C. 



XIV 



It is ho])e(l that those ])apers iiicliidwl in this volume which deal with 
persons and events ])efore the year 1S20, will be found to be a contribu- 
tion towards this i)rcliniinary work, nt)t without some value. Certainly 
no ])art of our history has been so j^enerally niisunderstoo<l, and so con- 
sistently niisrei)resented, as the ecclesiastical affairs of the l*rovince of 
North Cart)lina. Williamson and Martin, our earliest historians, wrote 
at a j)eriod when prejndice against the Church was stonj^^est, and they 
had only the vai^uest and most >;eneral i<leas upon the subject. 'J*liey 
seem to have had access to no documents relatinj^ to the establishment 
or propajLjation of the Church in the Province, except the Colonial 
Statutes, include<lin the Revisals from 1752 downward; ai»d, by reaston of 
a n<it unnatural confusion in the name, they attributed the most unjust 
and offensive measures of the South Carolina jj^overnment to our North 
Carolina Colony of Albemarle. Joininj^ with this ignorance a theory. 
utterly at variance with the fads, that North Carolina had been settletl 
by relij^ous refugees from Virginia and New J^ngland, they were likely to 
take anything but a just view of our Colonial history and legislation upon 
its ecclesiastical side. And al\er them our other histori.'uis have told the 
same story, finding it easier to fall into the current than to discover the 
the true course for themselves. 

It is too nuu'h to hope that there will be no errors in the following pa^es, 
covering so extended a ]>eri(Ml, and for the most part traversing entirely 
new grouiKl. In i)ointing out the mistakes of former writers, who had 
not our means of knowledge, it is not meant to claim any exemption from 
the same inn)erfections. lUit it is to be hoped that the sum of error is con- 
tiiuially lessene<l. and that every honest atul intelligent investigator can 
give some aid in the work The writers and speakers whose contributions 
make uj) this volume, are not free from the common prejudice in favor of 
those things which they have been taught to reverence. The Church in 
their eyes and to their hearts is a very sacred and a very precious thing. 
Hut of those who believe that the Church in its outward order and niin- 
i.stry is "the Tjd)ernacle which the Lord hath ])itched and not man/' this 
may be said : that not basing their claims for the Church upon the jifood- 
ness of its nu^mbers, and not believing that its authority is abrogated by 
the unworthiness of those who administer its affairs, they are less liable to 
be led into the errors of partisanshij) than if they took a lower view. Wc 
arc conscious that there are many things in the history of the Church to 
mortify its devout members: wc believe that there are many more to give 
us cause for joy and thankfulness. Hut good or bad, we wish to have the 
truth dis])layed. an<l we know that Oon has lessons for us all in the 
events of ]>ast ages, whether the memory of them cause joy or grief. 

In ju*itice to the writers of the papers following, which treat of the period 
just i>reccding the Revolution, it ought to be said, that those papers were 
prepared befr)re the publication of volumes VII — X of the North Carolina 
Colonial Records. an<l with only such reference to the ecclesiastical docu- 
ments ( ontaiueil therein as was i>ossible by the use of very brief notes 
hastily made from the MSS. several years ago. It has l)een thought 



XV 



best not to endeavor to recast those parts of the several papers, even 
where a more thorough acquaintance with the original documents gives 
a somewhat different coloring to the picture. 

The editor must apologize for the delay in the appearance of this vol- 
ume. He trusts that the Churchmen of North Carolina will feel satisfied 
that it has not been caused by any indifference or neglect. He has done 
his best to discharge the trust reposed in him, and he asks indulgence 
for the many imperfections of his performance. The work had to be 
done at a distance from his residence, and he was unable to give it that 
personal supervision which he would gladly have done had he been able 

He desires to thank his friends, Col. Wm. h. DeRosset, Col. James O. 

Burr, and the Rev. Frederick N. Skinner, for their kindness in seeing the 

greater part of the work through the press. 

JOS. KLOUNT CHHSHIRK, JR. 
Charlottk, N. C. 



XIV 



It is hoped that those papers included in this volume which deal with 
persons and events before the year 1820, will be found to be a contribu- 
tion towards this preliminary work, not without some value. Certainly 
no part of our history has been so generally misunderstood, and so con- 
sistently misrepresented, as the ecclesiastical affairs of the Province of 
North Carolina. Williamson and Martin, our earliest historians, wrote 
at a period when prejudice against the Church was stongest, and ttiey 
had only the vaguest and most general ideas upon the subject. They 
seem to have had access to no documents relating to the establishment 
or propagation of the Church in the Province, except the Colonial 
Statutes, included in the Revisals from 1752 downward; and, by reason of 
a not unnatural confusion in the name, they attributed the most unjust 
and offensive measures of the South Carolina government to our North 
Carolina Colony of Albemarle. Joining with this ignorance a theory, 
utterly at variance with the facts, that North Carolina had been settled 
by religious refugees from Virginia and New England, they were likely to 
take anything but a just view of our Colonial history and legislation upon 
its ecclesiastical side. And after them our other historians have told the 
same story, finding it easier to fall into the current than to discover the 
the true course for thenivSelves. 

It is too much to hope that there will be no errors in the following pages, 
covering so extended a period, and for the most part traversing entirely 
new ground. In pointing out the mistakes of former writers, who had 
not our means of knowledge, it is not meant to claim any exemption from 
the same imperfections. But it is to be liopetl that the sum of error is con- 
tinually lessened, and that every honest and intelligent investigator can 
give some aid in the work. The writers and speakers whose contributions 
make up this volume, are not free from the connnon prejudice in favor of 
tho.se things which they have been taught to reverence. The Church in 
their eyes and to their hearts is a very sacred and a very precious thing. 
Hut of those who believe that the Church in its outward order and min- 
istry is "the Tabernacle which the Lord hath pitched and not man," this 
may be said : that not ba.sing their claims for the Church upon the good- 
ness of its members, and not believing that its authority is abrogated by 
the unworthiness of those who administer its affairs, they are less liable to 
be led into the errors of partisaUvShip than if they took a lower view. We 
are conscious that there are many things in the history of the Church to 
mortify its devout members: we believe that there are many more to give 
us cause for joy and thankfulness. But good or bad, we A^4sh to have the 
truth displayed, and wc know that Goi) has leSvSons for us all in the 
events of past ages, whether the memory of them cause joy or grief 

In ju.stice to the writers of the papers following, which treat of the period 
just preceding the Revolution, it ought to be said, that those papers were 
prepared before the publication of volumes VII — X of the North Carolina 
Colonial Records, and with only such reference to the ecclesiastical docu- 
ments contained therein as was possible by the use of very brief notes 
hastily made from the MSvS. several years ago. It has been thought 



XV 



best not to endeavor to recast those parts of the several papers, even 
where a more thorough acquaintance with the original documents gives 
a somewhat different coloring to the picture. 

The editor must apologize for the delay in the ap])earance of this vol- 
ume. He trusts that the Churchmen of North Carolina will feel satisfied 
that it has not been caused by any indifference or neglect. He has done 
his best to discharge the trust reposed in him, and he asks indulgence 
for the many imperfections of his performance. The work had to be 
done at a distance from his residence, and he was unable to give it that 
personal supervision which he would gladly have done had he been able 

He desires to thank his friends, Col. Wni. L. DeRosset, Col. James G. 

Burr, and the Rev. Fretlerick N. Skinner, for their kindness in seeing the 

greater part of the work through the press. 

JOvS. KLOUNT CHKSHIRK, JR. 
Charlotte, N. C. 



The Joint Centennial Convention. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNALS OF THE 
DIOCESES OF NORTH AND OF EAST CAR- 
OLINA. 



DIOCESE OF NORTH CAROLINA : JOURNAL OF 
THE convention OF 1889, PAGE 41 : 

The Rev. J. B. Cheshire, Jr. , offered the following reso- 
lutions, which, on [his] motion, were referred to a Special 
Committee of five: 

Whereas, The first attempt to organize the Church in North Carolina 
was by a Convention held in Tarboro', in the year 1790: 

7. Resolved^ That the Convention of 1890 be held in Calvary Church, 
Tarboro', on the . . . day of May, 1890, and that a committee be ap- 
pointed to arrange a proper celebration of the Centennial of the first Con- 
vention of Churchmen in North Carolina. 

2. Resolved^ That the said committee be instructed to extend an invi- 
tation, in the name of this Diocese, to the Diocese of East Carolina to 
participate in this Celebration, and to appoint a Committee of Arrange- 
ments to co-operate with the Committee of this Convention. 

J. Resolvedy That the said committee be empowered to consult with 
the Bishop and Convention of East Carolina, and to agree upon a day for 
holding the Convention of 1890, so that both the said Conventions may 
meet upon the same day, and the Convention of East Carolina in some 
place from which, after the transaction of its regular business, the mem- 
bers can proceed to Tarboro' ; and that the said Celebration begin Friday 
of Convention week, and conclude with religious services Sunday. 

4. Resolvedy That upon such agreement between the committees of 
the two Dioceses being certified to the Bishop, he is hereby authorized to 



call the Convention of this Diocese to meet upon the day so agreed upon. 
5. Resolved, That the said committees be authorized to make all neces- 
sary arrangements for proper services, addresses, papers, etc., at such 
celebration, to appoint local committees to co-operate in necessary details, 
and generally to take steps to secure the becoming commemoration of 
this interesting event. 

The President announced the following as the Com- 
mittee: 

The Rev. Dr. Buxton, Rev. W. S. Pettigrew, Rev. J. B. 
Cheshire, Jr. , Hon. K. P. Battle and Mr. S. S. Nash. 
On page 59, of fhe same Journal: 

The Rev. Dr. Buxton presented the following report 
from the committee to whom were referred the resolutions 
of the Rev. J. B. Cheshire, Jr. , regarding a Centennial 
Celebration at Tarboro', N. C. : 

The Committee to whom were referred the resolutions of the Rev. J. B. 
Cheshire, Jr., concerning the proposed Celebration of the Centennial of 
the first Convention of Churchmen in North Carolina, and the appoint- 
ment of a committee for arranging the celebration, respectfully report 
that they approve of such celebration, and of the appointment of a com- 
mittee of seven to make the proper arrangements for carrying it into 
effect. J. BUXTON, 

Chairman. 

On motion, the report was accepted and the resolutions 
of the Rev. J. B. Cheshire, Jr., were adopted as a whole: 

The President appointed the following Committee on 
Centennial Celebration : 

The Rev. Jarvis Buxton, D. D. , the Rev. W. S. Petti- 
grew, the Rev. M. M. Marshall, D. D., the Rev. J. B. 
Cheshire, Jr., Hon. K. P. Battle, Hon. John S. Hender- 
son, Mr. S. S. Nash, Judge F. Philips and Mr. Charles E. 
Johnson. 



Diocese of East Carolina^ Jouriial oj the Council of i88g^ 

The Rev. Dr. Carmichael presented and read the follow- 
ing subsidiary report to the Committee on the State of the 



Church, and the appended resohitions were adopted by a 
rising vote : 

Your Committee, to whom was referred the action of the Convention 
of the Diocese of North Carolina in regard to a Centennial Celebration of 
the first Convention of Churchmen ever held in this State, conveyed to 
this Council by their commissioner, S. S. Nash, Esq., duly appreciating 
the motives which initiated the movement, and cordially responding to 
the fraternal courtesy embodied in the overture, respectfully submit the 
following resolutions: 

7. Resolved, That the Diocesan Council of East Carolina cheerfully 
accept the invitation of the Diocesan Convention of North Carolina to 
unite with them in the Centennial Services to be held in Calvary Church, 
Tarboro*. 

2. Resolved^ That to facilitate the attendance of the Council of this 
Diocese, the 14th day of May, 1890, be fixed as the day of our next 
annual meeting, and that Greenville be the place. 

J. Resolved, That a committee of four Presbyters and five Laymen be 
appointed by the Bishop to assist in making all necessary arrangements 
for the Centennial Celebration — co-operating with a similar committee 
appointed by the Diocese of North Carolina. 

Further Resolved, That the Secretary of this Council be instructed to 
furnish a certified copy of these resolutions to S. S. Nash, Esq., Commis- 
sioner of the Diocese of North Carolina. 

And on page jy: 

The Chair appointed the following Committee to confer 
with the Committee for North Carolina as to the joint 
meeting in 1890: Rev. Dr. Hughes, Rev. R. B. Drane, 
Rev. Robert Strange, Rev. N. Harding, Col. W. L<. 
DeRosset, F. R. Rose, Wilson G. L<amb, Col. John W. 
Atkinson, DuBrutz Ciitlar. 



Diocese of North Carolina^ Journal of the Convention of 
iS^Oy page 60: 
The Rev. Jos. B. Cheshire, Jr., presented and read the 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE CENTENNIAL 

CELEBRATION. 

The Committee appointed by the last Convention to co-operate with 
a like Committee to be appointed by the Diocese of East Carolina, in 
arranging a joint meeting of the two Conventions in Tarboro' during the 
present month in commemoration of the first attempt to organize the 



Church in North Carolina, beg leave respectfully to report, that the 
Council of the Diocese of East Carolina, in response to the invitation of 
our Convention, have agreed to meet with us in joint Convention upon 
the i6th, 17th and i8th of the current month, in Calvary Church, Tar- 
boro', where we are now assembled ; and the Committees of the two 
Dioceses have prepared and caused to be printed a program of services, 
addresses, and papers, appropriate to the character of the meeting, a copy 
of which is hereto appended as part of this report. 

Your Committee think it not improper to add a word with reference to 
the series of addresses and papers which are set forth in this program. 
This year is not the Centennial of the Diocese of North Carolina. It is 
the Centennial of the first attempt to organize a Diocese in this State. 
That attempt failed. It was in reality more an epilogue to the drama of 
the Colonial Church, than the prelude to our present corporate existence. 
The interest attaching to these meetings is, therefore, purely an historical 
interest. Their bearing upon the present condition of the Church as 
organized in North Carolina is remote. But they have a most important 
relation to the preceding history of the Church in the Province, and they 
do mark a crisis, though it is a crisis of disintegration rather than of con- 
struction and growth. Almost nothing has heretofore been done to ascer- 
tain the facts of our Colonial Church history, and to show the part played 
by the Church in the development of our people and of our institutions. 
The grossest mistakes and misrepresentations of the Church, our minis- 
ters, and the character of our ecclesiastical institutions pass current even 
with our historians. Your Committee have, therefore, thought proper to 
give great prominence in the program herewith submitted, to the history 
of the Church in North Carolina before the organization of our present 
Diocese. They were sensible that such a series of papers and addresses 
could not be fully delivered in the time at our command during the joint 
Convention. Some will have to be omitted entirely ; those which are 
read will probably be read in part. It was the hope and the design of 
your Committee that this occasion should produce a series of monographs 
upon the most important points of our history in North Carolina, which, 
whether read at these meetings or not, could be printed, and thereby 
secure a wider audience, and preserve in permanent form the results of 
this most interesting meeting. It is believed that Churchmen through- 
out the Dioceses of North and East Carolina will be glad to possess such a 
record of the past, as well as the memorials of our more recent history 
which also have their place in the program. 

Your Committee are deeply sensible of the difficulty of making such 
meetings both interesting at the time and valuable in their permanent 
results. They have exercised their best judgment and used every en- 
deavor in order to combine as far as possible, these two things. This has 
involved an amount of labor, and has been accompanied by difficulty and 
perplexities, which may not be apparent in their performance. 

Your Committee, therefore, ask the charitable indulgence of the Con- 



vention, and trust that whatever may be the defects in their work, it may 
be in some measure successful in stimulating an intelligent interest in 
our past, and a renewed zeal to make the stor>' of the next century more 
worthy of our Master and His cause. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JOS. BLOUNT CHESHIRE, Jr.. 

For the Committee. 



Order of Services and Addresses at the Centenniai^ Convention 
OF THE Dioceses of North and East Carouna, to be hei^d in 
Cai^vary Church, Tarboro', N. C, May i6th, 17TH and i8th, 1890. 

Friday, May j6th. 
evening prayer, 8 0'ci.ock: 

1. Opening Address— Bishop Lyman. 

2. Address of Welcome — Hon. Fred. Philips. 

3. The Church and the Anglo-Saxon Race — Hon. A. M. Waddcll. 

4. The Church— Its Catholic Character— Rev. N. C. Hughes, D. D. 

Saturday, May 17th. 

MORNING PRAYER, 9:30 0'CI.OCK : 

1. The Church in the Province of N. C. — Rev. Joseph B. Cheshire, Jr. 

2. Colonial Churchmen of N. C. — Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 

3. Colonial Parishes and Schools — Rev. R. B. Drane. 

4. Religious Antecedents of the Settlers — Hon. W. L. Saunders. 

EVENING PRAYER, 4:30 O'CI^OCK : 

1. The Conventions of 1890-94, and the Bishop-elect — 

Rev. W. S. Pettigrew. 

2. Decay and Revival, 1 800-1 830 — Rev. J. C. Huske, D. D. 

3. Missionary and Educational Enterprise — Rev. Jarvis Buxton, D. D. 

4. Ecclesiastical Legislation in the Province of N. C, and its Effect 

upon our subsequent Legislation and History— 

Hon. J. S. Henderson. 

The Sunday after Ascension-day, May i8th. 

MORNING PRAYER AND THE HOI.Y COMMUNION, II 0'CI.OCK : 

Sermon- Address — The First Three Bishops of N. C, Ravenscroft, Ives, 
Atkinson — Bishop Watson. 

EVENING PRAYER, 4 0'CI.OCK : 

1. The Present Condition of the Church in the State of North Carolina — 

Rev. M. M. Marshall, D. D. 

2. The Work of the Church in Hospitals, Homes, Sisterhoods and 

Orphanages — Rev. Robert Strange. 

3. Voluntary Addresses and Discussion. 



SPECIAI. CLOSING SERVICE, 8 O'CLOCK : 

1. The Church in the United States — Rev. Nathaniel Harding. 

2. The Duty of the Church with reference to Unity among Christians — 

Rev. F. J. Murdoch. 

3. Voluntary Addresses and Discussion. 

4. Closing Address — Bishop Lyman. 

collects and blessing. 

Committees Having the Matter in Charge. 

joint committee of the two dioceses. 

On the part 0/ the Diocese of North Carolina: 

The Revs. Jarvis Buxton, D. D., W. S. Pettigrew, M. M. Marshall, 
D. D., Jos. B. Cheshire, Jr., the Hons. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D., John S. 
Henderson, Fred. Philips, Messrs. S. S. Nash, Charles E. Johnson. 

On the part of the Diocese of East Carolina: 

The Revs. N. C. Hughes, D. D., Robert B. Drane, Robert Strange, 
Nathaniel Harding, Messrs. William L. DeRosset, F. R. Rose, Wilson G. 
Lamb, John W. Atkinson, DuBrutz Cutlar. 

Committee on Religious Services'. 

Bishop Lyman, Revs. George P. Hebbard, Robert Strange, Gilbert Higgs, 
Messrs. F. R. Rose, M. A. Curtis. 

Committee on Addresses: 

Bishop Watson, Revs. Jarvis Buxton, D. D., Joseph B. Cheshire, Jr., 
N. C. Hughes, D. D., Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 

Committee on Local Arrangements and Hospitality: 

The Revs. George P. Hebbard and Joseph B. Cheshire, D. D., the Hon. 
Fred. Philips, Messrs. S. S. Nash, John W. Cotten, James R. Gaskill, 
Thomas E. Lewis, John L. Bridgers, H. L. Staton, W. S. Clark. 



7 
JOINT CONVENTION OF THE DIOCESES 

OF EAST AND NORTH CAROLINA. 

Calvary Church, Tarborough, N. C, ) 
Friday, May i6th, 1890, 8 p. m. / 

The Convention of the Diocese of North Carolina met 
in joint session with the Council of the Diocese of East 
Carolina, in Cavalry Church, Tarboro\ N. C, at 8 o'clock, 
for Divine Worship and addresses. 

The Bishop of the Diocese of North Carolina, the Rev. 
Jarvis Buxton, D. D. , of the Diocese of North Carolina, 
and the Rev. N. Collin Hughes, D. D., of the Diocese of 
East Carolina, in the Chancel. 

Evening Prayer was read by the Rev. Julian E. Ingle 
and the Rector of the Parish, the Rev. G. P. Hebbard. 

At the close of the services, the Rev. Jarvis Buxton, 
D. D., Chairman of the Committee on the Centennial 
Celebration, requested the Bishop of the Diocej^e to take 
the chair as presiding officer of the Joint Convention, and 
to call to his assistance the Rt. Rev. A. A. Watson, D. D., 
Bishop of the Diocese of East Carolina. 

THE OPENING ADDRESS 

OF BISHOP LYMAN. 

The Bishop of North Carolina, upon taking the chair, 
expressed the great satisfaction felt by himself and the 
Convention of the Diocese of North Carolina in the auspi- 
cious presence of the Bishop and Council of East Carolina. 
So recently bound together in one Diocese, it was a great 
pleasure to welcome back our dear brethren, and to be thus 
re-united in sympathy and afFectiom And especially as we 
are met together to commemorate the first effort for Dio- 
cesan organization, made here in Tarboro' one hundred 
years ago. Such a re-union must surely deepen our mutual 
interest in the welfare of the Church in North Carolina, 



8 

while recalling the great changes which have been brought 
about during the century, which is now numbered with 
the past. 

With these few words of kindly greeting, the Bishop 
called upon the first speaker, Judge Philips, who had been 
designated to make the Address of Welcome. 

ADDRESS OF WELCOME 

BY THE HON. FREDERICK PHILIPS. 

Rt. Rev, Father in God^ Gentlemen and Delegates of the 
tivo Conventions: 

In the name of the citizens of Tarborough, I welcome 
you. 

In the name of the communicants of this Parish, I greet 
you with feelings of brotherly love. 

In the name of our Rector, who has successfully under- 
taken the labors left off by him who has spent the best 
part of his life in our midst, I extend a cordial greeting. 

For nearly half a century we had only one minister. 
He is still with us to rejoice in our rejoicings, and to give 
thanks to the Author of every good and perfect gift. 
Though his frame is chilled and weakened with the infirm- 
ities of age, and his foot-steps totter; though his hair is 
white with the frosts of many winters, eternal spring is in 
his heart. The influence of his example is felt, and the 
fruits of his labors are witnessed. His culture and zeal 
have left their impress, and his taste and handiwork are 
seen, all around us. For him I invoke your solemn 
blessing. 

We have assembled to commemorate the effort made one 
hundred years ago to organize the Church in North Caro- 
lina, and to secure the benefits of Episcopal oversight and 
ministrations. Those men who met in Convention here 
in the years 1790, 1793 and 1794, deserve more than the 



cold tribute of a passing notice. Those Conventions held 
to organize the Church in North Carolina and to procure 
the consecration of a Bishop, form an interesting chapter 
in our ecclesiastical histor>\ The few ministers left after 
the 'Revolutionary war dropped off one by one. The 
Church fell gradually to decay all over the State. There 
was no Bishop, and hence no Episcopal Church. There 
were no colleges and few schools. The lack of proper 
education and training, added to the prejudice which 
existed in the minds of the American people at that 
period of our country* s history, against England and Eng- 
lish institutions, tended to throw the Church back. Travel 
w^as difficult, commerce was slow, and proud science had 
not taught the souls of men to stray. But religious thought 
w^as implanted on the bed-rock of political freedom and 
independence, and the Convention of 1790 which assem- 
bled in the old church yard over the way, was the first 
held in this State to inaugurate the movement for Episco- 
pacy, and to lay the foundation for the establishment of 
the Church. 

What a change one hundred years has brought! What 
advancement has been made in education and culture! 
What discoveries in science and philosophy! Who can 
estimate its blessings or calculate its benefits ? Ignorance 
vanishes before the march of human progress, and super- 
stition melts like waters which run continually. And 
standing on the threshold of our second century, and look- 
ing back at every step of progress to enlightenment and 
culture, which has been made in this broad and liberty- 
loving continent of ours, we see that every faith has found 
its shelter and every creed a sanctuary. 

Like the golden rod which makes bright and gay the 
sides of the roads, hills and gravelly banks, and waves its 
golden wands from mountain heights to the very verge of 
the sea, so Christianity has shed its bright and joyous light, 



lO 

and we find everywhere in its soft and benignant rays, our 
language, our people, our faith. 

It is not my purpose to speak of the progress made in 
the moral and in the physical world during the past cen- 
tury, nor to trace the Church's growth and usefulness in 
this country and State. The duty assigned me in this our 
Centennial Celebration of the first Church Convention held 
in this State, is to welcome you to our homes, and to tell 
you that we are glad to see you — that we rejoice to meet 
with you in the same household of faith to talk about our 
ancestors and their efforts to secure for themselves and their 
posterity the benefits of Episcopal ministrations. Love 
delights to pay homage to the memories of the dead and to 
recite their virtues. That spirit of love prompted your 
coming here to-night. That same spirit bids me again to 
welcome you. 

In accordance with the order arranged by the Commit- 
tee the following Addresses were then delivered : 

[I.] ''The Church and the Anglo-Saxon Race.'' 

The Hon. Alfred M. Waddell. 

[II.] ''The Church— Its Catholic Character." 

The Rev. N. Collin Hughes, D. D. 

After the singing of a hymn, and prayer, the Bishop of 
the Diocese pronounced the benediction. 

The Joint Convention then adjourned to meet for Morn- 
ing Prayer, Saturday, May 17th, at 9:30 a. m. 



JOINT CONVENTION. 
Calvary Church, Tarboro', N. C, 

Saturday, May 17th, 1890. 

The Joint Convention met in Calvary Church for Divine 
Service and addresses. 

The Bishop of the Diocese and the Rt. Rev. A. A. 



II 

Watson, D. D. , the Bishop of East Carolina, were present 
in the Chancel. 

Morning Prayer was read at 9:30 o* clock by the Rev. 
A. Burtis Hunter and the- Rev. G. P. Hebbard. 
The following addresses were delivered : 
[III.] **The Church in Province of North Carolina, ^^ 

The Rev. Jos, Blount Cheshire, Jr. 
[IV. ] ' ^Colonial Churchmen of North Carolina, ' ' 

The Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 
[V.] **Colonial Parishes and Schools,'' 

The Rev. R. B. Drane. 

The benediction was pronounced by the Bishop of East 
Carolina, and the Joint Convention adjourned to meet at 
4:30 p. m. 



Afternoon Session. 

Saturday, May 17th, 1890. 

Evening Prayer was read at 4:30 o'clock by the Rev. 
Charles Carroll Quin and the Rev. Nath. Harding. 

[VI.] The Rev. W. S. Pettigrew delivered an address — 
Subject: * 'The Conventions of 1790-94, and the Bishop- 
elect. ' ' ' 



Calvary Church, Tarboro', N. C, 
Sunday after Ascension, May i8th, 1890. 

Morning Prayer was read at 11 o'clock by the Rev. M. 
M. Marshall, D. D., and the Rev. Robert Strange. 

[VIII. ] The sermon was preached by the Rt. Rev. A. A. 
Watson, D. D. , Bishop of East Carolina. The text : 
Proverbs x: 7, **The memory of the just is blessed.'' 
Subject : * *The first three Bishops o fNorth Carolina— 
Ravenscroft, Ives, Atkinson. ' ' 



12 

The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of East Carolina began the 
order for the administration of the Holy Communion. The 
Epistle was read by the Rev. Dr. Buxton, the Gospel by 
the Rt. Rev. the Bishop of East Carolina. 

The offerings of the people for Diocesan Missions, to be 
equally divided between the two Dioceses, were received 
and presented by Bishop Lyman. The Exhortation was 
read by Bishop Watson. The Bishop of the Diocese 
proceeded with the celebration of the Holy Communion, 
being assisted by Bishop Watson. * 

The benediction was pronounced by the Bishop of East 
Carolina. 

Afternoon Session. 

Sunday, 4 o'clock p. m. 

Evening Prayer was read by the Rev. Gilbert Higgs 
and the Rev. T. M. N. George. 

Addresses were delivered as follows : 

[IX.] ^* Missionary and Educational Enterprise,'' 

The Rev. Jarvis Buxton, D. D. 

[X.] ^^TheWorkof the Church in Hospitals, Homes, 
Sisterhoods and Orphanages, \' 

The Rev. T. M. N. George. 

The Rector pronounced the benediction and the Con- 
vention adjourned to meet at 8 o'clock p. m. for special 
closing services. 



*The Communion Services used on this occasion were those belonging 
to the Parish of Christ Church, Newbern, N. C, presented by his Majesty 
King George III., circa, A. D., 1760;* and to the Parish of St. PauPs, 
Edenton, N. C, presented by Col. Edward Mosely, A. D. 1723, and the 
Rev. Mr. Garzia, circa^ A. D. 1740. 



♦There is some doubt whether the donor was George III. or George II. 



t3 

Night Session. 

Sunday, May i8th, 1890, 8 p. m. 

The special service, licensed for the occasion by the 

Bishop of the Diocese, and entitled ^^ An ancient office for 

the last hour of the day, ' ' with hymns, was conducted by 

the Rev. Elliot W. Bumstead. 

The following addresses were delivered : 

[XL] **The present condition of the Church in the 

State of North Carolina, ' ' 

The Rev. M. M. Marshall, D. D. 

[XII.] ^'The Duty of the Church with reference to 

Unity among Christians," 

The Rev. F. J. Murdoch. 

CLOSING ADDRESS, 

BY BISHOP LYMAN. 

The Closing Address, by the Bishop of North Carolina, 
was entirely impromptu, as, owing to his impaired health 
during the weeks preceding the Convention, together with 
the pressure of official duties, he could find no opportunity 
for making the preparation which such an occasion called 
for. He gave utterance to his deep and tender feelings, in 
words which came fresh from the heart, and which found 
a sympathetic response in the hearts of the great congre- 
gation before him. Perhaps we cannot do better than to 
quote the words of the special correspondent of The 
Churchman in his account of this final service. They 
are as follows : 

*' The closing address by the Bishop of North Carolina 
was a splendid outburst of strong glad emotion, and moved 
the congregation visibly. No description would do it 
justice, and it is a thousand pities that no provision was 
made to preserve the most memorable utterance of a mem- 
orable occasion. Its effect upon the visiting congregation 



14 

was most felicitous, and its warm and glowing spirit will 
linger long in the memories of those who were so fortunate 
as to hear the venerable Bishop when his noble heart 
seemed indeed too full for utterance." 

After the singing of a hymn the Bishop of North Caro- 
lina pronounced the benediction. 



The Joint Convention being in session for business 
after the religious services, Col. J. W. Atkinson offered the 
following resolution, which, on his motion, was adopted : 

Resolvedy That all the addresses prepared for the Centennial Services 
shall be published in book form, under the editorial direction of the Rev. 
Jos. Blount Cheshire, Jr. 

On motion of the Rev. Robert Strange it was 

Resolved^ That the thanks of the Joint Convention of North and East 
Carolina be extended to the Rev. J. B. Cheshire, Jr., for conceiving and 
carrying to so successful an issue, the re-union which has been so delight- 
ful and edifying to us all. 

Upon motion the Joint Convention then adjourned sine 
die. 



Before its final adjournment the Convention of the 
Diocese of North Carolina, upon motion of Mr. Henry A. 
London, adopted the following resolution : 

Resolved, That as members of the Convention of the Diocese of North 
Carolina, we hereby express our appreciation of the pleasure it aflfords us 
in meeting with our brethren of the Diocese of East Carolina, and in 
engaging with them in the interesting services of this occasion. 



15 
Addresses and Papers prepared for the Joint 

Centennial Convention held at Tarborough, 

May i6th, 17TH, and i8th, 1890 : 

I. The Church and the Anglo-Saxon Race. 

II. The Church— Its Catholic Character. 

III. The Church in the Province of North Carolina. 

IV. Colonial Churchmen of North Carolina. 

V. Colonial Parishes and Schools. 

VI. The Conventions of 1790-94 and the Bishop-elect. 

VII. Decay and Revival, 1800- 1830. 

VIII. The first three Bishops — Ravenscroft, Ives, At- 
kinson. 

IX. Missionary and Educational Enterprise. 

X. The Work of the Church in Hospitals, Homes, 

Sisterhoods, and Orphanages. 

XI. The Present Condition and Prospects of the Church 
in North Carolina. 

XII. The Duty of the Church with reference to Unity 
among Christians. 

XIII. Parson Miller and White Haven. 



17 
I 

THE CHURCH IN CONNECTION WITH THE 

ANGLO-SAXON RACE. 

BY THE HON. ALFRED M. WADDELL. 

The subject assigned to me for discussion on this inter- 
esting occasion is of vast proportions, and therefore the 
utmost I can hope to accomplish will be to present a very 
general outline of it. 

To the student of Church history there have been few 
spectacles within the past two centuries more affecting than 
the persistent devotion with which — in the face of over- 
whelming prejudice and aversion — the sons of the Church 
in America, at the close of the Revolution, clung to her. 
In the hands of ambitious, or stupid, or reckless Colonial 
Governors and Councils, who frequently sought to enforce 
the ecclesiastical legislation of the mother country upon a 
people whose environment was wholly different, and be- 
cause of its identification in the minds of the people with 
the political government and its oppressions, the Church 
had become an object of suspicion and finally of intense 
hate ; and when the Revolution closed it was regarded with 
more hostility than Royalty itself. Ivcft to struggle against 
this feeling, which dominated the minds of a majority of 
their fellow-citizens, and without an Episcopate of their 
own, they were compelled to see the Church which they 
loved decline and wither into numerical insignificance. It 
had been a growing power, especially in the Southern 
Colonies, and if its adherents had been willing to throw oflF 
the Episcopate as they had thrown off royalty, and adopt a 
new form of Church government, it might, and probably 
would have, enjoyed a ver>^ great advantage over any other 
ecclesiastical organization in the countr>', so far as increas- 
ing its membership was concerned. Within its folds were 



i8 

gathered many of the greatest and best men in America, 
who had been chiefly instrumental in the establishment of 
the liberty and independence of the country, and these 
would, doubtless, have largely increased their individual 
popularity and influence by extending their work to the 
severance of all dependence on, or connection with, the 
Church of England. But their faith in the Episcopal form 
of Church government was honest and deep-rooted, and 
their love for the grand and noble Liturgy to which they 
were accustomed, was sincere and hearty ; and not prejudice, 
nor hate, nor ridicule, nor abuse could shake their loyalty 
to their convictions, or induce them to abandon the hope 
of rebuilding and strengthening the shattered walls of 
their Zion. 

They had only to look back at her history, and, in 
connection with it, to the history of the race from which 
themselves had sprung, to find both support for their 
convictions and encouragement for their hopes. Such 
a retrospect would show to them, as it will show to 
us, that the Church is indissolubly connected with nearly 
all the great achievements of the Anglo-Saxon race, from 
the first emergence of that race, under her guidance, out 
of the darkness of paganism to their day and to ours, when 
its mastery is recognized throughout the earth. The his- 
tory of the one is, indeed, largely the history of the other, 
and hence the vastness of the subject to which I have 
already referred. Let us take a rapid glance at it. 

With the history of Christianity in Britain before the 
Anglo-Saxon invasion we are not concerned. We know 
that when the pagan English had secured a foothold and ac- 
quired ascendency over the Britons, who were living under 
Roman government, the religion, law, literature, and man- 
ners of the country were swept away, and it became a 
heathen land. Before the English invasion, Christianity 
prevailed in every country in Western Europe except Ger- 
many, from which the English came, and the conquest of 



19 

the island by the English *' thrust a wedge of heathendom 
into the heart of this great communion and broke it into 
two unequal parts, ' ' says a great historian, who also adds 
that it was * * the one purely German nation that rose upon 
the wreck of Rome. In other lands, in Spain, or Gaul or 
Italy, though they were equally conquered by German 
peoples, religion, social life, administrative order, still 
remained Roman. In Britain alone Rome died into a 
vag^e tradition. The whole organization of government 
and society disappeared with the people who had used it. ' ' 

Although Augustine and his monks landed in the year 
597, and thereby renewed the union with the Western 
world which had been destroyed, and re-introduced the 
civilization, arts, and letters which had been driven out, 
the Roman Church soon came into rivalry with the Church 
of Ireland and Scotland, which had long existed before 
they came, and was superseded by the latter in the work 
of converting the English. Christianity in Ireland was 
more vigorous than elsewhere because that country was 
exempt from invasion, and had consequently greatly ad- 
vanced in arts and letters. In the year 664, however, at a 
Council at Whitby, and in a controversy over the trifling 
questions of the tonsure, and the proper time for observing 
Easter, the Irish party were overruled by King Oswi, and 
they all, accompanied by some English clergy, returned 
to lona leaving the Roman influence triumphant in 
England. 

And now the history of the English Church proper 
began. Theodore of Tarsus, a Greek monk, became Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and at once set about organizing the 
Church by adding new sees to the old ones, and grouping 
ihem all around the central see of Canterbury. He then 
settled the clergy, who until then had been chiefly mis- 
sionaries, and organized parishes. He gathered synods, 
and these were the first national legislative assemblies in 
England^ long ante-dating the Wittenagemote or first Par- 



20 

liament of the civil government. The canons passed in 
these synods were the real originals from which the national 
system of laws sprang. So that, in the matter of organiza- 
tion and legislation, the Church in England ante-dated 
and formed the model of the State, and it was the only bond 
of union between the people for about two centuries. 

Its noblest product flowered two hundred years later in 
King Alfred, who has been justly pronounced ** the first 
instance in the history of Christendom of the Christian 
King, of a ruler who put aside every personal aim or 
ambition, to devote himself to the welfare of those whom 
he ruled. ' * A thousand years have passed since his death, 
but the longing which he expressed — * ^ to leave to the men 
that came after a remembrance of him in good works" — 
still finds its realization in the veneration entertained for 
his memory by all English-speaking peoples. They recog- 
nize in him not only the pious and self-sacrificing monarch 
and wise ruler, with whose reign English history began, 
but the real creator of English literature and the educator 
of his people. 

After the death of Alfred appeared the first of the great 
ecclesiastical statesmen of England, who wielded all the 
powers of the realm for a series of years, Dunston, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, a man of great versatility of genius, 
who gave to the English Constitution its first impress of 
genuine liberty, and lifted the Church from the degrada- 
tion which threatened it into a higher, and purer atmos- 
phere. 

The successive sovereigns and primates of England had 
frequently resisted, or evaded the exactions of Rome upon 
the English Bishops, but it was not until the Norman 
Conquerer ascended the throne that an open defiance of 
any claim of papal supremacy was made. These claims 
had, with the persistency that has always characterized 
them, been continually urged, directly and indirectly, until 
they culminated in a demand by George VII. upon Wil- 



21 

liam to do fealty for his kingdom, when that monarch 
proudly replied : '* Fealty I have never willed to do, nor 
do I will to do it now. I have never promised it, nor do I 
find that my predecessors did it to yours. * ' 

But while he defied Rome he had reduced the Church of 
England to a state of dependence upon the Crown, which 
had crippled its influence for good ; and the same policy 
was pursued by his sons, until the courageous Archbishop 
Anselm re-asserted its rights, and largely restored its inde- 
pendence. 

Under the influence of the great religious revival, which 
occurred during the reign of Stephen, and by the power of 
the Church, Henry the Second became King, but his suc- 
cessor, Richard the Lion-Hearted, died as he had lived, at 
war with God and man. 

Then came that consummate villain of the ages. King 
John, whose Charter, wrested from him at Runnymede, 
has ever since been the comer-stone of Anglo-Saxon 
freedom. The leading spirit in this great historic drama 
of Runnymede was Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Cant- 
erbury, who — although made primate by an act of papal 
usurpation — rebuked and protested against the submission 
of John to the supremacy of the Pope, rallied the Church 
aud the Barons to the support of their liberties, threatened 
the King with excommunication, and saved the country 
from the ruin that threatened it. The very first article of 
this great Charter of English liberty begins with these 
words: ^^ Imprimis Concessiums Deo, et hac presenti Charta 
nostra confirmavimus pro nobis, et heridibus nostris in 
perpetuam, quod Ecclesia Anglicana libera sit et habeat 
omnia jura sua integra^ et libertates suas illaesas.^^ 
First of all, the Church of England was to be free, and 
to have all its rights and liberties intact. Again, in the 
reign of Henry III. this great Churchman, Stephen Lang- 
ton, whose services in the cause of English liberty were 
never surpassed, was chiefly instrumental in establishing 



22 

the great principle that redress of grievances must always 
be had before a grant to the Crown is made by Parliament. 

The most striking feature of this epoch, however, so 
far as the Church was concerned, was the work of those 
wonderful men, the Gray Friars, whose self-sacrificing 
labors in the cause of religion are almost unparalleled in 
human history. They are, doubtless, generally very 
lightly regarded, because of the subsequent degeneracy of 
the order to which they belonged, but at this time their 
services to religion and humanity were almost beyond 
praise. We all, last year, did homage to the Christian 
heroism of that noble Roman Catholic Priest, Father 
Damien, who sacrificed his life in the service of the lepers 
of the South Pacific Islands, and he richly deserved the 
praise of the whole Christian world, for his unselfish devo- 
tion. The Gray Friars of the thirteenth century in Eng- 
land performed the same service. ** The rapid progress of 
the population within the boroughs, ' ' says Green, in his 
history, * * had outstripped the sanitary regulations of the 
Middle Ages, and fever or plague, or the more terrible 
scourge of leprosy, festered in the wretched hovels of the 
suburbs. It was to haunts such as these that Francis 
had pointed his disciples, and the Gray Brethren at once 
fixed themselves in the meanest and poorest quarters of 
each town. Their first work lay in the noisome lazar- 
houses ; it was among the lepers that they commonly chose 
the site of their houses. ' ' 

The patron of these Friars was the patriot, soldier and 
statesman, Simon de Montfort, whose piety equalled his 
wisdom, and whose reforms in the civil administration 
were of incalculable value. 

It was to this mendicant fraternity that Roger Bacon — 
after forty years of devotion to study, whose only recom- 
pense, as he said, was that he was ** unheard, forgotten, 
buried'' — allied himself, supposing that thereby he would 
sink into oblivion ; but it proved to be the means of intro- 



23 

ducing him to fame. Some of his writings coming under 
the notice of the Pope, he was invited to continue his lite- 
rary labors (although no pecuniary assistance was offered) 
and, amidst all sorts of embarrassments and difficulties, he 
produced his wonderful **Opus Majus,'' which Dr. Whewell 
pronounced **at once the Encyclopedia and the Novum 
Organum of the thirteenth century. ' ' 

The reign of Edward the First, although the result of a 
process of evolution, was really the beginning of the Eng- 
land which we know. All the great reforms in the Judi- 
ciary and in legislation, which, with continued improve- 
ment, have reached our day, had their origin during his 
reign, and chief among those who did the work were the 
primate and the clergy. 

But it was in the reign of Edward III. that the great 
reformer, John Wyclif, drove the wedge which ultimately 
separated the English Church from the dominion of the 
Pope. His work has borne fruit in every succeeding gen- 
eration. Beginning his warfare on the practice of the 
Church in his day, he proceeded to attack the doctrines 
then prevalent — the central doctrine of transubstantiation 
being his first objective point— and by appealing to the 
masses of the people, in tracts written in their own tongue, 
he struck a deadly blow, not only at that dogma, but at 
the practice of indulgences, absolutions, pilgrimages, 
image-worship, and saint-worship, and thus began the 
movement which resulted a hundred years afterward in 
religious liberty. 

Contemporary with Wyclif, too, was one whom they 
called ** a mad priest,'' John Ball, of Kent, who first stirred 
^he hearts of the people by declaring, what was then 
^^garded as the most abominable of all heresies, the equal- 
^^y of human rights. One of the most exquisite speci- 
mens of modern English literature, I think, is William 
Morris's little essay, entitled ** A Dream of John Ball," 
which portrays the first awakening of this idea and its 



24 

practical assertion by the sturdy English yeomen, and has 
on its title-page the rhyme which originated in John Ball's 
day : 

" When Adam delved, and Eve span, 
Who was then the gentleman ? " 

And then came Colet, and Erasmus, and Tyndal, the 
translator of the Bible, and Sir Thomas More, with genius, 
and scholarship, and the true spirit of enlightened progress 
— religious, educational, social, and economic — to try to 
inaugurate a new era in England. Defeated and dis- 
appointed in this noble aspiration by the temper of the 
times, and the policy of Cardinal Wolsey and Henry VIII, 
as well as by the spirit of Luther and others, who, while 
they denounced popery, had just as little sympathy with 
the new ideas of toleration, it is the most splendid tribute 
to the genius of Sir Thomas More that he anticipated in 
his Eutopia some of the most advanced social and political 
theories of the present day. His murder and that of thou- 
sands of others, including many of the noblest and best in 
the realm, by Thomas Cromwell, the Vicar General of 
Henry VIII. , make one of the foulest blots on the history 
of the Church. It was an age of violence and bloodshed, 
in which the efforts of those who had a true conception of 
Christ's religion and the brotherhood of man stand out as 
splendid features in the picture of human progress, all the 
more splendid because of the dark and bloody background 
against which they are projected. 

In Edward VI. 's reign, notwithstanding the fact that the 
Book of Common Prayer — the Liturgy nearly as now used 
in the Church of England — supplanted the missal and 
breviary, and a new Catechism and Book of Homilies was 
published, and celibacy was abolished, and images were 
removed from the churches, and other great reforms were 
made by Archbishop Cranmer, it is still the truth that the 
close of that reign found England in a state of chaos eccle- 
siastically and politically ; and the accession of Mary, of 



25 

bloody memory, produced a re-action that was well nigh 
fatal to the hopes of protestantism. It would have so 
proven if she had not crowned her bloody cruelties toward 
the protestant clergy — if she had not supplemented the 
murder of Hooper, Ferrars, Latimer, Ridley, Rowland 
Taylor and others — by the humiliation and fiery death of 
Cranmer, and the persecutions, confiscations, and terrorism 
which she spread throughout the realm. These things 
bore their natural fruit, and the fierce revolution which 
would have been inevitable was only escaped by her death 
and the elevation to the throne of the ablest female sover- 
eign that ever wore a crown. 

As to religion Elizabeth had no convictions, and her 
whole course towards the Church was governed by politi- 
cal considerations. She plundered the property of the 
Church, as her predecessors had done, but she would allow 
nobody else to do so, as they did. While professing sym- 
pathy with the reformers of religion she favored the reteu- 
tion of crucifixes and the celebacy of the clergy, and while 
she omitted from the Royal title the words, * ' Head of the 
Church,'' she asserted a practical supremacy as absolute 
as that of her father. The poulation of England at the 
time of her accession did not exceed five millions, and they 
were distracted and depressed alike by defeat and the loss 
of territory on the Continent, and by wide-spread social 
and religious discontent at home ; but with rare sagacity 
she surrounded herself with a body of advisers of great 
ability, and, by a course of conciliation in religious mat- 
ters, and a brilliant and vigorous administration of the 
affairs of the realm, she inaugurated a splendid era for her 
people. When she ascended the throne three-fourths of 
Ae people were adherents of the Roman Catholic party, 
but when she died only the poorest and least populated 
part of the Kingdom continued in that faith. The moral 
tone of the clergy was greatly elevated above what it had 
been,* and their social character was entirely changed. In 



26 

the matter of public education it is a remarkable fact, as 
Mr. Morley points out in his * ' History of English Litera- 
ture,'' that of all the public schools established in England 
from the beginning to this day, more than one-half were 
begun during the period embraced between some year in 
the reign of Henry VIII. and the close of the reign of 
Elizabeth. These schools were chiefly instrumental in 
spreading knowledge and stimulating intellectual culture 
among the middle classes and the country gentry. The 
Universities swung around from extreme Romanism to 
extreme Puritanism, and the people of England, witness- 
ing the atrocities of the Duke of Alva in the Low Coun- 
tries across the Channel, and the massacre of St. Bartholo- 
mew's Day, were inspired with a new hatred of the 
Papacy. It was an era of stirring events, in which Eng- 
lish Churchmen were the leading spirits. 

Francis Drake, the son of a Vicar in Kent, conceived 
the bold project of carrying the English flag into unknown 
seas over which the Spaniard claimed exclusive jurisdiction, 
and in accordance with this resolution he sailed through 
the Straits of Magellan, took away from Spanish South 
America great treasures of gold and jewels, and, continu- 
ing his journey around the world, doubled the Cape of 
Good Hope and returned with his spoils to Plymouth. 
This wonderful achievement electrified the country, and 
developed the spirit of adventure and national pride, which 
began more than ever before to manifest itself in every 
sphere of activity. English ships began to be seen in 
every quarter of the globe, and commerce followed discov- 
ery with rapid stride ; and wherever these English ships 
spread their . white wings the glorious Liturgy of the 
Church was heard. Here, in 1 584, in this unknown land 
of America, and this our own State, where the grapes of 
Roanoke Island clustered to the water's edge — where, as 
the chronicler said, * * the fragrance, as they drew near the 
land, was as if they had been in the midst of some delicate 



27 

garden, abounding in all manner of odoriferous flowers ; '' 
or thousands of miles to the southward, where the wild 
billows heaved skyward and the storm-blasts beat upon 
the rocks of Cape Horn — or, farther still, where the west- 
em sunbeams, falling across the watery wilderness of the 
virgin Pacific sea, smote with golden glory the forest- 
covered hills that sentineled the Bay of San Francisco — 
in every land and on every sea, circling the globe, and 
returning again to its island home, the voice of the Church, 
uttered in the tongue of tongues, was heard. 

And while these glories of discovery and conquest abroad, 
and this rapid development of commerce and manufactures 
at home, were giving material strength to the English 
nation, a galaxy of men of genius, unsurpassed in the his- 
tory of the world, was beginning to display itself in the 
realm of English letters. In one of them, Shakespere, was 
exhibited the consummate flower of Anglo-Saxon genius, 
the one mind that has held, and will forever hold, the 
supremacy among English-speaking peoples. With his, 
the names of Francis Bacon, and Richard Hooker, and 
Edmund Spenser, and Philip Sydney, and Walter Raleigh 
and others will be associated, as those of men who, in the 
realm of letters, made the reign of Elizabeth illustrious — 
and they were all sons of the Church, however far short 
some of them may have come in illustrating her teachings 
by their daily walk and conversation. 

And here the stream on which we have embarked widens 
out into magnificent proportions ; for with the accession of 
the first of the Stuarts, James I. began both in Church 
and State the real and permanent struggle for constitu- 
tional government, against the arbitrary power of the 
Crown, which lasted throughout the seventeenth century, 
and the results of which are in full operation to-day. 

Early in the century, in 1611, those forty-seven scholars 
of the Church of England, selected for the purpose, gave 
to the world the Authorized Version of the Bible, which 



28 

has very justly been pronounced * * the greatest treasure of 
English literature " — a treasure which is equally prized by- 
all English-speaking Christians of every name, outside of 
the Roman obedience ; and even among the latter it finds 
eulogists like Dr. Faber who, having transferred his alle- 
giance to Rome, still pays a hearty tribute to it in these 
words : * * It lives on the ear like a music which can never 
be forgotten; like the sound of Church bells, which the 
convert scarce knows how he can forego. Its felicities 
seem to be almost things rather than words. It is part of 
the national mind, and the anchor of the national serious- 
ness. The memory of the dead passes into it. The 
potent traditions of childhood are stereotyped in its verses. 
It is the representative of a man's best moments ; all that 
there has been about him of soft, and gentle, and pure, 
and penitent, and good, speaks to him forever out of his 
English Bible.'' 

This great gift of the Church to the race is, alone and 
of itself, sufficient to establish an everlasting claim to their 
gratitude. Wherever its precious pages are read— in 
palace or hut — amid the thunderous commerce of great 
cities or in the silence and solitude of primeval forests— 
by eyes eagerly searching for truth, or lighted by joy, or 
dimmed by tears— it is prized as no other book ever was or 
will be. The very men who, in the next reign, dissented 
from the doctrines and repudiated the authority of the 
Church, clung to the English Bible as their one priceless 
heritage ; and so do those of like faith to-day, but alas ! 
they stop not to think from whence it came or to whom they 
are indebted for this invaluable treasure, or else, while 
cherishing the gift, they despise the giver. 

As it is not necessary to the subject under consideration, 
and would be impossible in the time allotted to me, to 
follow the history of the Church in England from this 
period, I will content myself by saying that in all the 
troubles which subsequently befell her— whether from the 



29 

insane assertion of the ** divine right'' of Kings, or the 
religious anarchy during the Protectorate, or the causes 
which afterwards led to the establishment of various parties 
within, and sects without, her fold — she not only retained 
every element of her organization and doctrines, as she 
had done even under the Tudors, but contributed, through 
her loyal sons, more to the civilization and advancement 
of our race than she had ever before done in her histor>^ 

Three years before the publication of the Authorized 
Version (1607 '-8) the first permanent settlement of Eng- 
lishmen in America was made in Virginia, and they 
brought with them the doctrines and worship of the Church 
of England, and from that day to this they have lived and 
been cherished on this continent. The history of the 
Church in this country during the Colonial period will be 
the theme of another address before this assemblage, and 
therefore it is not my purpose to enter upon it. It is, in 
some respects, a sad story, but full of noble lessons. That 
during that period, in the Middle and Southern Colonies 
especially. Churchmen were largely instrumental in laying 
the foundations of our civilization, is a matter of history. 
They were leaders in the struggle between the Anglo- 
Saxon and Latin races for supremacy on American soil, 
and when the splendid empire, which they had thus chiefly 
aided in securing to the British Crown, was threatened 
with the loss of its liberties, they were among the first to 
proclaim resistance, and to follow up their brave words with 
heroic deeds, which resulted in the establishment of their 
independence and the creation of a government which is, 
in freedom and power, at once the envy and the wonder of 
the world. And through every stage of its existence, from 
the beginning, when the leader of its annies (a Church- 
man) became its first Chief Magistrate, to this hour, the 
influence of those who have professed allegiance to the 
Church has been potent in shaping its destiny, and grows 
more potent with the advancing years. 



30 

It was the teaching he received in his youth as one 
of the children of the Church, no less than his after 
experience, that prompted Washington, in the open- 
ing and closing of his first inaugural address, and also 
in his Farewell Address to his fellow-citizens, to devoutly 
recognize the hand of God in the history of his country, and 
to invoke His blessing upon the government then estab- 
lished ; and when the one hundredth anniversary of his 
inauguration was celebrated last year, it was from the lips 
of a Bishop, and in the chuirch where he then knelt in 
prayer, that the most memorable utterance of that occasion 
fell. 

The vast wilderness which, a century ago, stretched 
westward to the Pacific is now peopled by teeming mil- 
lions, and is well seeded with churches where ' * the faith 
once delivered to the Saints ' ' is held, and where the same 
glorious Liturgy, like celestial music, lifts the hearts of 
true believers into communion with the blessed company 
of Heaven. These believers will continue to multiply as 
they have done from the beginning, and though the mas- 
terful race to which they and we belong, and which has 
best illustrated Christian civilization on earth, should itself 
perish, it will only be to pass on to some other race the 
priceless heritage, bequeathed to them by their Anglo- 
Saxon forefathers. 



II. 

^XHE CHURCH— ITS CATHOLIC CHARACTER. 

BY THE REV. N. COLLIN HUGHES, D. D. 

TThat there has been, at least from the time of Abraham, 
a T3ody of persons separated from the great mass of man- 
kirxd to be admitted into covenant relations with God, and 
to enjoy special privileges at His hands, is very clear from 
HLoly Scripture, and will hardly be denied by any one 
present. This body, originating with Abraham, at first 
comprised only his family; and, afterwards, the families of 
his son Isaac and of his grandson Jacob. The posterity 
of Jacob increasing rapidly in numbers, soon developed 
into a nation in the time of Moses. For about fifteen 
hundred years this single nation, carefully walled around 
and separated from the other nations of the earth, consti- 
tuted the whole body of God's Church upon this earth. 
But it never was intended that the Church should thus 
continue. Peculiar rites, ceremonies, and institutions were 
established by Moses ; but they were mere shadows of good 
things to come, and were consequently only of temporary 
duration. During the entire period of the Mosaic Econ- 
omy, God's Church was as a son during his minority. 
When Christ came, then it attained its manhood, and 
entered upon a new and far grander career. Illumined by 
the rays of Him who was the Sun of Righteousness and 
the Ught of the World, its nature was more clearly defined 
^ the mystical Body of Christ ; its relation to Him being 
symbolized and illustrated by that of a human body to 
the human head. The nature of the Covenant into which 
every member of the Church is admitted was more clearly 
^ct forth : a Covenant which conferred not mere tempora 1 



i 



32 

blessings, but eternal life ; a Covenant which heals the 
malady of original sin by putting God's laws into our 
minds, and writing them in our hearts ; a Covenant which 
removes the sting of actual sin by conferring pardon upon 
the penitent believer. And as Christ, the great Prophet 
and High Priest of the new Dispensation, superseded the 
prophets and the high Priesthood of the old Dispensation, 
so He established a new ministry adapted to the new order 
of things. New rites also were instituted ; and especially 
two holy Sacraments were ordained. And to the Church 
thus new modeled and perfected, the complete canon of 
Holy Scripture was committed, that she might be the 
keeper and witness of the Divine Oracles, the pillar and 
ground of the truth. But one of the most important of the 
characteristics of the Church of Jesus Christ is that it is 
no longer a mere national, but a Catholic Church, the 
Church of all the nations of this globe, and for all time. 
It is promised that the * ' Gates of Hell shall not prevail 
against it. ' ' And as it shall last as long as the earth itself 
shall continue, so is it destined to triumph over all adver- 
saries, and to gather all nations into its fold. And this 
Church is not an invisible, but an outward and visible 
body, to be seen and known of all men. It began its new 
regime at Jerusalem, on the day of the first Pentecost fol- 
lowing our Lord's resurrection from the dead, and received 
into it on that day an increase of 3,000 members. Author- 
ity in the Church was committed to the Apostles, and by 
them to successors in the Apostolic office, with the promise 
of the Lord : ^ %o ! I am with you always, even to the end 
of the world. ' ' 

A question of vital interest to every professed follower 
of Christ is : Is that Christian body to which I belong 
legitimately and historically descended from the Apostles 
without breach or schism ? This question involves that of 
the reality of our Covenant relationship with God, and of 



33 

oiir assured interest in all the gifts and privileges which 
our Lord Jesus Christ has procured for us. 

How then is it with that body to which we belong, the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the State of North Caro- 
lina ? Is it a true branch of the Holy Catholic Church ? 
The two principal marks of a Catholic Church we conceive 
to be : First, that it holds fast and teaches the pure Word 
of God, as it has been handed down from those to whom it 
was originally committed. Secondly, that it should be 
historically connected with the Church of the Apostles, in 
an unbroken line of descent from them. 

We claim that this Church possesses the first mark of 
Catholicity, because she receives that canon of Holy 
Scripture which was transmitted to her, in part by the 
ancient Jewish Church and in part by the ancient Chris- 
tian Church, and whose authority is therefore undoubted. 
She wisely rejects the authority of those books of the Old 
Testament commonly called Apocryphal, because they are 
never cited by Christ or His Apostles as Scripture ; they 
were unknown to the ancient Jews generally ; and about 
the first mention made of them by ancient writers, was by 
Athanasius in the fourth century of the Christian era, who 
speaks of them only to assert their lack of claim to be 
received as divine Scriptures. In her zeal to maintain 
purity in the teachings of her ministers, this Church 
declares the sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for salva- 
tion ; '* So that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be 
proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it 
should be believed as an article of Faith, nor be thought 
requisite or necessary to salvation.'^ In her interpretation 
of the Scriptures, while recognizing the supreme import- 
ance of illumination by the Holy Spirit of God, she also 
recognizes the authority of the Church as the divinely com- 
missioned, although not infallible, teacher, holding as she 
does the Creeds of the ancient Catholic Church, accepting 
the decisions of the first six General Councils, rejecting all 



34 

doctrines of modem origin, and carefully using the aid of 
the great lights of Christendom in the first three or four 
centuries in determining what is Scriptural truth. Surely 
with these precautions to exalt the Word of God, and to 
secure that interpretation of it which the universal Church 
of God has sanctioned, there is no body in Christendom 
which can with greater propriety claim to be Catholic in 
her faith. But in this day of a divided Christendom, a 
question of the deepest interest is : Is the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the State of North Carolina legitimately 
descended from the Church of Apostolic times in an 
unbroken line of descent ? In reply to this question, we 
say — First, that the Protestant Episcopal Church through- 
out the United States of America is a daughter of the 
Church of England. This relationship is universally 
acknowledged by our own Church in this country, by the 
Church in England, and by all other branches of the 
English Church in all the world. Indeed it is denied by 
no one, for there is not a Bishop in our branch of the 
Church whose lineage cannot be readily traced to Bishops 
White and Provoost, who were consecrated to the Episco- 
pate on February 4th, 1787, in the Arch-Episcopal palace 
at Lambeth, by the Most Rev. John Moore, Archbishop of 
Canterbury. Three other Bishops united with him in the 
imposition of hands, viz. : The Most Rev. William Mark- 
ham, Archbishop of York, the Rt. Rev. Charles Moss, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, and the Rt. Rev. John Hinch- 
liff. Bishop of Peterborough. The Episcopal pedigree of 
our own Bishops, Bishop Lyman and Bishop Watson, can 
be traced by various lines of ascent and with only a few 
intermediate links in the chain to these fathers of Ameri- 
can Episcopacy. The claim of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the State of North Carolina to be a legitimate 
branch of the one Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church is 
therefore identical with that of the Church of England. 
If the Church of England is a part of the Catholic Church, 



35 

then we are also. What then are the claims of the Church 
of England to Catholicity ? Let us very briefly sketch the 
history of that Church from the beginning. It is thought 
by some that the Church was planted in England by the 
Apostle Paul. Mosheim, a Lutheran, and a German also, 
cannot be suspected of undue partiality to an Episcopal 
and an English Church. And yet he says : * * Whether 
any apostle, or any companion of an apostle, ever visited 
Britain cannot be determined ; yet the balance of proba- 
bility rather inclines toward the affirmative,^'' Indeed, 
Eusebius and Theodoret, in the fourth century, do both of 
them declare that Christianity was preached in Britain by 
the apostles. And TurtuUian, A. D. 200, says, that in 
his own day parts of Britain inaccessible to the Roman 
arms were subdued to Christ. But whatever may have 
been the precise period when the Church was established 
in Britain is not material to our argument. It is sufficient 
to know that it has existed there from a very early period; 
that its Catholicity was admitted, and, so far as we are 
aware, was never questioned by the ancient Church. Two 
of its Bishops are recorded as representing the Church in 
the Council of Aries A. D. 314. And thenceforth, 
until driven into Wales and Scotland in the sixth 
century by the Anglo-Saxons, there was nothing to 
detract from her standing as a recognized branch of the 
Catholic Church. Indeed it can hardly be doubted that 
in addition to its claims to Catholicity from its own 
Apostolic origin, the British Church must, from its near- 
ness to Gaul and from the similarity of its customs to 
those of the Gallic Church, have incorporated into itself 
whatever claims that Church had to Catholicity. But it is 
unquestionable that Pothinus and Irenaeus, missionaries in 
the second century from the Church in Asia to Gaul, 
carried with them Apostolic authority from its source. 
For Irenaeus was a disciple of Polycarp, who was Bishop 
of Smyrna, a disciple of the Apostle John, and one of the 



36 

seven angels addressed in the Book of Revelation. Tk • 
re-introduction of Christianity into England in the latter parr" 
of the sixth century by Augiistin, an emissary of Gregory 
the Great, Bishop of Rome, whatever bearing it may, o 
may not, have on the question of Papal supremacy in 
England, certainly cannot be regarded as in any degree 
impairing the Catholicity of the English Church. For a^ 
it is a fact universally admitted that the ancient Britisl 
Church and the Church planted in England by Augusti:i 
soon coalesced, it is evident that the united Church thii- 
formed inherited the claims to Catholicity possessed b " 
both of its ancestors. So that if the original Church ca 
Britain was united by an unbroken chain of ascent to th^ 
Apostles, then the Church, formed from the union of th5 
Church with the Anglo-Saxon Church founded by Roma " 
missionaries, was united to the Apostolic Church by a twcz 
fold chain. From this time forward to the Reformatio- 
there was nothing in the history of the Church of Englan. 
which could even suggest a doubt as to her maintenance cz 
her original Catholicity. The circumstances of the R^ 
formation period of her history, however, have given occ^ 
sion to many to deny her Catholic character. It is denie ■ 
on various grounds. First : all her claims are by somu 
supposed to be vitiated by the fact that the first decide < 
step made toward paving the way to the Reformation o 
the Church of England was made by a man of such notorf- 
ously evil character as was Henry VIII. That step was 
the rejection of the Papal authority in the realm of Eng- 
land. But that act must be tried upon its own merits, not 
upon the merits of the individual who did it, nor upon any 
consideration of the character of the motives which induced 
him to do it. For were there even greater sinners upon 
the earth than Judas Iscariot who betrayed our Lord ; than 
Annas, and Caiaphas, and their companions, who urged 
His crucifixion ; and Pilate, who decreed it ? But did 
their wickedness vitiate the glorious atonement for the 



i7 

sins of the whole world effected by that death which they 
so wickedly compassed? But if the wickedness of the 
agents who brought about the death of our lyord did not 
abate one tithe of a hair from the blessed efficacy of that 
death, why should we imagine that the wickedness of 
Henr\' VIII. in any degree detracts from the glor>' of the 
Refonnation of the Church of England ? God makes even 
the wrath of man to praise Him ; and in an imtold number 
of instances has overruled the evil actions of evil men to 
bring about the fulfilment of His most gracious designs of 
beneficence to mankind. 

But it is asserted by some that Henr>' VIII. founded the 
present Church of England— that he originated a new 
Church. What an astonishing assertion to be made by 
anv one at all conversant with the facts of historv ! The 
Church in England after the Papal authority was abolished 
consisted of the same Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons, and 
baptized persons that had constituted that Church before 
the abolition of the Papal authority. And scarce any 
change was made in the doctrines of the Church during 
the lifetime of Henr)'. Transubstantiation, the invocation 
of Saints, the worship of images, and auricular confession, 
were all retained. What then was it that caused the 
extinction of the old church, and brought a new one into 
being? The only material step that Henr}- VIII. took 
toward the Refonnation was, as I have said, the rejection 
of the Papal supremacy. Will any one say that the life of 
a national church depended upon the acceptance of that 
dogma? No, even more than this, that the rejection of 
the Papal supremacy not only killed one national church, 
but gave being to a new one ? And yet a great portion of 
those who maintain that the action of Henr\' VIII. in re- 
jecting the Papal supremacy over the Church of England 
destroyed the old Church of England, admit that the Papal 
supremacy is a false doctrine. But how unjust it is to 
speak of Henry VIII. foiuiding the Church of England, 



38 

when the present Chnrch of England does not date from 
Henry VIII. at all. That King did remove a barrier to 
the Reformation of the Church of England, and in the 
succeeding reign of Edward VI. advantage was taken of 
the removal of this barrier to effect a real reformation. 
But that reformation did not stand. It was quite over- 
turned by Queen Mary, the sister and successor of Edward, 
and during her reign the Pope's authority was thoroughly 
re-established in England. Does not every one know that 
it was in the reign of Mary's successor and sister, Queen 
Elizabeth, that the Papal authority was again abolished in 
England, and a reformation effected? But no new Church 
was formed then. Most of the Bishops of Mary's reign 
refused conformity under Elizabeth ; one of them, how- 
ever, did not refuse ; and there were still a number of the 
dispossessed Bishops of the time of Edward living; the 
whole body of the Presbyters and Deacons conformed save 
only about 200, and almost the whole body of the people. 
The Church was, as to its membership, substantially the 
same after the reformation that it was before ; the only 
important difference in the Church was that it rejected the 
errors that had been fastened upon it. And we might as 
well say that a material church that had been defiled and 
used for profane purposes, and afterwards was cleansed and 
restored to its original use, was not the same building that 
it was before, as to say that the Church of England after 
the Refonnation was not the same Church that it was 
before. But it is still further maintained that the Church 
of England is, at all events, a schismatical body. But we 
ask : On what ground is it to be considered schismatical ? 
Will it be said that inasmuch as the Church of England 
was in, or not long after, the days of Augustin, brought 
into subjection to the Pope of Rome, that therefore her 
rejection of his supremacy is a schismatical act ? I answer 
that the Church of England in the time of Gregory the 
Great, who sent Augustin to England, was not so much as 



39 

called upon to acknowledge the Papal supremacy. Rome 
had not grown then to what she afterwards became. In 
Gregory's day, the Bishop of Constantinople assumed a 
supremacy in the Church, and the title of Universal 
Bishop. But Gregory affirmed, time and again, that who- 
ever claimed to be Universal Bishop was the forerunner of 
Antichrist, thus renouncing for himself and for all suc- 
ceeding Popes all claim to supremacy over the Church of 
God. And if even that one Pope be infallible, he has 
sealed his successors, who claimed so much more than 
supremacy, with the stigma of being Antichrist. Did 
the Church of England then become schismatical, because 
she rejected a dogma which was repudiated as Antichristian 
by the Pope who was so active in the second introduction 
of Christianity into England ? If the Papal supremacy is 
a false doctrine, how can the Church of England be schis- 
matical because she rejected it ? 

But it may still be said: if the Pope was not rightfully 
entitled to authority in England by virtue of his supremacy, 
yet he was the rightful head of that Church as the great 
Patriarch of the West. But we answer that the office of 
Patriarch is not of divine, but purely of human origin. 
There were no Patriarchs until the fourth century. It 
was the outgrowth of a civil power, of the Roman Empire, 
an Empire which in the time of the Reformation had passed 
away. But with changes in civil governments it is lawful 
to make changes in those ecclesiastical arrangements 
which are the outgrowth of the civil power. But if the 
ancient Patriarchal order was still binding on the Church, 
It could not be so binding as to require the Church of Eng- 
land and the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United 
States to submit to unlawful terms of communion. It is 

• 

impossible to recognize the Patriarchal authority of the 
Bishop of Rome without at the same time recognizing his 
supremacy, and likewise his infallibility, also his power to 
bestow empires, as he did when he gave to the Spaniards 



40 

this continent, which God had given to the Indian nations 
and tribes who inhabited it. The Papal supremacy cannot 
be accepted without admitting his power to release nations of 
people from their oaths of allegiance to their sovereigns, and 
to sanction marriage within degrees which God has prohibit- 
ed. It is impossible to recognize the Pope's Patriarchal 
authority without worshiping, as God, the bread and wine of 
the Eucharist, and accepting all the other dangerous errors 
of the Roman Church. We are bound to obey the civil 
authority, but not when it commands us to do what God 
forbids; or forbids us to do what God commands. We are 
bound to obey the Ecclesiastical authority ; but in the days 
of our Lord men were required to submit to being cast 
out of the synagogue rather than to deny Christ. It is 
Rome that is schismatical by demanding such terms of 
communion with her as are inconsistent with the duty we 
owe to Christ. Even the Primacy of the Bishop of Rome 
rests on no better foundation than his claim to Patriarchal 
authority. It, too, has no scriptural foundation. Primacy 
in the beginning was neither in the Bishop of Rome, nor 
in St. Peter himself. The first Primate in the Christian 
Church was the Bishop of Jerusalem, not the Bishop of 
Rome. It was the Apostle James, not the Apostle Peter, 
as is plain from Acts XV, and from the testimony of 
Eusebius. And the same barrier arising from Papal claims 
and doctrine, makes the acceptance of the Primacy of the 
Bishop of Rome as impracticable as the acceptance of the 
Patriarchate. 

The Catholicity of the Church of England therefore was 
unimpaired by the events occurring at the time of the 
Reformation. And since the Refonnation, nothing has 
occurred to afford the slightest ground for suspicion that 
the Church of England, and the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in this State has lost that claim to Catholic character which 
the Church of England possessed at the Refonnation. On 
the whole, therefore, we believe that this Church holds on 



41 

historically, by an unbroken chain, to that Church which 
more than 1800 years ago was founded by our blessed Lord 
and His Apostles. 

And holding, as she does, to the Canonical Scriptures 
as containing all things necessary to be believed in order 
to our salvation, maintaining the obligation of the two 
Sacraments instituted by our Lord, and the rite of Laying 
on of Hands instituted by His Apostles acting under 
divine authority, accepting the Apostles' and the Nicene 
Creeds, the two Creeds of the ancient Church, and main- 
taining that Episcopate, which even those who deny its 
divine origin must admit to have existed from Apostolic 
times, she must assuredly possess a just claim to Catho- 
licity. Nor is this all. In this day of a divided Christen- 
dom, in this day of an awakening to the evil of division, 
and the sacred obligation of every follower of our Lord 
Jesus Christ to seek a return to that unity for which He so 
fervently prayed, she has peculiar claims to be regarded as 
a centre of unity to all those bodies of Christians who can 
not rightfully claim for their organizations that unbroken 
line of descent from the Apostles which she possesses. 
And to all others, she presents a basis of unity — in a faith 
founded on the word of God, maintained by the Church in 
its earliest ages, and uncontaminated by the errors of after 
times. 



III. 

THE CHURCH IN 
THE PROVINCE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

BY REV. JOS. BLOUNT CHESHIRE, JR. 

The Church owes its first theoretical introduction into 
North Carolina to the Englishman's characteristic desire 
to reproduce English institutions in every comer of the 
earth where he makes for himself a home: its real begin- 
nings came from the christian zeal of a few prominent 
colonial Churchmen, co-operating with the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, in endeavoring to supply the 
scattered colonists with the ministrations of their mother 
Church. 

The name Carolina was applied by the French Hugue- 
not settlers of Florida in the years 1562 and 1564 to that 
part of the American continent lying north of the Spanish 
possessions, in honor of Charles IX. of France. In 1629 
Charles I. of England granted to his Attorney General, 
Sir Robert Heath, the territory' between 31° and 36° 
north latitude, and erected the same into a Province by 
the name of the Province of Carolina, reviving the old 
French name, but doubtless with reference to his own. 
This Province of Carolina was to be held of the King and 
his successors in Capite by Knight's serv'ice, by rendering, 
besides other things, **one circle of gold formed in the 
fashion of a crown, of the weight of twenty ounces, with 
this inscription ingraved upon it: Deus Coronet Opus 
SuuM, whensoever and as often as it shall happen, that 
we, our heirs or successors shall enter the said Region." 



44 

Nothing was done towards the settlement of the countr>' 
under this Patent of Charles I. but it is interesting as 
being the formal act whereby the name Carolina was 
authoritatively affixed by the English Crown to the region 
lying between Virginia and the Spanish settlements to the 
southward. 

The first attempt at the actual settlement of the country, 
after the failure of Sir Walter Raleigh's schemes, so far as 
we know, was made by a clergyman of the Church. In 
1653 ^^^ Virginia Assembly passed an act for the encour- 
agement of **Roger Green, Clark," i.e. clergyman, in set- 
tling the Moratoc or Roanoke river and the south side of 
Chowan river. Nothing, however, seems to have come of 
this. 

The permanent settlement of North Carolina is usually 
reckoned from the date of George Durant's deed for 
Durant'sNeck in Perquimans Coimty, March, 1661— 2. At 
this time the Governor of Virginia seems to have exercised 
some sort of authority over the territory, as representing the 
English crown, but in 1663, and in 1665, Charles II. issued 
his two Charters to the Lords Proprietors, granting them 
the Province of Carolina; the limits in the former Charter 
being identical with those of Sir Robert Heath's Patent 
of 1629, w^ii'^ the latter extended those limits two degrees 
on the south, and a half degree on the north, making the 
bounds of the Province from 29° to 36^30' north lati- 
tude, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the South 
Sea. 

Both the Charters of Charles II. expressly provide for a 
religious establishment, in accordance with the ecclesiasti- 
cal laws of England, and for the building and endowment 
of Churches, Chapels and Oratories; though they pennit 
the Ivords Proprietors to grant liberty of conscience and of 
worship, upon such tenns and under such restrictions as 
they may think proper, to those persons who could not in 
their private conscience confonn to the Church of England. 



45 

In accordance with the provisions of the Charters, the 
Lords Proprietors in their '^proposals" for settlers adver- 
tised far and wide the advantages of their Colony of Caro- 
lina on account of the religious liberty to be allowed all its 
inhabitants, upon condition that they would not interfere 
with the like liberty of others, and that they should be 
obedient to the laws of the country, as well ecclesiastical 
as civil. These proposals were industriously circulated, 
especially in New England and iiarbadoes, and the 
g^eneral promise of religious toleration allowed by the 
Charters became widely known before the Proprietors pub- 
lished any scheme of government for their Province. In- 
deed, the Lords Proprietors seem at one time to have con- 
templated granting to the people the right of regulating 
ecclesiastical affairs at their own pleasure. In 1667 their 
instructions to Governor Stevens seem to go to this length, 
as they offer to allow the Assembly of the Province to 
choose such ministers as they may prefer, and pledge the 
Lords Proprietors not to interfere with them. No such 
action, however, was taken by the Assembly. 

In J 669 the Lords Proprietors published their famous 

FUNDAMKNTAL CONSTITUTIONS OF CAROLINA. These 

were never enforced in North Carolina, but they are to be 
noted as being the first formal establishment of the Church 
in the Colony in theory. It has frequently been alleged 
that those clauses of the Constitutions which provide that 
the Church of England shall be the only Church supported 
by grants from the public funds (it * 'being the only true 
and orthodox, and the national religion of all the King's 
dominions"), are contrar}' to the privileges secured to the 
people by the Charters. But it will be observed that these 
Fundamental Constitutions, while giving this support to 
the Church, are really much more explicit than either of 
the Charters in securing the fullest religious liberty to all 
who will subscribe themselves believers in God, even pro- 
viding for the case of Jews and of the heathen. In provid- 



46 

ing for the support of the Church they are but carrying- 
out the plain requirements of the Charters. Locke was 
one of the most tolerant of men, and his hand is more 
plainly seen in the provisions concerning religion than in 
any other part of these ^^Constitutions;'' but he believed 
in the principle of a public religious establishment, and he 
incorporated it in the instrument. It is further charac- 
teristic of Locke that the Fundamental Constitutions deny 
all civil privileges to atheists. 

Thus in theory we see the Church established in the 
Province of Carolina. Whether we take the Constitutions 
of Locke and the Lords Proprietors, or the Charters of 
Charles II. , to be the fundamental law — in either case the 
Church was **by law established'' in the Province. Other 
forms of religion were to be freely tolerated, but this alone 
was the true and orthodox Church, and the national re- 
ligion of all the King's dominions. 

But what of the people during all this time ? They had 
nothing to do with all this prescribing of rights and duties 
and liberties and toleration, and they probably cared ver>^ 
little about it. The population in the first instance had 
come mostly from Virginia and had followed the courses of 
the creeks and rivers along the north side of Albemarle 
Sound. Later they crossed over to Bath, and spread up 
the Roanoke, and began to come into the southerly parts 
of the Province from New England and Barbadoes. But 
they were mostly men of small means, intent upon taking 
up good lands, and careless of all forms of religion — though 
owning some kind of allegiance to the Church of England, 
where they had any religious preference. This is contrary 
to the commonly accepted theory of our histories. They 
would have us believe that the first Colonists were men of 
great earnestness of religious feeling, chiefly Quakers and 
Baptists, who for conscience sake had abandoned their for- 
mer homes in New England and in Virginia, to escape 
from the persecution of Puritans and Calvinists in the one 



47 

and of Churchmen in the other. Every one of our State 
historians accepts this view of our early settlement and 
magnifies it. I undertake to say that is absolutely and 
entirely false; that it not only lacks a preponderance of 
testimony in its favor but that it is absoltitely without any 
contemporaneous evidence whatever. And not only so, 
but such evidence as we have leads to the conclusion that 
the great majority of our first settlers along the north side 
of Albemarle Sound, up the Roanoke, in Bath and Pamp- 
lico, and along the mouth of the Cape Fear, were by descent 
and by preference attached to the Church of tlicir mother 
country — so far as they had any religious convictions or 
preferences. The space at command is too limited to al- 
low of a satisfactory discussion of so difficult a question, 
difficult not in itself, but because it has been so long and 
so persistently misrepresented. Only a brief summary of 
the evidence can be given. 

George Durant's settlement was in 1662; William Drum- 
mond was appointed Governor by Sir William Berkley in 
1663. By the year 1672 the number of the colonists had 
very considerably increased on the streams flowing into the 
north side of Albemarle Sound and on both sides of the 
Chowan river; but the population was almost exclusively 
confined to these localities. In the Spring of 1672 William 
Ediniindson, the first Quaker preacher who ever came to 
I^Jorth Carolina, made a dangerous and toilsome journey on 
foot from the Virginia settlements to visit a family of 
Quakers living on Perquimans river. They had removed 
t:o North Carolina from New England in 1665. When 
xipon a Sunday morning in the end of March William Ed- 
xnundson appeared at their house, and they found that he 
and his two companions were Quakers — or, in their 
language, Friends^ they were so overcome that they wept 
for joy **not having seen a Friend for seven years be- 
fore." They soon called together their neighbors, who 
l)y Edmundson's own testimony were utterly ignorant of 



48 

his religions methods, and this Quaker preacher con- 
ducted the first public religious service in Albemarle. 
The next day he conducted another meeting a few miles 
off across the Perquimans river, and Tuesday he and his 
companions set out upon their return to Virginia. Ed- 
mundson made a number of converts at these two meetings, 
but his journal makes it plain that Henry Phillips and his 
family were the only Quakers whom he found in the set- 
tlements. 

In November of the same year George Fox also visited 
the Colony of Albemarle. Instead of breaking through the 
swamps and forests by a direct journey on foot to the mid- 
dle of the settlements, as Edmundson had done, he traveled 
from Nansemond in Virginia by way of Sommertown to 
**Bonner's Creek,'' i.e. Bennett's Creek, on horseback ; and 
leaving their horses there, he and his companions took a 
canoe and came in by way of the Chowan river. He held 
a meeting at Hugh Smith's on the Chowan (which he calls 
**Macocomocock"), but he tells us in his journal that 
there were **no Friends inhabiting this part of the country. " 
When he reached the region of Edmundson's ministrations 
he met with a very favorable reception, and found evidences 
of Edmundson's preaching in one or more persons who 
had been indoctrinated with Quaker principles thereby. 
Fox made a permanent impression upon the people along 
the north side of Albemarle Sound, and from this time we 
date the Quaker * 'meetings" in the region of Perquimans 
and Pasquotank. But it is plain from the journals of 
these two Quaker preachers, the first who visited this 
region, that they found none of their brethren in Albemarle 
save the single family of Phillips on Perquimans river. 
Fox testifies in positive and unequivocal language that 
there were none in the western section on Chowan river; 
and his closing words with reference to this visit are con- 
clusive as to the general condition of the whole Colony be- 
fore his coming: * 'Having visited the north part of Caro- 



49 

livLSL^ and made a little entrance for the truth among the 
people there, we began to return again toward Virginia. ' ' 
These journals are indirectly of almost equal weight in 
proA^ing that the Colonists were not Baptists, as has some- 
times been alleged. The fact that Fox and Edmundson 
met with no kind of religious worship or institutions 
among the people, the admitted fact that for ten years after 
the settlement of the country there was no public worship 
whatever, shows that the inhabitants were not religious 
refugees of any kind. Men who go out into the wilderness 
for freedom of religion are men who care enough about 
their religion to give public expression to it after they 
have gained the freedom which they sought. If the men 
who left Virginia and New England to come to Albemarle 
professed to be Baptists and Quakers, and pretended to be 
in search of liberty of conscience and of worship, — **free- 
doni to worship God,'' — we can have but little respect for 
their sincerity, since in their new homes they neglected 
the public worship of God altogether for so many years. 

But we have other most weighty testimony directly in 
point, and in part contemporary. Henderson Walker 
came into the Colony about 1679. He at one time or 
another held nearly all the most important offices in the 
government, dying in the office of Governor in 1704. He 
was one of the most admirable men who ever administered 
the afifairs of Albemarle. He had been brought into per- 
sonal contact and intercourse with the men associated with 
Durant in the settlement of 1662, and had made minute 
official investigations into the circumstances of that settle- 
ment. He had no motive to tempt him to misrepresent 
the facts, and his character is too high to allow any sus- 
picion of untruthfulness to attach to his testimony. And 
though his testimony is direct, it is given incidentally. It 
was a matter of no concern to him what might have been 
the religious belief of the first settlers. Writing to the 
Bishop of lyondon in 1703, and describing the spiritual 



50 

destitution of the people, he says, '^George Fox, some years 
ago, came into these parts, and by strange infatuations 
did infuse the Quakers' principles into some small number 
of the people; who did and hath continued to grow ever 
since very numerous by reason of their yearly sending in 
of men to encourage and exhort them to their wicked 
principles. ' ' The first two missionaries sent to North Caro- 
lina by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, for 
permanent work, were the Rev. Wm. Gordon and the Rev. 
James Adams. They both testify that the only body of 
dissenters in the Colony were the Quakers. There were 
none of these in Chowan, nor in Curratuck, and apparently 
none south of the Sound in Pamplico. They were a 
strong minority in Pasquotank, and possibly a majority in 
Perquimans. Both these ministers met with a good deal 
of opposition from the Quakers, and they write fully and 
freely upon the subject. It is perfectly certain from their 
letters that there were no Baptists at all in the Colony, no 
Quakers to speak of outside of the two counties named, 
and that the few Presbyterians scattered about among the 
people willingly accepted the ministrations of the mission- 
aries, and brought their children to be baptized into the 
Church. The claim that the Quakers had been the 
original settlers appears for the first time in Mr. Gordon's 
report to the Society May 13th, 1709. Mr. Gordon says 
he heard of such a **pretence" on their part; '*but this," 
he says, * ^(according to the best accounts I could get) 
seems false in fact, — that religion being scarce heard of 
there till some years after the settlement; it is true some of 
the most ancient inhabitants, after George Fox went over, 
did turn Quakers. ' ' Here is both the statement of the 
fact and the explanation of the Quakers' claim. They could 
truly claim that some of the first settlers were Quakers, 
but they had become Quakers after their settlement in 
Albemarle. Even here, however, there is no suggestion 
that they had come as religious refugees. 



5^ 

All the early authorities go to show that the first settlers 
were very much the same class of men as those who on 
our frontiers are to-day the pioneers of civilization; men of 
small means, of restless spirit, of immense courage and 
energy and independence; but careless in regard to the 
outward observances of religion. They were mostly of 
English blood, and by descent and by baptism members 
of the Church of England, but ignorant of her principles 
and indifferent to her claims, though accustomed to profess 
a certain kind of allegiance to her worship and ministry. 
Both the charters of King Charles provided for the estab- 
lishment of the Chnrch ; the Fundamental Constitutions, 
published in 1669, formally enacted that the Church of the 
mother country should be the Church of Carolina. This 
was known and recognized by all; but they were in no 
hurry to lay taxes for the Church's support. They had 
gotten along pretty well so far; meanwhile there were the 
Quaker meetings, the pious could go to them. This was 
the condition of things at the end of the 17th century. 
With the beginning of the i8th there is a faint stir of life. 
Under God the Church in America owes more to the 
Rev. Thomas Bray than to any other one man who ever 
lived. He founded the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, and the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts; he established public libraries 
throughout all the American Colonies; he was instrumen- 
tal in supplying schools and teachers for Indians and 
negroes as well as for the whites; and he came over him- 
self and labored for the upbuilding of the church, as com- 
Kiissary of the Bishop of London in Maryland. He seems 
^0 have proposed visiting Albemarle, for under date of 
^^cember 20th, 1699, the Lords Proprietors wrote to the 
^Vemor and Council concerning **the Reverend Doctor 
^^V, a learned, pious, and charitable man, coming into 
-^irx^rica Suffragan and Commissioner to the Bishop of 
'^^'^don, your Diocesan, and designing to give you a 



52 

visit." They are directed to entertain him, and to chai'g^ 
the cost to the public account. He did not make the pur- 
posed visit to Albemarle, but he sent a number of traot; 
and catechisms for popular distribution, and a little late: 
he sent a clergyman, one Daniel Brett, and ;^ioo wort! 
of books for a public library to be kept at Bath. \A/^< 
know nothing of Mr. Brett, but that he proved to be ai 
unworthy man who brought great grief and shame to tli< 
friends of the Church. After about six months service li" 
disappears from our view. 

But the incorporation of the Society for the Propagatio: 
of the Gospel and the mission of Dr. Bray stirred up tli 
friends of the Church in Albemarle, and gave them hop^ 
of seeing the Church at last set up in this new Colon ;3 
In November, 1701, the Assembly passed an Act constitxa 
ing each of the four precincts in Albemarle, i.e. Chow^i-i^ 
Perquimans, Pasquotank and Curratuck, and also ox: 
precinct, Pamplico, in Bath County, parishes, and appoi xa 
ing a select vestry in each. The vestr>' were empowex"^ 
to lay a tax of not more than five shillings per poll ^ 
build churches, buy glebes, employ ministers, etc. ; tl 
minister's salar}^ was fixed at ;^30 per annu?n in comir3.^ 
dities of the countr>', equivalent to about ;^i6 sterlii^^ 
It may be interesting to see the names of the Cliow^^ 
vestry' appointed by this act of 1701. They were the Hc^^ 
Henderson Walker, Col. Thomas Pollock, William Duel 
enfield, Esq., Mr. Nicholas Crisp, Mr. Edward Smith wic 1" 
Mr. John Blount, Mr. Nathaniel Chevin, Mr. Willia.^ 
Banbur}', Col. William Wilkinson, Capt. Thomas /l^ute^^' 
and Capt. Thomas Blount. A church was built near tl^ 
site of the present town of Edenton, and another was \y^ 
gun in Perquimans, but not finished. 

In 1704 the Rev. John Blair was sent out by the Societ> 
upon funds supplied by Lord Weymouth, that he mig-t* 
see what could be done for the Church. He remain ^^ 
only a few months, and returned with a rather discouragixi^ 



r 



53 

ij;| account of the prospect. He reported that it was useless 
to expect the people to provide a sufficient support for the 
ministers who were needed. He had been by the Governor 
appointed to take charge of the parish of Chowan, but 
upon leaving for England, he requested the vestry to ex- 
pend the salary due him in charity to the poor. 

In 1708 the Rev. William Gordon and the Rev. James 
Adams were sent out by the Society as permanent mission- 
aries, with an annual stipend from the Society. They 
Were put in charge of the four parishes of Albemarle; 
Chowan and Perquimans being assigned to Mr. Gordon, 
and Pasquotank and Curratuck to Mr. Adams. They 
Were both, as was also Mr. Blair, most exemplary men and 
feithful ministers. Their labors are sufficiently described 
^^ their letters, which may be read in the second volume of 
I^r. Hawks' s History of North Carolina. Mr. Gordon, 
however, had remained but a few months, when he felt 
^tliged to return to England. Mr. Adams labored most 
^^ithfully for nearly three years, and died towards the end 
^f the year of 17 10, in consequence of the hardships and 
^^als which he had so faithfully borne. 

The Act of 1 701, and the select vestries appointed by it, 

Continued until the Act of March 12th, 1710—11, which 

appointed new vestries in all the parishes, and which 

^^arks a new period in our ecclesiastical affairs. An act 

^'^ad been passed in 1708 somewhat modifying that of 1701, 

t>ut not making any essential change, nor appointing new 

Vestries, though it somewhat enlarged the powers of the 

Vestry in employing and dismissing a minister. But there 

>Aras no important change in the ecclesiastical law during 

the period from 1701 to 17 11. It is necessary to bear this 

1^11 mind. In 1704 a most unjust ^^Church Act" was 

passed in South Carolina by the contrivance of Sir 

'Nathaniel Johnston. Though it professed to be highly 

advantageous to the Church, it was really a political 

k measure. It was bitterly opposed by the only clergyman 



54 

in South Carolina; and the Society for the Propagation, 
the Gospel held a special meeting in London upon hearii 
of it, and resolved to send no more missionaries to Soui 
Carolina until it had been repealed. Upon an appeal fro 
South Carolina, the House of Lords declared it void, 
being against the Charters; and proceedings were threate: 
ed, and even begun, for declaring that the Lords Propri 
tors had forfeited their franchise. 

Just at this juncture Henderson Walker died, in Ma 
1704, and Sir Nathaniel Johnston sent from South Car 
lina Robert Daniel, a politician of rather doubtful antec 
dents, to succeed Walker as deputy Governor. It ha. 
pened that at the beginning of Gov. Daniel's administx 
tion the Act of Parliament, passed in the first year 
Queen Anne, imposing the oaths of allegiance to the ne 
sovereign, was officially transmitted to the Governor 
North Carolina. Daniel tendered the oaths to the meJ 
bers of the Council and of the Assembly. The Quake 
being unable to swear in the usual form, were thereby c: 
prived of their places, and at once began a most bitt 
attack upon Daniel, sending an agent to England 
represent their interests. For several years the gover 
ment of Albemarle was a scene of unceasing contenti^ 
and disorder. The Quakers, in order to have a handle 1 
which to move the popular mind, took up their old opp 
si tion to the Vestry Act of 1701, and in Perquimans at 
Pasquotank created much feeling against the Church. C 
this account our historians have confounded our troubl 
in 1704 with those of .the same date in South Carolin 
and it has been asserted, and repeated from one to anothe 
that Gov. Daniel had been sent by Sir Nathaniel Johnstc 
for the purpose of effecting in the northern Colony tl 
ecclesiastical arrangements just carried out in the souther: 
and that a like Act for excluding dissenters from all plac 
of trust or of profit in the Colony was passed by our A 
sembly of 1704. Such a confounding of the two gover 



55 

ments was perhaps natural fifty or seventy-five years ago, 
but is inexcusable now. **The Colonial Records of North 
Carolina," published by Col. Wm. L. Saunders, show in- 
directly, but still sufficiently, that there never was any 
such legislation in North Carolina; and there is contem- 
porary evidence that Gov. Daniel was extremely indifferent 
to the interests of the Church. The troubles of 1704 in 
North Carolina were of a political character. They arose 
ill the first place out of the exclusion of the Quaker mem- 
bers of the Council and of the Assembly, by the imposition 
of the oaths of allegiance, which were wholly political in 
their origin and intention. Being thus forced into opposi- 
tion to the administration, the Quakers revived their old 
complaints against the Vestry Act of 1701, and strove to 
make it appear that they were fighting the battle of the 
people against ecclesiastical oppression. But that this was 
not the real point at issue is proved by the fact that some 
of the strongest and most zealous Churchmen, especially 
Edward Moseley, were leaders against the party represented 
successively by Govs. Daniel, Glover, and Hyde. In truth 
the history of this period is exceedingly obscure; and it is 
probable that whatever may have been the political princi- 
ples or interests involved in its struggles, they soon became 
inextricably mingled with local and personal prejudices 
and passions, so that it is impossible for us now to disen- 
tangle their confused threads. 

It is in the midst of these sad disturbances that we get 
our first account of the religious conditions of the people 
of the new government. The letters and reports of the 
Revs. Messrs. Blair, Gordon, and Adams set it forth with 
sufficient fullness. There was no organized religious dis- 
sent in the Colony except the Quakers, who were confined 
to the two precincts of Perquimans and Pasquotank. Mr. 
Gordon reckoned them as one-tenth of the whole popula- 
tion; Mr. Adams, as perhaps a seventh. It is likely that 
l>oth these estimates apply only to Albemarle, leaving out 



56 

Bath, where there were no Quakers to speak of. A f 
Presbyterians were in Pasquotank, but they all confom 
to the Church under the godly ministry of Mr. Adai 
A little Colony of Huguenots from Virginia had recen 
settled in Bath County; these also conformed willingly 
the Church, as the Huguenots in America have usua 
done. The rest of the population on both sides of Al 
marie Sound and along the Pamplico were nomina 
churchmen, though, as has already been said, they w 
for the most part ignorant of church principles, and ca 
less of religious obligations. Yet, with all their ignorai 
and carelessness there was never a time from 1701 to i; 
when the people of North Carolina did not persist in assc 
ing through their legislative assemblies that the Church 
the mother country was the Church of the Province. 

It may be said in reply, that this was not the Act of 
people of North Carolina, but only of a few individm 
that the Act of 1701 was due to Henderson Walker, 
Act of 1708 to William Glover; and that the subsequ 
legislation of the same character was due to the exerti* 
of Swann, of Pollock, of Moseley, or of other parties 
men. But these men were North Carolinians, and 
ver>' best of North Carolinians. What they did was 
the expression of the highest and best feeling and thoui 
of the Colony. They exerted only such influence as si 
men should exert, and always will exert, in the cc 
munities of which they form a part% Certainly the chur 
men of that day compare favorably with their opponer 
Carey, Porter, lyowe, ct id omne genus. Why did si 
men insist upon the establishment and support of 
Church by the State ? We can see now that their syst 
was a false one, and that in the end the supposed st 
support was really the ruin of the Church's cause. 1 
to them the Church was an esvsential part of a well orde 
commonwealth. In the midst of a half-reclaimed wile 
ness, and inider innumerable difficulties and perplexii 






57 

and discouragements, they were endeavoring to reproduce 
English civilization and English institutions upon the 
shores of America. They remembered the part so lately 
taken by the Church in delivering England from the 
tyranny of the Stuarts and from the superstition of Rome ; 
they appreciated her wide intellectual and spiritual liberty; 
they were proud of her great scholars and divines. They 
felt that the Church was best fitted to cultivate and to 
develop the rude population which was growing up in 
these western wilds, and at that same time to keep them 
close to the best memories and traditions of their race. 
The leading men in North Carolina at that day had suf- 
ficient intelligence and taste to be repelled by the ignorance 
and narrowness which to a very great extent characterized 
the dissenters of the Colony; while, being themselves 
active politicians, it is but too likely that they lacked that 
inipartial and discriminating spirit and that generous 
religious sympathy, which would have enabled them to 
recognize under its forbidding exterior the piety and godli- 
ness which animated many an ignorant Quaker, who 
seemed to them only a contentious opposer of truth and 
Common sense. While the leaders must be supposed tp 
liave taken some such view of the situation, the mass of 
the people accepted the establishment of the Church as 
being part of the necessary machinery of civilization. 
They were not forward to put the laws in operation, but it 
Was well to have at least some nominal religion for their 
country. 

Thus the ecclesiastical establishment was not only in 
siccordance with the fundamental law as set forth on the 
two Charters; it also expressed the will of the people of the 
infant commonwealth. But after all, nothing could have 
been more disadvantageous to the Church in the end. 
This legal establishment exasperated the opposition of dis- 
senters, and gave them a handle against the Church, while 
^e pretended support was altogether illusory. The parish 



58 

revenues provided bj^ law were never adequate to the sup- 
port of the minister or to the building of churches. 
Private liberality always had to maintain the one and to 
build the other. For example, it was only in the parish 
of St. Paul's, Chowan, that the services of the Church 
seerii to have been kept ujp with anything like regularity 
during the first part of the last century; and from the best 
data attainable it appears that the whole sum paid by that 
parish to its ministers for the first ten years, from 1701 to 
171 1, was only about fifty-five pounds, or possibly less, in 
the commodities of the country, equivalent to not more 
than twenty-five pounds sterling. An establishment 
which practically met the wants of nine-tenths, or at least 
six-sevenths of the people, could hardly be called very un- 
reasonable or oppressive, upon the accepted principles of 
those days. From a purely selfish point of view the money 
brought into the Colony by the missionaries (during this 
first period of ten years it must have been between ;^3oo 
and ^^400 sterling), the advantage of their character and 
intelligence upon the new settlements and the ignorant 
people, the benefit to the young of the schools here and 
there established by their efforts and maintained as part of 
their work, and the books circulated among the people, 
were a very large return for the pitiful sums paid to the 
missionaries by the people. 

The year 171 1 was a notable, though not a happy one 
for the Province of North Carolina. The new Governor, 
Edward Hyde, had arrived towards the close of the preced- 
ing year, and in March 17 10— 11 the Assembly met. 
Having for years suffered from the uncertainties of the 
Proprietary rule, with its deputy governors holding under 
the Governor of the South Carolina, the Assembly, upon 
meeting under a Governor appointed for this Province 
with no dependence upon the Governor or government to 
the southward, passed an act ignoring the Charters, and 
asserting that this Province was annexed to, and a member 



59 

f, the Crown of England. They claimed their rights as 
British subjects, and asserted that the constitution and 
1 aws of England were the law of the Province, so far as 
the same were '^compatible with our way of living and 
tirade." The act goes on to provide that the English 
law^s for the establishment of the Church and for the tolera- 
tion of Protestant Dissenters shall be in force in North 
Carolina. This is the first enactment of our local As- 
*>einbly ascertaining and declaring the position of dissenters 
in the Province. The Charters had merely permitted the 
Lords Proprietors to grant freedom of religion under such 
x-estrictions as they might see fit. The Fundamental Con- 
stitutions had contained specific regulations for carrying 
this permission into effect; but the Fundamental Constitu- 
tions had themselves never been put into effect in the 
Province of North Carolina. This Act of 17 ii therefore 
"was the first law upon the subject. It put dissenters upon 
the same footing as dissenters in England, and settled the 
cjuestion for the rest of our Provincial period. 

The law referred to — commonly known as the Act of 
Toleration — is I. William and Mary St. i. c. 18. It is en- 
titled An Act **for exempting their majesties' protestant 
subjects, dissenting from the Church of England, from the 
penalties of certain laws. ' ' It does not profess to be an 
act for granting freedom of religion or of worship in 
general, but only to certain classes. It was framed ex- 
pressly to exclude Romanists and Unitarians. But as 
there were no Papists or Unitarians in the Province, it 
practically covered the case of all dissenters in North 
Carolina, and it had been drawn for the ver>' purpose of 
meeting the case of the classes to which they belonged. 
The terms of the Act were, in brief, that all penalties im- 
posed for non-conformity should be remitted in the case 
of Protestant Dissenters who did not deny the doctrine of 
the Trinity, upon their taking the oaths of allegiance and 
the test oath (or aflSnning to the same, if Quakers); that 



6o 

their places of worship should be registered in the Court of 
the Bishop, the Arch-Deacon, or the County Sessions; and 
that the doors of their places of meeting should be unbolt- 
ed during their time of worship or other assembly. In 
the case of their ministers, besides the oaths before 
mentioned, they were to subscribe the Articles, with a 
reservation as to those which related to ecclesiastical 
government and infant baptism. This latter provision 
was aimed against Romanists and Unitarians, as it was 
understood that the doctrinal statements of the Articles were 
in accordance with the belief of the great body of English 
Protestants. 

Thus the laws affecting dissenters continued until the 
Revolution. It is probable that in very few cases were 
dissenting ministers required to take the oaths or to register 
the places of religious worship in the County Court, though 
it was sometimes done. The records of the County Court 
of Edgecombe contain an entry which illustrates this point, 
and shows the practical application of the law. During 
the September term of the County Court for the year 
1 76 1, on Thursday of Court, before Aquila Sugg, William 
Haywood, Duncan Lamon, and Joseph Howell, the Justices 
holding said Court, **Johnathan Thomas, a Non-conforming 
Preacher, produced an Ordination Writing signed by 
George Graham, and John Moore, the Pastures of the 
Baptists ordaining him to [go] forth and preach the Gospel 
according to the Tenets of that Church, and he thereupon 
took the Oaths of Allegiance and subscribed the Test, ap- 
pointed for that Purpose." These oaths and test were 
also required of all civil officers, and of ministers of the 
Church at the time of their ordination. So far as they 
had any religious significance they were directed against 
the Roman Church, and were not objected to by Protestant 
Dissenters. 

Only one case has come to notice where it has been 
charged that there was any attempt to make use of this 



6i 

Act of Toleration to harass the dissenters in the Province. 
In 1740-— June term — a number of Baptists applied to the 
County Court of Craven County for permission to build a 
chapel. At the same time affidavits were made charging 
them with sundry misdemeanors. The Court took their 
recognizances to appear at the September term, and post- 
poned their petition to the same time. At that term, 
nothing appearing against them, their petition was granted, 
and they took the oaths, subscribed the test, and assented 
to the XXXIX Articles with certain reservations. It does 
not appear that any wrong was done to any one in these 
proceedings, though the Court certainly exceeded their 
powers, when they undertook to examine these persons 
upon the Articles. It seems likely that the misdemeanors 
charg^ against the petitioners had reference only to some 
irregularity in connection with their public worship; and 
the Court, being convinced of this, very properly passed 
over the matter, and granted the license prayed for upon 
their compliance with the terms of the Act of Toleration. * 

Aiter this digression we turn again to the year 171 1. 
The Colony had lately been considerably increased by 
the settlements made by the French, Swiss, and Gennan 
Protestants at Newbem, under Baron DeGraffenreid. 
These, though of Calvinistic faith, signified their desire to 
be included within the established Church, and took meas- 
ures to have ministers ordained for them by the Bishop of 
London, and also to introduce the Book of Common Prayer 
in their own language. 

In this year, or at the end of the preceding year, the Rev. 
John Urmstone arrived in Albemarle and took up his 
residence in Chowan precinct. 

*The statement sometimes seen as a wandering paragraph in the news- 
papers, that these persons, or some others in a like case, were imprisoned 
or otherwise punished because they were Baptists, is absurd upon its 
fece. It would have been utterly illegal, and would have subjected the 
perpetratQiB to heavy peni4ties by way of damages. 



62 

Though Gov. Hyde met with sohie opposition at first, 
it soon disappeared, and all seemed to promise a happy 
administration. At the Assembly in March, Good Friday 
was set apart as a public fast day, and Mr. Urmstone 
preached before them, and administered the Holy Com- 
munion. The Vestry Act passed was probably not sub- 
stantially different from the one previously in force, except 
that it left out the proxdsion concerning the annual hiring 
of the minister, and abridged the power of dismissal. 
But on the other hand it did not give the minister a seat in 
the vestry, at which Urmstone made bitter complaint. 
He gives a most unfavorable account of a meeting of the 
vestr>' of some parish which he does not name. He is not 
worthy of credit where he had any interest involved, and 
his account is inconsistent with the character of at least 
some of the members of the vestr\'. In truth Urmstone is 
the most disgraceful character in the history- of the Church 
in America. He was scurrillous, profane, intemperate, and 
mendacious. He did more hann to the cause of the 
Church in North Carolina than anv man who has ever 
figured in our histor>\ and it is utterly incredible that he 
should have been allowed for ten years to blast the pros- 
pects of the Church in the Province by his presence. Yet 
so it was. His letters are a tissue of abuse, vulgarity, and 
falsehood — though not lacking in a certain coarse humor, 
and considerable keenness of observation. His appearance 
upon the stage of action is one of the events which mark 
and which darken the records of 171 1. 

Before Gov. Hyde had fairly gotten into tlie adminis- 
tration of his goveniment after the flight of Carey, came 
the terrible Indian outbreak and massacre of September 
22nd. We can hanlly realize the horror and hopelessness 
of the situation when funn the Pamplico to the new settle- 
ments on the Xeuse all secmcil swept away in blood in one 
awful night* Reading the meagre accounts which have 
come down to us it seems anuuing that there should have 



63 

been anything saved from the wreck. The whole country 
for weeks after seems to have been utterly unprotected^ and 
at the mercy of the merciless savages. 

For a year or two it would have been impossible for. the 
most diligent missionaries to have accomplished anything. 
The Rev. Giles Rainsford, sent by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, arrived in Albemarle in May, 
171 2, and was kindly received by the new Governor, and 
other of the principal inhabitants. He and Mr. Unnstone 
entered into an agreement whereby Mr; Rainsford was to 
supply the country south and west of Albemarle Sound 
and the Chowan river, while Mr. Unnstone was to confine 
himself to the region north and east of the same Waters. 
This agreement, however, was not long observed by Mr. 
Rainsford. He very soon removed from the south shore 
to the upper part of Chowan, and thence, after a few 
months to Virginia, where he took a cure from Lady Day 
to Michaelmas 1713. He may have officiated within the 
bounds of Albemarle after this time, and he seems to have 
interested himself a good deal in the remains of the 
Chowan and other Indian tribes living on the frontier 
between the two governments, but he returned to England 
in 1716, and we hear no more of him. 

Gov. Eden took the oath of office in May, 17 14. The 
second session of the Assembly after the beginning of his 
administration put forth in November, 1 715, a revision of 
the Laws of the Province, and among others a new and 
enlarged Vestry Act. It was probably only a re-enactment 
of the laws on the same subject passed in 1701, 1708, and 
17 1 1, in its essential features, but it increased the number 
of parishes from five to nine, and allowed the vestry to fix 
the salary of the minister, at any sum not less than fifty 
pounds in the currency of the Province. An act was also 
passed for the suppression of vice and profaneness, and the 



64 

better observance of the Lords' Day, January 30th, May 
29th, and September 22nd. * 

The Act of 1715 continued in force, new parishes being 
from time to time erected by the Assembly, until 1741. 
The provision thereby made for the Clergy was meagre 
enough, though liberal, considering the condition of the 
country. There was, however, little disposition on the 
part of the vestries to put the law into operation; and 
there were no clergymen to do the service required. 

In October, 1718, Commissary Johnston of South Caro- 
lina, by the direction of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gk)spel, sent the Rev. Ebenezer Taylor to Albemarle. 
Mr. Taylor spent his first year upon the south-west shore 
of Chowan, living with Mr. Duckenfield, and taking great 
pains to instruct his negro and Indian slaves, several of 
whom he baptized. He was stopped in this good work by 
a pppular prejudice, which shows itself again and again in 
Colonial days, that the slave who was baptized was thereby 
manumitted. From the south shore of Chowan Mr. Taylor 
removed to Perquimans, and thence to Bath and the 
country to the south. Mr. Urmstone says that he was 
old and feeble, and very unfit for the work. He was 
certainly diligent, faithful, and devout. He rejected the 
legal provision made for the clergy and lived upon the 
voluntary offerings of the people, as did others of our 
Colonial clergy. He very much deplored the irrelig^on of 
the people, and the carelessness of even the professed 
Christians. They had been so long unaccustomed to the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, that he could not prevail 
upon them to come to it; they seemed struck with fear 
that it would be to their condemnation. Mr. Taylor's end 
was a sad one. Making a missionary tour from Bath to 

♦January 30th, and May 29tli, in the English Calendar commemorate 
respectively the Execution of Charles i., and the Restoration of Charles 
II. September 22nd was by our Provincial Assembly appointed to be 
observed as a day of fasting and prayer in commemoration of the awful 
Indian massacre of September 22nd, 1711. 



65 

Core Sound in February, 1720, he was exposed in an open 
boat for ten days in very severe weather, and died on an 
island near the mouth of Neuse river. He was buried on 
Harbour Island by men who were there hunting hogs; and 
there were very grave suspicions of foul play, since it was 
afterwards discovered that they had taken possession of 
money or other property which he had with him to the 
amount of two hundred and ninety pounds. This was 
eventually recovered by his administrators. 

T^he death of Mr. Taylor left Mr. Urmstone again the 
sole minister in the Colony. But to the happiness of all 
psLTties he took a sudden leave in March, 1721, acquainting 
no one with his intentions save Col. Moseley, in whose 
Ir^nds he left his plantation and other interests in Albe- 
srle. We are so thankful to be rid of him that we will 

pause to moralize upon his character. 
Yery little is known of the scattered congregations^ for 
soone years following Urmstone's departure. The Rev. 
J<i^lin Newman was sent out by the Society in the Autumn 
^f" 1721 to succeed him in Chowan, but he died after only 
^i:>c months' service, leaving .a widow who seems to have 
t>^en generously treated by the parish and by the people 
gr^nerally. 

In the stormy times of Burrington and Everard, two 
^^^^inisters, Thomas Bailey and John Blacknall, appear for a 
^^^^oment in the midst of the tumult, and come in for a 
slxare of the scurrillous abuse of the period, which some of 
*^Tar later writers have repeated. There is, however, no suf- 
ficient evidence upon which to base an estimate of their 
character or of their work. * 

*The Vestry of St. Thomas' Church, Bath, and also the Vestry of Hyde 
prednct in 1726 petitioned the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
wi favor of Mr. Bailey, and testified of his character and work for the 
^ee years which he spent in North Carolina. 

As to Mr. BlacknaU's having married a white man to a negro woman — 
Qr a mulatto most likely — the fact that he informed against himself is in 
^ fevor. He had probably been imposed upon; or being a new comer 



66 

Again, in 1732, the Rev. Bevil Granville, a clergyman 
induced by Lord Baltimore to leave England for Maryland, 
happened to be landed in North Carolina, and was persuad- 
ed to spend a year in Chowan, where his ministrations 
seem to have been very acceptable to the people. 

Upon the Cape Fear there was no organized parish until 
1729. But the year previous the Rev. John Lapierre, a 
French Huguenot, who had been ordained by the Bishop 
of London in 1708, and for many years had served a 
congregation of his own people in South Carolina, called 
St. Dennis' Parish, came into the region of the Cape Fear 
river upon the invitation of the people, and .with the 
consent of Commissary Garden. For a while he was sup- 
ported by the voluntary gifts of the people. Afterwards 
the newly appointed vestry laid a parish rate for his sup- 
port. After a few years he was supplanted, according to 
his own account, by the Rev. Richard Marsden, who 
offered his services gratuitously. Mr. Marsden had him- 
self been a minister in South Carolina from 1705 to 1709, 
but had now become an inhabitant of New Hanover, and 
was chiefly engaged in planting and trading. He was 
anxious to be appointed to this field by the Society, but 
his application seems not to have been favorably received. 
He officiated also for a while in Onslow. At this same time, 
1732, the Rev. Mr. Jones, of Virginia, officiated once a 
month in Bertie. 

It is during this period of transition from Proprietary to 
Royal rule that we first find another body of dissenters 
besides the Quakers rising to notice. Paul Palmer, of 
Perquimans, the first Baptist preacher in North Carolina, 
began his work about 1727, and from this date the Baptists 
grew stronger and stronger in the Province. There was 

in America, he may have been ignorant of the law. Having inadvertent- 
ly committed a breach of the local law, he could only come fprward and 
submit to the Court, and lessen the penalty as much as possible by claim- 
ing half of it. Save this one matter there is not a word against him. 



67 

no real provision made for the spiritual wants of the peo- 
ple, and so they gradually forgot their faint traditional 
attachment to the Church, and went to such religious 
:meetings. Baptist or Quaker, as they could find. 

One sign of life shows itself in this period of darkness. 
Mr. John Boyd, a graduate of the University of Glasgow, 
and for some years a physician in Virginia, went from 
North Carolina, our first candidate for Holy Orders, in 1732, 
and after having been ordained in England, returned, and 
became the minister in the North-West Parish, of Bertie. 
There were no dissenters in this parish, and the people 
seemed eager for his services. He reported to the Society 
tliat private subscriptions had been started to build four 
chapels. In 1737 Commissary Garden wrote to the Bishop 
of London that he heard bad reports of Mr. Boyd, that he 
was intemperate and neglected his duties; but about this 
time he seems to have died, still one of the Missionaries of 
the Society. 

Gov. Burrington was succeeded in 1734 by Gabriel 
Johnston. There was no legislation under his administra- 
tion affecting the general interests of the Church until the 
Act of 1741; c. xxiii. 

A Vestry Act had been passed in 1729, but it is doubt- 
ful whether it was ever operative. We are unacquainted 
with its precise character, as it has never been printed. 
It seems most probable that up to 1741 the original Vestry 
Act of 177 1, as modified by the Acts of 1708, J711, and 
17 16, remained in force. None of these acts made any 
provision for the election of vestrymen by the people. 
The vestrymen for each parish were named in those acts, 
and each parish vestry was a close corporation, independ- 
ent and irresponsible. 

The Act of 1741 provided that the Vestry should be 
chosen on Easter Monday of every alternate year beginning 
in 1742, by the freeholders of the parish in an election to 
be held by the Sherff. Besides the five parishes created 
by the Act of 170 1, the four added in 17 15, and six by 



68 

special acts from 1715 to 1740, the act of 1741 added twc 
new ones, making the whole number seventeen. The ves- 
trymen were required to take the usual oaths and to sub- 
scribe a declaration that they would not oppose the liturgy 
of the Church. Professed dissenters were, as in formei 
legislation, allowed to decline to serve, if elected upon the 
vestry, though they were free to serve, if they chose to dc 
so. In short, the act of 1741 is substantially the same sa 
the former law, except as regards the biennial election o: 
the vestry by the freeholders of the parish, and the powei 
now given the vestry to withdraw the stipend from a min 
ister guilty of scandalous immorality. The provision oi 
1715, allowing the vestry to fix the minister's salary, but 
setting the minimum at fifty pounds in the currency of the 
country, was continued in this act of 1741. 

The marriage act passed the bame year, 174 1, c. I., hai 
been quoted as if it conferred upon clergymen of the Churcl 
the privilege of performing marriages, which it witheldfron 
other ministers; but a careful examination of our legisla 
tion will show that the Assembly of the Province neve: 
professed to give to the clergy such a right, but only recog 
nized a right which rested upon prescription. Our earlies 
colonial legislation provided that the civil magistral 
might perform this ofiice, upon the express ground of neces 
sity^ because there were no clergy. As soon as minister 
of the Church came into the Province they were recognizee 
as having this right, without any act of the Assembly 
The act of 17 15 distinctly recognizes this, and only give 
the magistrates the right to join persons in marriage ii 
cases where no minister is to be had. The act of 1741 c 
I. simply brings forward this feature of the former legisla 
tion in slightly altered phraseology, and declares the righ 
to be in the clergy. Furthermore, in 1741 there was ne 
organized body of dissenters in the Province, and, so far ai 
we know, not a single dissenting minister who claimed anj 



69 

ministerial authority to perform the marriage ceremony, or 
considered that a part of his pastoral duties or functions. * 

The ministers of the Church in the Province of North 
Carolina in 1741 were the Rev. Mr. Garzia of St. Thomas's 
Church, Bath; the Rev. James Moir, who had lately come 
from South Carolina to St James's Church, New Hanover; 
the Rev. Richard Marsden, who by this time had ceased 
officiating, and who died about the end of the year 1742; 
and the Rev. John Lapierre before mentioned, who, being 
ousted from New Hanover by Mr. Marsden' s gratuitous 
ministrations, seems to have gone to Newbem about 1735, 
and to have remained in those parts until his death, which 
did not occur, as we have reason to believe, earlier than 
the year 1755. It may be mentioned here, though this is an- 
ticipating the proper order of events, that there was at this 
tixne on the Cape Pear, where he had lived since 1729, a 
c^xtain Christopher Bevis, in Holy Orders, who in 1748, 
S-fter Mr. Moir's departure, for a moment resumed the min- 
isterial character, and was forced by the necessities of the 
F^^cple to exercise the sacred functions which ill health had 
^^^-iised him to lay aside since 1728. But he relapsed as 
^'^x<idenly into oblivion after a single letter to the Secretary 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

"*It seems probable that all through the Colonial period the people acted 
)n the Common Law principle that consent^ in whatever public and 
^^XTnal manner expressed, followed by cohabitation, constituted a valid 
^^^^rriage; and though the law might prescribe some special manner of 
Consent, and provide a means of its certification, and the preservation of 
^^€ evidence thereof, it would not deny validity to such marriages, how- 
^^vcr defective the contract might be in regard to legal formalities. We 
l^now that from the beginning of the Quaker meetings they married after 
^eir own fashion, calling in neither minister nor magistrate. And the 
^esbyterian marriages, performed by their own ministers before the 
enabling act of 1766 c. IX., and in direct violation of the law, which re- 
quired all marriages to be either by license or by publication of banns, 
were held to be legal. It is more than probable that the law upon the 
subject was but carelessly observed in the settlements remote from court 
houses and clerks. The sanctity of marriage depends not upon the mode 
of solemnization, but arises out of the relation itself. 



70 

Mr. Garzia had come to St. Thomas's Church, Bath, aboa 
1735. ^^ ^^ ^ faithful and devoted minister. He diec 
November 29th, 1744, from injuries received by a fall froir 
his horse in returning from a visit to a sick parishioner. 
He left a wife and three children but ill provided for, whc 
seem to have been recipients of the bounty of the Society, 
which had enrolled him upon its list of missionaries sev- 
eral years before his death. It was probably during his 
incumbency that St. Thomas's acquired its glebe of three 
hundred acres and its glebe house, the only one ever owned 
by any parish during the provincial period. 

Mr. Moir continued in New Hanover, first at St. James's, 
Wilmington, and then at St. Philip's, Brunswick, until 
about the beginning of 1 747, when he removed to Edge- 
combe upon the invitation of the inhabitants of that large 
and populous parish, at that time perhaps the most popu- 
lous in the Province. 

In 1743, or early in 1744, Clement Hall, Esq., of Per- 
quimans, in the Commission of the Peace, with a reputa- 
tion for **honour, diligence and fidelity," who had been 
for several years a lay reader in his parish, laid before the 
Bishop of London testimonials of his character, and applied 
for Holy Orders. After being examined he was ordained 
Deacon and Priest in 1744, and returned at once to 
North Carolina with a commission from the Society as 
their itinerant missionary. He found his patrimony 
much wasted from want of proper care during his ab- 
sence. He at once set about the work of his holy call- 
ing with the same **honour, diligence and fidelity" which 
had marked his secular life. Two Sundavs in each month 
he officiated in St. Paul Church, Edenton, and the other 
Sundays in distant parts of the parish. But regularly ever}^ 
year, in fulfilment of his duty to the wider field, he took 
his journeys east and west. From the old settlements of 
Perquimans and Pasquotank, to the distant frontiers of 
Granville, this eager messenger made his annual or semi- 



71 

annual tours, baptizing infants and adults, catechising the 
children, churching women, and administering the Holy 
Communion to the rude folk, who learned to love and 
trust this holy man. Everywhere he preached to such 
crowds that no house would hold them, but they were 
forced to seek the shelter of the groves, where the birds 
were the choristers, and where, in the pauses between their 
music, they **heard the bass of heaven's deep organ blow." 
Upon one of these tours, during the pleasant September 
and October weather of the year 1753, he reports that in 
thirty-five days he traveled 536 miles, officiated in 23 con- 
gregations, baptized 467 white and 21 black children, and 
2 white women. Such zeal as this bore fruit in the people 
upon whom it was poured out. Where other missionaries 
could find only misery and discouragenent, profane people 
and contentious vestrymen, he found happiness and hope, 
and some measure of response to his own goodness. The 
work upon St. Paul's Church, Edenton, was renewed with 
vigor; even Corbin, Earl Granville's unpopular agent, as- 
sured him that he would spare no pains to accomplish the 
work ; and he lived to see it put in a fair way of being com- 
pleted. In 1755 he lost his house, his books, and pretty 
much all his personal property, by fire. He went to his 
reward in 1759, after a ministry of fifteen years. We have 
no exact account of all his labors, but we may judge the 
whole from his account of a part. In 1752, when he had 
run half his course, he estimated that he had travelled 
14,000 miles, preached nearly 700 sermons, and baptized 
more than 6,000 persons, (including several hundred negroes 
and Indians). He reckoned the number of communicants 
in his circuit at 400, which, considering the backwardness 
of the people in those days to come to the Holy Commun- 
ion, was a wonderful number. In Anderson's **History 
of the Church of England in the Colonies' ' the account of 
him closes with these words: **In weariness and painful- 
ness, yet with faith and hope unbroken, he persevered unto 



72 

the end; and * ♦ * worn out with sickness and hard 
toil, Clement Hall closed, in the bosom of an aflFectionate 
and grateful people, a career of pious usefulness which has 
rarely, if ever, been equalled.'' 

The Rev. James Moir, in Edgecombe, had also a labor- 
ious life, and for a while he travelled and preached exten- 
sively. A church was built on Tar River, about eight 
miles above the present town of Tarborough, and also two 
chapels in other parts of the county, one of which was prob- 
ably old Conacanara in Halifax. The vestry also took 
orders for building four others. In 1756 the lower part of 
the county was made a separate parish, called St. Mary's 
Parish, which became Mr. Moir's charge. The upper part 
remained Edgecombe Parish, but soon after became a sep- 
arate county by the name of Halifax. Mr. Moir is an 
example of the Establishment idea applied to the facts 
of American colonial life. His case illustrates the whole 
story of the failure of the Church in the Province. He 
did not lack abilities or worth, but he was all the time 
vexing himself and railing at his circumstances because he 
could not make the established system work. Clement 
Hall, bom in the new country, and desirous simply of 
bringing the Gospel to bear upon the people, found the 
system no insuperable barrier, because he was not working 
the system. James Moir, side by side with him, accom- 
plished little or nothing, because he was fettered by that 
system under which he had been brought up. He re- 
mained in Edgecombe until the summer of 1762, when he 
removed to St. George's Parish, Northampton county, 
where there was a church, and also three chapels, though he 
continued to oflSciate in St. Mary's until his death in Feb- 
ruary, 1 767. He was one of the Commissioners appointee 
in 1760 to lay out the town of Tarborough, and perhaps it 
is to him that we owe the ecclesiastical nomenclature o 
the streets— St. George's, St. Patrick's, St. David's, anc 
St, Joshua's, He also, like Mr. Hall, reports a wonderfu- 



73 

oiitnber of baptisms, but is not so exact in his statistics. 
^^ one report he excuses himself for this by saying that he 
^ad no one to count the children as he baptized them^ and so 
could not tell the exact number. 

In 1753 there came into the Province the Rev. Alexan- 
der Stewart, a missionary of the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel and minister of St. Thomas' Church, 
Bath. His name deserves to be put alongside of that of 
Clement Hall. Until the spring of 1771, through much 
sickness and fatigue, and amid vexations and hardships, 
lie spoke the word of God to the people of Beaufort, Hyde 
aixd Pitt counties, serving thirteen chapels besides his par- 
ish church. The negroes and Indians claimed his special 
ca.Te. He visited the remains of the *'Attamuskeets," 
Hatteras and Roanoke tribes of Indians in Hyde county, 
a.xxd endeavored to teach them the principles of Christian- 
it:y. As agent and superintendent for North Carolina of 
tlxe society called *'Dr. Bray's Associates," he established 
a. school for their benefit. He paid a school-mistress to 
t^scli Indian boys and girls, and also one or two negro 
clxildren, to read, and supplied them with books. The 
c^lxurch at Bath, though begun some years before, was not 
^tttirely finished until 1762. He suffered much from sick- 
ness during the latter part of his life, and upon one occa- 
sion had to be carried from Bath to Newbem in a horse 
litter to consult physicians in regard to a dreadful attack of 
rheumatism which had deprived him of the use of his 
litnbs. He crowned his work in Bath by sending forward 
two notable men to England as candidates for Holy Orders, 
Mr. Peter Blinn and Mr. Nathaniel Blount. The latter 
did not go over until the second year after Mr. Stewart's 
death, but we can npt doubt that it was his influence which 
helped to prepare so worthy a successor to stand in his 
place when he was gone, and to hand down, almost to our 
day, his testimony to the truth. 

The same year which brought Mr. Stewart to Bath gave 



74 

the Rev. James Reed to Christ Church, Newbem. H 
came over from England with his family in response to a: 
offer an4 appeal sent to England by the vestry of Crave: 
Parish. The special agreement between him and his vej 
try was confirmed by Act of the Assembly 1754 c. XVl 
In 1758 he was made one of the missionaries of the Societj 
He well deserved the appointment, for besides his churc 
in Newbem he served nine chapels in Craven and Carten 
Counties. His long and faithful services can not be ad< 
quately presented in a summary. He acted as Chaplain t 
the Assembly; he built and carried through to such meai 
ure of success as it attained, the Newbem Academy. Mi 
Reed saw the troubles of 1776 coming on, but he stood t 
his royalist principles, and he disappears from our Nort 
Carolina annals praying heartily for King George, whil 
the drums of marching soldiers drown his voice and tt 
clouds of war wrap him from our view. He left behin 
him the memory of a man of honor and a faithful ministt 
of God. The patriotic churchmen of Newbem, Nash, an 
Speight and Leech, thought not the wors^ of him f( 
bravely siding with the country of his birth. 

The Rev. John McDowell in 1 754 became minister i 
Wilmington, by that time grown to be the largest town i 
in the Province. He was put into orders upon Gov. Dobbs 
recommendation, and spent the whole of his ministry i 
New Hanover, at St Jameses Wilmington, and St. Phi 
ip's, Brunswick. In 1760 he was made a missionary < 
the Society. Handsome churches had some years befoi 
this /be^ "begun both in Wilmington and in Brunswicl 
though tjie latter was riot finished until 1768, while ti 
former was still longer in building. Mr. McDowell die 
in 1763, and was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Bamett i 
1765. The Rev. John Mills became the minister in 176c 
and in 1774 the Rev. Nicholas Christian was in charg< 
we know very little of either of them. 

In Edenton the Rev. Clement Hall was succeeded i 



75 

1759) immediately upon his death, by the Rev. Daniel 
Earl. The large and handsome parish church, begun by 
private subscription before the year 1740, towards which 
the Lords Proprietors had given ;^2oo, was probably so 
far finished in Mr. Hall's time as to be occupied, but was 
not completed until many years after. Mr. Earl frequently 
speaks of its being in a dilapidated condition. He con- 
fined his ministrations chiefly to St. PauPs Church, and 
continued in charge for the greater part, if not the whole, 
of the Revolution. 

The Rev. Thomas Purges became the minister of Edge- 
combe Parish, Halifax county, in October, 1759. His 
special agreements made with the vestry of that parish 
"vrere confirmed by two private acts of the Provincial As- 
sembly, the first by the Act of 1760 c. VII. ; the second by 
wAct of 1764, 2d Sess., c. XVII. He continued rector of 
"this parish till the Revolution, or thereabouts. It may be 
xnentioned that when the town of Tarborough was laid oflF 
in 1760, and the lots sold, parson Purges bought the lot 
oipon which Calvary Church was erected in 1834. When 
"^he church came to be built his grandson, Thomas Purges, 
lEsq. , conveyed the lot to the vestry for that purpose. 

With the administration of Gov. Tryon a new era of 

.^ictivity in ecclesiastical affairs begins. Gabriel Johnston 

.^nd Arthur Dobbs were both zealous churchmen, but Try- 

^)n's activity in seeking to advance the cause of the Church 

^md of religion in the Province, was quite beyond anything 

^which had been seen before. Yet it was not the zeal of a 

mere sectarian bigotry. All our historians have admitted 

that he met the dissenting interests of tlie country with a 

generous appreciation and tolerance which to a very great 

extent won their good will. Upon the outbreak of the 

first Regulation troubles in 1768 the Presbyterian ministers 

united in an address to him, in which they declared that 

they had the highest sense of the justice and benevolence 

of his administration, under which they say that they en- 



76 

joyed all the blessings of civil and religious liberty, or 
words to that effect. They also put forth a pastoral let- 
ter to their people, quite as ardent in its expressions of 
loyalty to King George as was parson Micklejohn's sermon 
before the troops at Hillsboro' upon the text, * 'The powers 
that be are ordained of God." Gov. Tryon, on his part, 
always speaks of the Presbyterians, and also of the Quakers, 
with the highest respect. As a civil administrator, bred in 
the school of military discipline, he had less respect for 
the ruder and more extravagant forms of religious enthu- 
siasm — the *'New Lights" and the * 'Separatists" — who 
were becoming so numerous in some quarters. But no 
complaint has come down to us from any religious body 
against his ecclesiastical administration. His zeal for the 
Church, and his great interest in the business of the Soci- 
ety for the Propagation of the Gospel, probably had their 
origin in some close relationship to that work. In 1736 the 
treasurer of the Society was ''William Tryon, Merchant, 
Lime Street, London;" a few years later "William and 
Thomas Tryon" shared the office. It is probable that 
Gov. Tryon was a son of one of these, and that his boyhood 
had been nurtured in close association with the venerable 
Missionary Society of the Church of England. Certain it 
is that he zealously promoted the interests of the Church in 
North Carolina, and all her ministers found in his house 
hospitality and hearty sympathy, and in him a ready and 
indefatigable friend. 

The exact state of the ecclesiastical laws during Dobbs's 
administration is not very clear, owing to the repeal of some 
laws by royal proclamation, and the consequient failure of 
other laws dependent upon them. As well as I can under- 
stand, it was about as follows: A number of acts were 
passed from 1754 to 1764, but from one cause or another 
tltey were repealed by the Assembly or disallowed by the 
King in Council, until in 1762 the Province was somehow 
left without any legal vestries whatever, and the ministers 



had t8 manage as they could. This was remedied, how- 
ever, by the passage of the act of 1764 c. II., making 
elaborate, provision for the election of vestrymen and the 
support of the ministers, etc., which was to continue only 
five years, but which, with some slight amendments, re- 
mained the law of the land until the close of the royal gov- 
ernment This law raised the minister's salary to ;^I33 
per annum, and provided better security for his getting it. 
It still, however, left the election of vestrymen to the free- 
liolders of the parish, and thereby winked at the disregard 
of the law in those parishes where the inhabitants did not 
cdesire to have the services of the Church. But the vicious 
system of a legal establishment was bearing its fruit, and 
^^ve see a sign of it, in this act of 1764, in the provision 
^hat any person elected a vestryman who should refuse to 
qualify, if a known dissenter^ should be fined three pounds. 
IHeretofore, dissenters had been excused from serving; now 
^hey alone are forced by a penalty to serve if elected. This 
^points to the fact that the law had been defeated by dis- 
^^enters taking advantage of the former indulgence of the 
3aw, and procuring themselves to be elected vestrymen, in 
^order that by refusing to serve they might render the law 
ineffectual. 

So far as we know only one contest took place under 
these acts between churchmen and dissenters in regard to 
the enforcement of the law. It happened most fortunately 
for peace and harmony that each section of the Province 
had been settled by a homogeneous population. In the 
northern counties, from Orange to the seacoast, and gen- 
erally throughout the seaboard, the people were almost 
wholly English, and professed an allegiance to the Church. 
West of these counties the Presbyterians had their settle- 
ments, and the lytitherans and Dutch Reformed theirs, but 
each in separate and distinct communities. The upper 
Cape Pear country was wholly Presbyterian. In the dis- 
senting communities vestrymen were elected and performed 



78 

their civil duties, but as they wanted no Episcopal clergy 
or services they ignored their ecclesiastical functions. The 
Moravians, upon their own request, were organized into a 
separate parish called Dobbs Parish, and transacted their 
own parish business by themselves. This order of things was 
usually respected by the Governor, the Assembly, and the 
Episcopal clergy. When in 1766 the Rev. Andrew Mor- 
ton was sent out from England by the Society for the Pro- 
pagation of the Gospel to take charge of St. Martin's 
Parish, Mecklenburg County, he wrote back to the Society 
that upon inquiry he learned that the inhabitants of that 
parish were all Covenanters and Seceders, and therefore, 
with the consent of Gov. Tryon, he had agreed to take 
charge of St. George's Parish in Bertie. 

But in Rowan, where there were many Presbyterians, 
there was also a strong colony of churchmen, men of Eng- 
lish blood, who had come from Maryland and Pennsylvania. 
They desired a minister, and in 1769, or at the very begin- 
ning of 1770, the Rev. Theodorus Swaine Drage, who had 
been licensed for North Carolina by the Bishop of London 
the 29th of the preceding May, came to Salisbury and un- 
dertook to have a vestry elected. On Easter Monday a 
vestry was elected, but it was composed largely of Presby- 
terian elders, and all its members were pledged not to 
enforce the laws. Mr. Drage, in his letters to Gov. Try- 
on, asserted that his party were in a numerical majority, 
and, as the Lutherans seem to have acted with him, he was 
possibly correct in this estimate. But he says that most 
of his people were new-comers into the Province, and that 
on account of the troubles in the Earl of Granville's land 
office, they had been unable to get patents for their land, 
and so were not technically freeholders. Mr. Drage under- 
took to argue the question with the Presbyterian elders, 
alleging that as they had chosen to come into the Province 
knowing its laws, they ought to obey those laws until they 
could procure their repeal. Failing of converting them, he 



79 

3,ppealed to the Governor, and then got the Governor to 
lay the case before the General Assembly; they declined 
to interfere, and Mr. Drage seems to have left Salisbury 
after a year or two. 

It will be remembered that the legislation of the Pro- 
vince up to this time, while recognizing the right of the 
olergy of the Church to perform the marriage ceremony, 
liad not authorized its performance by any other ministers. 
^At the time of this legislation this was no hardship, because 
there were no other ministers in the Colony who considered 
this a part of their ministerial functions; but when the 
X^resbyterian settlements were made in the up-country and 
^long the Cape Fear, the Presbyterian ministers continued 
^o marry their people as they had been accustomed to do. 
^>ne of the acts passed in Gov. Tryon's administration, and 
nerally believed to have passed by his procurement, was 
n act (1766 c. IX.) to validate these marriages and to 
:xnake it lawful thereafter for dissenting or Presbyterian 
:»iinisters to perform this function. It is to be noted, how- 
ever, that the preamble of the act recites that the validity 
^)f these marriages had been called in question, (though in 
3aw they were unquestionably valid), not because they had 
T)een performed by Presbyterian clergymen. There is not 
;a particle of evidence that any one attacked them on this 
jjound; their validity was questioned because the Presby- 
terian ministers, not being named in the Act of 174 1, had 
considered themselves at liberty to violate the terms of the 
law in other respects, and had been in the habit of per- 
forming marriages without publication of the banns or the 
procuring of a license, as was required of all persons. It 
seems an ungracious provision of this law, meant to be an 
act of courtesy as well as of justice, to the growing settle- 
ments along the Yadkin and the Catawba, that it provided 
that the Episcopal minister in the parish where the mar- 
riage was performed should be entitled to the fees, if he had 
not refused to perform the service, This, however, was of 



8o 

less consequence, as there was not a single minister in any 
parish in the Province where a Presbyterian minister re- 
sided. And when, a few years afterwards, the two bodies 
did become mingled together in a few localities, there is no 
reason to think that any minister of the Church ever so 
far forgot Christian courtesy as to desire to take advantage 
of this provision. * Indeed, it may be said tliat in no one 
of the thirteen Colonies was there less ill feeling between 
religious denominations. Whatever may have been the 
theory of the law, or the provisions of our Colonial stat- 
utes. Christian moderation and charity so controlled their 
application that they never became a source of irritation 
or of popular discontent. 

The effect of Gov. Tryon's interest in the Church, and 
of his constant correspondence with the Bishop of Lon- 
don and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 
was soon apparent. During the seven years of his admin- 
istration the number of clergy in the Province rose from 
five to eighteen. These were distributed in different parts 
of the Province from Salisbury and Hillsboro' to the sea- 
coast, some supported solely by their stipend from the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and the volun- 
tary oflFerings of the people, and devoting themselves to 
gathering congregations in new parts of the field; others 
settled over established congregations, and busy trying to 
lay foundations of educational and other institutions. 

It is hardly fair to find fault with men of those days for not 

*This act of 1766 c. IX., speaks in the preamble of *Tresbyterian or 
Dissenting" ministers, evidently using the words as synonymous, and not 
as representing two different classes; and in the enacting clauses it uses 
the word **Presbyterian" alone. This was probably because at that time 
the Presbyterian ministers were the only dissenting ministers in the Pro- 
vince who considered the performance of the marriage ceremony for their 
people part of their pastoral duty. It has sometimes been stated that 
this act of 1 766 c. IX. was repealed by royal proclamation, but there is 
no note of such repeal in our statute books. It is brought forward in 
every revisal and was the law of the land for the rest of our colonial 
period. 



8i 

seeing with our eyes, but it seems strange to us that the 
churchmen of the Province of North Carolina should not 
have recognized how impossible it was to build up the 
Church upon the English parochial system. The support 
provided by the most liberal legislation was totally insuffi- 
cient for the maintenance of the clergy and the building up 
of church institutions. All sorts of shifts had to be re- 
sorted to by the vestries, even to finishing their churches 
by selling the fee-simple of the pews, and by lot)teries. It 
is to the credit of the people of Edenton that they pro- 
tested against selling the pews in St Paul's, and petitioned 
the Assembly to finish it by a tax upon the parish, so that 
all, paying equally, might have equal rights in their house 
of worship. But while the laws were inadequate to the 
support of the Church, they exasperated such opposition 
sijs there might be to the Church in the several parishes 
"virhere its worship was maintained, and they kept the peo- 
I>le from realizing and performing their duty. 

In another way the system was unnatural and pernicious. 
JLn theory the right of presentation to a parish was clearly 
in the King and his representative, the Governor. The 
Charters of Charles II., under which the people or their 
Assemblies were continually asserting their rights, had ex- 
pressly provided that the right of presentation to all 
churches, chapels and oratories should be in the proprie- 
tors, and after 1 728 the King stood in place of the propri- 
etors; this right was also vested in the Crown by act of 
the Assembly. But Tryon's exercise of this right of pre- 
sentation provoked much opposition, and occasioned con- 
troversies between himself and several of the parishes, even 
where there was a perfect willingness to receive the minis- 
ter whom he proposed to induct. 

But for a time the affairs of the Church seemed to pros- 
per, and all testimonies agree that it yet retained, and 
continued to retain down to the Revolution, a majority of 
the population of the Province. In large and populous 



sections there were no dissenters at all, and where they 
were most numerous in the English settlements (as distin- 
guished from the Scotch and Scotch-Irish,) many of them 
declared th^t they were di^enters only because they had 
no opportunity of enjoying the ministrations of the Church. 
At the beginning of the Revolution there were only two 
Baptist Associations in North Carolina. The Methodists 
were becoming numerouis, and had local preachers here and 
there, but as a body they were still loyal to the Church. 
When Mr. Whitefield preached at Newbem he publicly 
proclaimed that he was a faithful minister and son of the 
Church of England, and he fouti4 fault with Mr. Reed, 
the minister at Newbem, because he gave the name of 
Methodists to an extravagant sect in that part of the coun- 
try who had separated from the Church. 

One of the best remembered of the clergy who came into 
the Province during Gov. Tryon's administration, is the 
Rev. George Micklejohn, S. T. D., minister of St. Mat- 
thew's parish. Orange county, from 1766 to 1776. He 
preached loyalty to the Regulators in 1768,* and so when, 
following his teaching, the Regulators of Alamance, (which 
was then' in Orange county and a part of his parish,) 
marched to join McDonald at Cross Creek, he seems to 
have gone with them, probably as their chaplain, and to 
have been Captured with the other Tories, Highlanders and 

*When Gov. Tryon and his militia forcfes, raised to put down the first 
"Regulation," in 1768, were encamped at Hillsboro, Sunday, September 
25th, Rev. George Micklejohn, rector of St. Matthew's, Hillsboro, and 
Rev. Henry Patillo, an eminent Presbyterian minister of Granville Coim- 
ty, were appointed to preach to thfe troops. Mr. Micklejohn took for 
his text: '*The powers that be are brdained of God," etc., Romans xiii.: 
1-2. He was so well pleased with his . effort that he had it printed by 
James Davis, of Newbem, and presented one hundred copies, to the next 
Assembly. What was the character of Mr. Pattillo's discourse we know 
not. He did ndt include that sermon among those published at Wihning- 
ton in jjS^, But we know that he was quite as stout a supporter of 
government in 1768 as was Micklejohn himself, and in the pastoral letter 
put out by him and his brother ministers, they bring to bear upon the 
Regulators the same text, Romans xiii. : i-i. 



83 

Regulators, at Moore's Creeek in February 1776. The Pro- 
vincial Congress ^t Halifax paroled him the 3d of May 
following, but did not allow him to return to Hillsboro lest 
he should corrupt the patriotjism of his parishioners. H^ 
was required to go to Perquimans County, and to remain 
there on the south side of the riven We shall hear of him 
again in the story of the Church in North Carolina, 

Another well remembered name is Charles Cupples, min- 
ister of St John's parish, Bute county, (now Warren and 
Franklin), from 1766 until some time during or after the 
Revolution. Though an Englishman, he took the Amer- 
ican side in the contest. While his name and character 
are well , remembered we know little of the particulars of 
his life. He was specially interested in the welfare of the 
slaves, and endeavored to impress upon t^jeir owners the 
propriety of coming up with them to baptism, and of acting 
as god-fathers and god-mothers for these poor people to 
whom they owed such sacred duties. 

We begin now to find a number of young men coming 
forward among our people, and oflFering themselves for the 
Work of the ministry. We have no complete list, but, a 
number of names appear incidentally in the records of 
those times. . : :, 

First we have James Macartney. After having been an 
assistant teacher in the Newbem Academy, he went to 
England for Holy, Orders in May, 1768, and the following 
July he was ordained. Gov. Tryon placed him in Gr?in- 
ville Parish, where he had Richard Henderson for one of 
his vestrymen, A»d the Presbyterian divine, Henry Pattillo, 
for one of his neighbors. He says he found many Presby- 
terians in his parish, and he seems to have lived in peace 
and charity with them. • 

In the s^une year Henry John Burges and Francis John- 
ston went over, recommended by parson Burges, the father 
of the former, and Gov. Tryon; the next year Edward 
Jones, recommended; by parson Micklejohn, and Peter 



84 

Blinn, by parson Stewart, of Bath. Gov. Tryon joins Mr. 
Stewart in giving Mr. Blinn the highest testimonials. 
There were others^ also, who went from this Province to 
seek ordination to the same holy office. Their names may 
be included in the clergy lists of this period, but the scanty 
records of that day do not enable us to identify them. To 
anticipate a year or two, so as to close this subject, it may 
be added that Nathaniel Blount, another member of Mr. 
Stewart's parish in Beaufort county, and Charles Pettigrew, 
from St. Paul's Church, Edenton, were ordained shortly- 
after this time, and returned to serve the Church faithfully^ 
and long in their native country. 

The Rev. Henry John Burges, after his return frouB- 
England, was minister in St. Mary's Parish, Edgecombe, 
for a year or two. He then moved to Virginia, and had 
school in Southampton county for many years, where 
number of eminent men were educated, among them the lat 
Dr. Simmons J. Baker and President Wm. H. Harrison. 
The Rev. Francis Johnston became the minister of Society 
parish, Bertie, and Edward Jones of St. Stephen's parish, 
Johnston county. Nathaniel Blount succeeded the Rev. 
Alexander Stewart, who had died a year or two beforer 
Mr. Blount's ordination, and Mr. Pettigrew, after a short: 
service in Berkely parish, Perquimans, succeeded the Rev. 
Daniel Earl in St. Paul's Church, Edenton. » 

Of Mr. Peter Blinn I have seen no account after the 
note of his ordination by the Bishop of London in Septem- 
ber, 1769. It may be that he did not live to take up the 
work of God in North Carolina as a minister. Many a 
noble spirit crossed the ocean from America stirred by a 
holy ambition of returning as a herald of the Cross, to 
whom God, in His inscrutable wisdom, denied that privi- 
lege. The perils of the ocean, the accidents of travel, the 
infectious diseases then so terribly destructive, the great 
length and expense of the journey, all these were a sad 
hindrance to the increase of the number of native Ameri- 



85 

can ministers upon this continent. It is said that at least 
ten per cent of those who undertook this journey for ordi- 
nation died without having been able to return to take up 
the work. Our own annals contain as pathetic a story 
illustrating these difficulties and hardships as can wdl be 
imagined. 

Sometime in the year 1768 Mr. Edward Jones, of tiie 
Province of North Carolina, applied to the Rev. George Mic- 
klejohn of St Matthew's, Hillsboro', who seems to have 
been his pastor, and laid before him his desire to serve God 
in the holy ministry. Upon examination, Mr. Micklejohn 
approved his purpose of o£fering himself as a candidate for 
orders, and gave him such information as he could, con- 
cerning the time required for the journey, the expenses of 
travel, and the like. Upon consideration, Mr. Jones found 
that the expense of travel and of living during the time he 
must remain in England, would require a much larger 
sum than he could command; but as he had set this holy 
calling before himself as the work of his life he determined 
to keep back nothing. He therefore sold his patrimony, 
notwithstanding the great loss incurred thereby in the 
wretched condition of our Colonial currency, converted the 
proceeds into available funds, and provided with letters and 
testimonials from the Rev. Mr. Micklejohn, he set out for 
England. In due time he arrived at Liverpool, but almost 
immediately upon landing he was stricken down with sick- 
ness, and lay for a long time helpless and suffering. Grad- 
ually, as he lingered on, his money slipped away in the 
many expenses of lodging, medicine and attendance, so 
that, when able once more to resume his journey, he found 
himself absolutely penniless and alone in a strange land. 
He set out however to make the rest of his journey on foot, 
and thus made his way to London, obtaining a scanty sup- 
ply of food upon the journey by selling such articles of 
clothing as were not indispensable. Footsore and weary 
he at length reached London and made his way to the 



residence of the Bishop. He made know his business, 
though not his sad plight, and laid before the Bishop th^ 
letter and papers given him by Mr. Micklejohn. Thes^ 
proved to be in some way informal or insufficient, and th^ 
Bishop informed him that he must communicate with hi^ 
friends in North Carolina, and procure certain other docu — 
ments before he could feel justified in ordaining him. Mr. 
Jones, at this mortifying intelligence, left the Bishop, i 
utter perplexity and discouragement. He wandered abou 
the streets in a state of desperation bordering on insanity^ 
He afterwards confessed, with expressions of shame, tha 
more than once he was on the pkrint of committing suicide 
Penniless in a great city,' of all places the most solitary t 
him who is without friends, utterly ignorant of places an 
of persons, we can imagine his forlorn state. Whethenia 
this lasted a diay or several days, we do not know. H 
may have had some trifles of clothing or other property 
dispose of to keep him alive a day or two. His deliver 
ance from this depth of woe has a touch of romance whic 
sheds a soft light over the sad picture. While in th 
depth of his misery, he hears by some accident that "Grov. - 
Tryon has a sister in London, Miss Tryon. With a feeling:^ 
which a North Carolinian can still understand, it comes-^ 
to him that she must be interested in the country which. 
her brother governs. He finds out her abode and appeals 
to her sympathy and compassion. He had not judged 
amiss. Miss Tryon responded most graciously to his ap- 
peal, and in a way which showed her tact as well as her 
generosity. She introduced Mr. Jones to a certain Gapt 
Collett, who had been in North Carolina, and they $Lt 
once*pttt hiin out of his' perplexity and distre^ by their 
friendly interest and help. He wrote to Gov. Tiyon, March 
29th, 1769, giving this account' of his experience since he 
had arrived in England, and requesting the Governor to 
send him such testimonials as should meet the demands of 
the Bishop. But he did not have to wait for an answer to 



87 

his letter. The record shows that Mr. Edward Jones was 
licensed for North Carolina by the Bishop of London on 
the 29th of May, 1769, just two months after the date of 
his letter to Gov. Tryon. And very shortly thereafter we 
find him minister of St Stephen's Parish, Johnston 
County. We may be very sure that he had always a good 
word for the gracious ladies of the Governor's family. 

With the administration of Govfc Martin there seems to 
come a relaxing of the tension in the life of the community, 
and our ecclesiastical affairs shared the general languor. 
Whatever may be thought of Tryon, his vigor and admin- 
istrative talents are not denied. Gov, Martin had neither 
his force of character nor his address in the management 
of men. Perhaps the very eagerness with which Gov. 
Tryon had pushed the work of supplying vacant parishes 
with clergymen caused a reaction when the vigorous hand 
was removed from the helm. Almost without exception 
the ministers who came in under Tryon' s administration 
were men of force and of zeal. But there was a great 
temptation to relax effort in a country where there was no 
oversight exercised; and the low tone of feeling and living 
in the community must have had a depressing influence 
upon the clergy. It had long been felt by persons through- 
out the Colonies that an Episcopal Church without a Bishop 
was an absurdity. The question need not be discussed 
here. I will only say that the need of a Bishop was 
apparent both to our Governors and to the clergy them- 
selves. Time and again they wrote to the Society and to 
the Bishop of London that a Bishop was absolutely neces- 
sary in order to the success of the 'Church in America. 
The English Bishops saw it. ' George III. unlikiehis Han- 
overian predecessors, loved the Church, and was a most 
religious and exemplary man. He would gladly have 
seen the Church truly established in America and organ- 
ized upon the Apostolic model. But, as under his grand- 
father, George II., Sir Robert Walpole had defeated the 



88 

hopes and plans of such great men as Seeker, Butler and 
Berkely, so the ministers of George III. hindered and 
thwarted every scheme devised for the sending of Bishops 
to the Colonies. To the miserable union of Church and 
State in England we owe it that with all the appeals of 
our clergy and of our Governors, and with all the many 
acts of our people through their representatives in the 
General Assembly in favor of the Church, the Church had 
never its proper organization or constitution in the Province 
of North Carolina. The Mother Church was enslaved and. 
her daughter was bound with her. When the politi- 
cal changes of 1776 put an end to the civil status of the 
Church, so thoroughly had State patronage done its evi 
work, and so entirely had both people and clergy bee 
taught to lean upon a broken reed, that while a majority^ 
of the people of the State were nominally her children,.^ 
and our great men of North Carolina were almost withou 
exception her own, the Church stood helpless, blind, para 
lyzed. Not until all the men who came out of Egypt ha 
died in the wilderness could Israel enter into the Land o 
Promise; and not until a new generation of churchmen^ 
had grown tip in North Carolina, who looked upon the^ 
Church as a spiritual kingdom, could any permanent^ 
organization be effected, or the upward course begun. It ^ 
is a significant fact that the Diocese of North Carolina was^ 

organized just seven months after the death of Nathaniel 

Blount^ the last survivor of our Colonial clergy. 

One or two things need to be said before closing. In^ 
the first place, such civil recognition as was given to the: 
clergy of the Church, and such support as was derived 
from public taxation, was given by the people of North 
Carolina themselves, acting through their representatives 
in General Assembly. It has been affirmed by grave his- 
torians, and repeated by all the generation of lesser 
writers, that the clergy of the Church were paid by the 
British government. This view is presented by writers of 



89 

our local history and biography with perfect assurance of 
its truth. There is not one particle of truth in it. Our 
North Carolina people did what was done in giving the 
support of the State to the Church. But it is further to be 
remembered that the laws were so framed that they were 
inoperative except in those communities where the great 
body of the people were attached to the Church. And 
lastly, in this connection, there was practically no discon- 
tent among the people. We have the testimony of the 
whole body of the Presbyterian ministers, the largest and 
most intelligent body of dissenters in the Province, that 
under Tryon, the most masterful of the royal govomers, 
they enjoyed the blessings of good government and civil 
and religious freedom, according to the conception of 
religious freedom prevalent at that day. 

Another and a more serious popular misapprehension 
needs to be corrected. It is frequently alleged that the 
character of the Colonial clergy explains the decay of the 
Church. Now from the nature of the case there were un- 
worthy ministers during colonial times as there have been 
since. And the want of any supervision of the clergy 
aggravated the evil. But it is a most gross and ground- 
less slander to represent the clergy of that period as being 
on the whole an unworthy, much less an immoral or irre- 
ligious class. I have not consciously omitted in this 
paper the name of one clergyman against whom there is 
serious evidence of grevious misconduct, nor have I failed 
to point out the fact that there were charges against him. 
True it is that as time went on, and various religious 
bodies grew strong in the State, bodies which had bitter 
prejudices against the Church, they did not spare the repu- 
tation of her ministers, living or dead. There are yet 
clergymen amongst the most honored in our conventions, 
who can remember how in their early ministry the purest life 
was no security against charges of immorality and dissipa- 
tion. Happily we live in better times. Living men can 



96 

live down slanders. But who shall protect the dead ? I 
have studied the history of our provincial period with 
some attention. I have sought out, as well as I could, the 
scanty memorials of our brethren who first trod these 
shores as ambassadors for Christ and stewards of the mys- 
teries of God. And while I have seen and deplored sins 
and follies here and there, I have thanked God for the good 
examples, the faithful labors, the persevering zeal, the 
holy devotion, of many of those, our brethren, who having 
finished their course in faith, do now rest from their 
labors. 



IV. 

THE COIvONIAI. I.AYMEN OF THE CHURCH OF 
ENGI.AND IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

BY KEMP P. BATTI.E, I.I.. D. , PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVER- 
SITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

It is not right to give a description of prominent laymen 
of the Church of England in Colonial North Carolina 
without a passing notice of those who, although never 
having resided in the Province, had much to do in shaping 
its destinies. 

The name of Sir Walter Raleigh, that great but unfor- 
tunate soldier, statesman, historian, staunch Churchman, 
and man of the world, one of the noblest and most accom- 
plished gentlemen of the brilliant age of Elisabeth, should 
always be had in admiring affection by every North Caroli- 
nian. It is true his schemes of colonization, schemes in 
which he expended the equivalent of a million of dollars 
of our money, seemed to come, as did his noble life, to a 
tragic end. It is also true that he did not, as some histo- 
rians assert, set foot on our shores; yet his efforts brought 
our land to the notice of the world, and after the turmoils 
of the great civil war had ended by the restoration of 
Charles II to his throne, the narratives of Amidas and 
Barlow, Sir Richard Grenville, Hariot, Lane, and White, 
written while in his employment, inflamed the imagina- 
tions of the restless spirits who looked for homes beyond 
* 'the great Western Ocean. ^ ' 

The **City of Raleigh** did not grow up on the spot 



92 

selected by him, but, three hundred years later, located fa 
from the green island of Roanoke, it is, as the capital c 
our State, a fit monument to one of the world's heroes. 

Nor should we omit to chronicle Ralph Lane, the firs 
Governor of Roanoke, the first English Governor i 
America, a relative of Henry Villus sensible queer 
Catharine Parr, along with Amidas the gallant admire 
of the new country, and Cavendish, the soldier, circun: 
navigator and mathematician, leading his hundred cole 
nists to lay the foundation of a new kingdom, all endin 
in the miseries of famine and the horrors of massacre. I 
the minds of millions he was a benefactor of mankind b 
first carrying tobacco to Europe. In the minds of all h 
was a hero after Kingsley's heart, energetic and impetuouj 
penetrating into the interior as far as the hills of Warrer 
but lacking business talents for permanent success i 
building up a colony, returning to fight under the terribl 
Drake the colossal Armada and receive his knighthood fc 
desperate wounds in conflict with wild Irishmen. 

The second Governor too, John White, should receive 
passing notice, the grand-father of Virginia Dare, an artii 
whose water colored pictures illustrate well the wonders ( 
the new land. To him belongs the honor of establishin 
the first corporation in America, **the Governor and h 
assistants of the City of Raleigh, ' * this corporation charge 
with laying the comer stone of the first city. 

Returning to England, at the request of his people, t 
bring back more settlers and provisions, his voyage wi 
delayed by hostile Spaniards, and he was denied the oppoi 
tunity to make proper search for his lost colony, the fat 
of which is one of the most mournful problems of historj 

Over seventy eventful years in the history of our rac 
elapsed, years in which the great Cromwell and his cc 
laborers and co-fighters had given a death blow to th 
hoary claims of despotism, before there was the beginniuj 
of organized government in our land. Eight Lords Pro 



93 

prietors, or as DeFoe calls them, Property-Kings, by the 
gift of the vilest king of the degenerate race of Stuarts, 
possessed the ownership and jurisdiction over this fair 
region. 

I will not go into the details of their fantastic govern- 
ment, further than to call to your minds that the cool and 
skilful general, to whom Providence gave the opportunity 
and the will to end anarchy in England by the restoration 
of Charles II, George Monk, created Duke of Albemarle 
by his grateful sovereign, was as Lord Palatine; the first 
official ruler of this province, though he never paid a visit 
to his palatinate. 

The Lords Proprietors, when they adopted the Funda- 
mental Constitutions, may have entertained a momentary 
desire to be contented with the honor of founding a grand 
government, which should be the fountain of blessings to 
a happy and prosperous people. Any such philathropic 
spasm, if held, was quickly followed by a deep and abiding 
longing for working their property for their own pecuni- 
ary benefit. 

The Governors, and Deputy Governors and Chief Jus- 
tices, Surveyors, Collectors and other officers, were re- 
garded as their factors, charged with the duty of collect- 
ing their rents and selling their lands. In general, these 
administered their offices not for the people of the Province, 
but for their overlords beyond the water and their own 
emolument. These agents were naturally the connections, 
or dependants, of the proprietors — in rare cases members 
of their own body. 

The Charters of Charles II, having granted royal author- 
ity to the Proprietors, their deputies claimed similar powers 
in all matters not forbidden by their superiors. Being at 
such great distance, often sixty or seventy days sail, from 
their lords, they felt but little restraint, and on a smaller 
scale some imitated the examples of Felix or V^rres, while 



94 

others, more humane and virtuous, demeaned themselve 
with the moderation of Festus or Cicero. 

When in 1728, the Crown acquired seven-eighths of th. 
territory of Carolina, and the jurisdiction over the whole 
the same evils continued, the Crown taking the place c 
the Proprietors. 

It is only by remembering these things that we cai 
realize why there was always a gulf between Governors an< 
governed; oppression and contempt on one side, hatred an< 
discontent, and often open rebellion on the other. 

With this explanation, I propose to take up firstly sud 
of the Governors and officers as seem deserving of specia 
mention, only including those known to have been church 
men. The early Governors appointed by the Lords Pre 
prietors after July 21st, 1669, when the Fundaments 
Constitutions were adopted, were probably of this commti 
nion because this instrument, although granting muc 
freedom of religion, provided that there should be a: 
established Church, and that the ecclesiastical laws shoul 
be in accordance with those of England, and they woul 
hardly have appointed dissenters to put it in operatiot 
We may therefore assume that Sir John Yeamans, who w£ 
for a short while on the Cape Fear, and Samuel Stevenj 
the first Governor of Albemarle, under the Constitutior 
and their successors, except Archdale, the Quaker, vis 
Peter Carteret (or Cartwright), Thomas Miller, John Cu 
pepper, John Harvey, John Jenkins, Henry Wilkinsoi 
Seth Sothel, (Southwell properly,) Philip Ludwell, Ale> 
ander Lillington, and Thomas Harvey, might strictly com 
within our sketch, but as we know nothing that they di 
or thought for the cause of religion, we omit them all. 

Henderson Walker, who, as President of the Council 
was acting Governor from 1699 to 1704 when he died 
deserves special mention. 

Before occupying his high office Walker was an activ 
man of affairs. He held the office of Attorney General an 



95 

Associate Judge of the General Court. He was Surveyor 
General of the Province. He was appointed a Com- 
missioner to settle the disputed boundary question with 
Virginia, but Virginia for technical reasons declined to 
prosecute the work. He was a member of the first vestry 
ever organized in the State, that of St. Paul's Parish, 
Chowan County. 

His official letters show that he was deeply solicitous for 
the welfare of the people and the Church. In a letter to 
the Bishop of London, dated October 21st, 1703, he gives 
a sad account of the religious destitution in the County of 
Albemarle. For twenty one years, in his own knowledge, 
and before that time matters were worse, they had been 
without priest or altar. Quaker principles introduced by 
Fox had thriven because there was none to oppose them. 
Rev. Dr. Bray, by God's infinite goodness, had aided to 
stop them by sending catechisms and other small books, 
and afterwards a library given by the corporation for estab- 
lishing the Christian Religion. He deplores the sad defec- 
tion of Rev. Daniel Brett, the only minister that had been 
sent to them. He and others with a great deal of care and 
management, had about two years before got an Assembly 
to pass an act for building churches and establishing a 
maintenance for a minister. Under this act one church 
had been built and two others were in progress. He 
praises Govenor Francis Nicholson of Virginia for the gift 
of ;^io to each church. He asks the assistance of the 
Bishop of London in inducing the Lords Proprietors to 
ratify the foregoing act, and expresses the fear that as 
about one-half of the burgesses recently elected were 
Quakers, they would repeal the same. He closes with 
the following pathetic appeal : **I humbly entreat your 
lordship to send some worthy good man amongst us 
to regain the flock and so perfect us in our duty to , 
God, and establish us by his doctrine, life and con- 
versation in the fundamentals of our christian profession, 



96 

that we in our time, and those as come hereafter, may blej 
God that he has raised up so noble a pillar as your lore 
ship to regain those who are going astray, and put a stc 
to the pernicious growing principles of the Quakers." 

The letter shows good feeling and principles, and ed 
cation rare among the citizens of Albemarle. As it was tl 
custom to send to Virginia and Carolina the younger so 
of the nobility and gentry, I conjecture that he waj 
relative of Sir Walter Walker of Buskey Hall, who, 
advocate to the Queen of Charles II, was naturally influx 
tial with the Lords Proprietors. He married a daugh 
of Govenor Alexander Lillington, and the tombstones 
himself and his wife, who, after his death married Edws 
Mosely, may be seen a few miles from Edenton. Hist< 
sustains the inscription on Walker's tablet that he ''g< 
erned the Province to the satisfaction of the Lords P 
prietors and the ease and happiness of the people." 

Governor Robert Daniel was doubtless a churchm; 
Some of the historians say that he was selected by Govei 
Nathaniel Johnston of South Carolina to procure the ps 
age in North Carolina of the outrageously disfranchis: 
acts of South Carolina, acts so contrary to the charte 
rights of the Colonists as to provoke the trenchant satire 
De Foe and threats from good Queen Anne of suits agai 
the Lords Proprietors for forfeiture of their Charter. Th 
is no contemporary evidence of this. Certainly, no si 
unconstitutional measures were passed. We find only 
re-enactment of the act mentioned by Walker, which c 
fered on vestries the right to levy taxes for build 
churches and supporting ministers. The influence of 
dissenters procured his early removal. He was a mar 
strength; the only soldier who gained laurels in the < 
astrous expedition against St. Augustine, his milit 
reputation however not escaping the taint of cruelty. 

It seems evident that acting Governor, Wm. Glover 
Perquimans, the head of the aristocratic party in the 



called rebellion of Gary, was, as missionary Adams testi- 
fied, a good man and an ardent churchman. He at one 
time held the office of Associate Judge of the General 
Court, and sometimes acted as Chief Justice. His letter of 
1708, to the Bishop of lyondon, places him in a favorable 
light in regard to his religious character. Among other 
things he says, ' 4f anything, my Lord, in this life was able 
to raise in my heart a joy without mixture, it was to see 
unbaptized persons with their children in their arms, 
offering themselves to Christ, which I have seen, and 
therefore, I ever will rejoice.'' He apologizes for his 
parish in Perquimans, not being in as good order as that 
in Pasquotank, giving as a reason, that the Quakers were 
numerous, were elected on the vestry, and took advan- 
tage of his absence while engaged in the unhappy contro- 
versy with Cary. 

Into the discussion of this controversy, I have not time 
to go, merely remarking that in my opinion it was, as 
Messrs. W. L. Saunders, and Samuel A. Ashe have shown, 
^ part of the hundred years' fight between the claimants 
power almost despotic, and the defenders of the rights 
f the people. Glover certainly seems to have acted with 
Vty and firmness, adhering to his principles even to 
e extent of flight into Virginia when fortune was against 
im. The principle, that the burgesses and officers should 
^^ke the oath of allegiance to Queen Anne, seems cer- 
inly reasonable, as Cary when in power was forced to 
^knowledge. 

Governor Edward Hyde, was probably a member of the 
■^^mily of the Hydes, of Castle Hyde in Cork, a distant 
^^lative to the Queen of England, and a near relative to 
^^^verrior Edward Tynte, of South Carolina; and it was 
I^Tobably to repair his fortunes, broken by the contest be- 
trween William III. and James II, that he came to North 
^^xolina. Tynte was ordered to give him his credentials 
Governor, but this was prevented by his death. The 



Council on the faith of letters in his possession, elected 
him its President, but as he had no commission as a deputy 
of one of the Lords Proprietors, Col. Cary disputed his 
right to be a Councellor, and so he was forced to call on 
Governor Spottiswood, of Virginia, for aid. 

Hardly was this successful before the terrible Indian 
massacre broke out and in the war which ensued, there was 
little time to care for the Church. We have, however, a 
letter from Hyde to Rev. Mr. Rainsford, showing that he 
was attached to its principles. He promises to assist the 
missionary in all ways possible, extends to him an oflFer of 
unlimited hospitality, and cautions him against the unfot^- 
tunate temper of Mr. Urmstone. He warns him that tl^^ 
people are not to be won by any, but gentle methods *^ 
what is serious, devout and moral. 

He gives his estimate of the people. *'It is by nature, 
he says *'one of the best countries in the world, tho' tl^^ 
people are naturally loose and wicked, obstinate and reb^^' 
ious, crafty and deceitful, and ready to invent slander o^ 
one another, and sow such seeds of seditions that theX 
have generally reaped them in a plentiful crop of rebellion. ' ' 

It is not fair to accept this estimate, because there was 
reasonable doubt of his right to assume the duties of the 
executive until his commission from the Lords Proprietors 
arrived in January 24th, preceding, and he enjoyed the 
undisputed office only about nine months, his death being 
reported to the council on September 12th, 171 2. The 
actors in civil strife always invest their adversaries with 
very hateful attributes. 

He enjoys the distinction of being the first Governor of 
North Carolina, distiuct from South Carolina, and from 
him is an eastern county named.. 

The successor of Hyde, who, as President of the Council, 
assumed the duties of chief executive, was a churchman, 
one of the most conspicuous men in our early annals, 
Major General Thomas Pollock. He was born in Glas- 






99 

gow, in 1654, and emigrated to Albemarle as the deputy 
of Lord Carteret in 1684. He came from an ancient fam- 
ily, whose heirs owned the estate of Balgre, continuously 
from the reign of James III of Scotland. In the Colonial 
Records is an interesting letter from him to Sir Robert Pol- 
lock, written five }'ears before his death, stating that he 
had been prevented from revisiting his native land by the 
troubles in Albemarle and the Indian wars. He was a 
member of the Council until his death in 1722. He was 
twice its President and acting Governor, first during the 
stormy times of the Tuscarora war, from the death of 
Hyde to the coming of Eden ; secondly, for a short while 
after the death of Eden. 

His management seems to have been energetic and pru- 
dent. From his letter book we get glimpses of the hor- 
rors of the times. The terrors of the. Indian foe paralyzed 
the labors of the farmers outside of Albemarle. There 
Was great difficulty in feeding the troops from South Car- 
olina, who came to suppress the insurrection. Pollock 
complains that Col. Moore's Indians consumed the com 
and the cattle so that the people were as ready to rise 
against them as against the enemy. He himself lost dur- 
ingthe contest as much as ;^2,5oo, besides ;^082 lent De 
GrafFenreid, who left the Province in his debt. 

The war tax was ;^5 on every titheable, /. e, white 

males 16 years old and upwards, and slaves of both sexes 

12 years old and upward, and in addition six bushels of 

com and 25 per cent, of all the wheat from each family. 

He has given his testimony that while the Quakers would 

not fight they paid their taxes cheerfully. 

Pollock was a warm supporter of Glover and Eden, and 
at one time took refuge in Virginia to escape the wrath of 
Cary. In his private affairs he possessed in full share the 
thrift of the canny Scotchman. Thousands of acres of the 
richest lands of the East went into his possession, and many 
slaves, both negroes and Indians. The old records prove 



169580 



loo 

that many of the light colored negroes of our time are 
scendants of Indian slaves. 

In advancing money to De GraiBfenreid, he was care 
to take a mortgage on the lands bought by him for 
Swiss and Palatine Colonists, and those lands on fi 
closure Went into the hands of his heirs, for which I 
however, by Tryon's kindly influence, the Swiss and P; 
tines received compensation out of crown lands in 
interior. 

He was the pioneer of the town builders and 1 
improvement companies of our day, in laying out and $ 
ing lots in the town of Edenton, half an acre for twe 
shillings, with the privilege of clearing and cultival 
three acres of woodland. 

Pollock seems to have been a stalwart churchn 
though one of the Missionaries complains that he was It 
warm on the subject of receiving the communion, 
was a member, and the second named of the first vestr 
1 701, the first named being Govenor Walker. Afterw; 
there was a second chapel, and he was constantly a men 
of its vestry, and often one of the wardens. In a list of 
untary subscriptions in 1702 for the support of minist 
the pioneer of an unending line of similar documents, 
name is first, and opposite to the largest sum, ^^5, the c 
subscription equalling him being by the prosperous law 
Edward Mosely. 

In a letter to his kinsman, Sir Robert Pollock, of Scotk 
Governor Pollock spoke with pardonable pride of his tl 
hopeful sons, Cullen, George, and Thomas. Of tl 
Thomas and Cullen became frequently members of 
Council, often acting as assistant Judges in the Gen 
Court; and Thomas, by appointment of Burrington, 
Chief Justice, during the absence of Gale in England. 

This Thomas Pollock, the younger, left three sc 
Thomas, Cullen, and George. The third Thomas Poll 
married in New Jersey, Eunice, a daughter of Jonat 



Edwards, and from their union was Prances, the wife of 
John Devereux, and by him the mother of the late Thomas 
Pollock Devereux, and Frances, the wife of the late Bishop 
I^eonidas Polk. The last survivor of the name was George 
Pollock of Halifax County, who was killed by a fall from 
his horse in 1839. All the Pollocks were churchmen and 
during the war of the Revolution adhered to the Crown. 

The Govenor who succeeded Hyde was of a good Eng- 
lish family, one of whom afterwards became Lord Auck- 
land, Charles Eden, who assumed the duties of his office 
in May, 1722. Opinions diiBfer as to his character. His 
enemies charge him with complicity with Bl^ickbeard, the 
pirate, and with injustice to Mosely, the leader of the peo- 
ple's party. 

The first charge is supported by no tangible evidence, 
though it is impossible to acquit Chief Justice Tobias 
Knight, who married Glover's widow, of knowingly receiv- 
ing Teach's stolen goods, except on the ground that he 
thought they were only smuggled. As to the second 
charge, Eden must be judged from the standpoint of his 
times. As Hawks, Wheeler, and others have this matter 
all wrong, I will explain it as the records show. 

The facts were that Col. Maurice Moore, then of Per- 
quimans, Col. Edward Moseley and others, of the party 
opposed to Eden, suspected him of complicity with the 
pirates and believed that such complicity could be proved 
from the Council Records. They claimed, that under the 
law these records were open to the public, and being denied 
access to them they broke open the office in which they 
were kept and spent some hours in inspecting them. For 
this they were criminally prosecuted. When the officer 
arrested Moseley, in the heat of anger he indulged in vio- 
lent language, accusing the Governor of acting illegally 
and despotically, and threatening to blacken his character. 
For this alleged seditious language he was indicted, fined 
;f 100, and declared incapable of holding office for three 



years. Hawks and others say this punishment was iot 
breaking open the public office, but they are mistaken. 
For that trespass Moseley was fined only one shilling, and 
Moore ^5. 

Accustomed as we are to boundless ferocity in the criti- 
cism of public men, this punishment of Moseley, for angry 
'words reflecting on the Governor, seems harsh and tyram- 
cal, but in Eden's time the views especially of those iti 
authority were very different. In Queen Elisabeth's day 
poor Stubbe waved the bloody stump of the right arm, from 
which his hand had been struck by a cleaver, for saying 
that the Queen was too old to get married, and cried ''God 
save the Queen." Scandalum magnatutn was most 
severely punished as late as the beginning of this centuiy 
in England and America. 

The imprisonment ai id prosecution of the seven Bishops, 
about twenty -five years before Moseley' s offence for pre- 
senting to James II a respectful petition, and the prosecu- 
tions and convictions under the Sedition Law of John 
Adams' administration, and of Cobbett in England, as late 
as 1809, for publishing an article ridiculing the Irish judges, 
are cases, out of many, in point. 

We must admit that Eden showed courage in grappling 
with so powerful a leader as Moseley, even though we dis- 
approve his action. He showed vigor in pushing the 
survey of the boundary line and was thanked by the Gen- 
eral Assembly of South Carolina for prompt and effective 
assistance in their contest with the Yemassees. As to his 
religious character the testimony is favorable. Rev. John 
Urmstone, who was a chronic grumbler and reviler calls 
him '*an honest gentleman." *^Our new Governor" he 
writes, *^seems resolved to promote the Church discipline 
by being a strict observer himself. ' ' 

Eden had what was rare among the Proprietory Gov- 
ernors, a kindly feeling toward the people. ' 'They are as 
willing, ' ' he says, ' 'as any people on the continent to pay, 



103 

provided ministers are o{ good lives and aiBfable behavior 

and conversation. ' ' He urges the sending of ministers and 

teachers. ''In their absence'' he writes, "lay readers are 

paid as high as ^^30 per year, ' ' a larger sum than appears 

at first sight, because of the low price of farm products. 

Wheat for example brought only six pence a bushel in 

English goods. 

Eden showed his kindly temper too by taking the part 
of the people in their claims to pay in commodities, instead 
of sterling money, but he was overruled by the Proprietors. 
In his last days his mind must have been weakened, for 
John Lovick oflFered witnesses to prove that he had made 
him his legatee and the Council believing the story gave 
"him the executorship. The will was contested by his sis- 
ter, wife of Rev. Mr. Lloyd of lyondon, possibly for his 
daughter, Penelope, but the records do not show this fact, 
nor the result of the litigation. At any rate his lands seem 
to have descended to his daughter, who, the authorities 
say, married Governor Gabriel Johnston, and resided with 
him at Eden House on Salmon Creek in Bertie county. 

The fact that Eden's sister, instead of his daughter, 
should have contested the will, makes some doubt whether 
there was such a daughter. I have been unable to find 
any explanation of this historical puzzle. 

The successor of Eden, after a short interval, was 
George Burrington, of a good family in Devonshire, twice 
Governor, once by the appointment of the Lords Proprie- 
tors, and afterwards of the King, was what might be called 
a double man. He had a strong mind and tireless energy, 
hoth in private and public affairs. He underwent terrible 
hardships in. acquainting himself by personal visits with 
his province. His official papers show that he studied the 
interests of his people with intelligence and was sagacious 
in devising means for advancing them. He was a friend 
of the Church and a warm advocate of its extension. In 
theory, though not in pratice, he was a churchman. The 



I04 

Province prospered under his administration, and many of 
the people bestowed unstinted praises on him. On the 
other hand he was excessively despotic and impatient of 
contradiction. , All who opposed his will in small as well 
as great matters he hated with intense virulence, and his 
hatred found expression in opprobrious epithets and per- 
sonal violence. His most trusted officers, as soon as they 
ceased to follow his arbitrary lead, were at once trans- 
formed, to use his own words, into '*liars," **perfidious 
scoundrels,'' ''egregious sots," ''silly boys," "guilty of 
innumerable villainies, " "infamous characters," "would- 
be assassins. ' ' 

He led a midnight attack on the Chief Justice; threat- 
ened to slit his nose and crop his ears; reviled and insulted 
him in open conrt. 

When Everard became his successor, he assaulted the 
Governor's house, swore he was a noodle, an ape, no more 
fit to be Governor than a hog in the woods, no more fit 
than Sancho Panza; dared him to come out and fight, 
offering benignly to scalp his thick skull. He attacked 
the house of the marshal, broke open that of the collector 
and beat a constable. And when indicted for these 
offences, he resolutely defied the law and was never even 
put on trial. 

His father had distinguished himself in behalf of the 
Hanoverian dynasty, and his extraordinary courage and 
loyalty account for the preferment of the son at a time 
when the memory of the Rebellion of 17 15 was fresh in 
the memories of the statesmen of George II. The records 
show that the old story about his being killed while brawl- 
ing in London cannot be true, as he was found in North 
Carolina at a ripe old age in 1754, and as Col. Saunders 
shows must have died not long before 1759. 

Sir Richard Everard, probably from Tipperary, Ireland, 
as there were Baronets of that name there residing not 
many years before 1725, when he became Governor of 



I05 

North Carolina by appointment of the Lords Proprietors, 
was no improvement on Burrington. He had less ability, 
less energy and spirit of improvement. On the other hand 
his brawling was on a smaller scale. He was evidently 
much given to convivial habits. I suppose that no Gov- 
ernor in ancient or modern times ever procured from his 
Council, as he did, in order to rebut the charge of habitual 
intoxication, a certificate that they had never seen him 
publicly drunk. Another charge against him was of clan- 
destine questioning by him and his lady of servants as to 
the disposition of his subjects towards him, thus imitating 
the example of the Roman Emperors in the employment 
of dela tores. On the whole, though his interest in the 
Church, and his efforts to procure clergymen for the Colony, 
:miake it necessary for me to discuss his character in this 
X>a'Per, I freely admit that his adversary, Burrington, slan- 
dered the Governor of Barataria when he placed Everard 
^md Don Quixote's faithful esquire on the same level. 

It is refreshing to turn from Burrington and Everard to 
Oabriel Johnston. Our able Secretary of State, Col. Saun- 
ters, has shown in his Prefatory Notes to the 4th volume 
of Colonial Records that the unstinted praise bestowed by 
our historians on Governor Johnston is not merited. He 
undoubtedly endeavored to carry measures through the 
Assembly by trickery and surprise. He called a meeting 
of the Assembly in the southern part of the Province at 
a time when it was unlikely the members would attend, 
and he approved, and perhaps advised, the reversal of the 
immemorial rule in the Assembly that a majority of the 
members was necessary for a quorum. By this means he 
strove to procure not only the deprivation of the Albemarle 
counties of three out of the five members to which they 
were entitled under the laws of Province, but to procure 
the removal of the seat of government from Edenton to 
New Berne and the inauguration of a new Court system. 
He had frequent bitter disputes with his people about 



io6 

various matters, such as the validity of the **Blaiik Pat- 
ents," the issuing of larger volumes of paper currency, the 
impeachment of Chief Justice Smith. But there are many 
favorable words which can truthfully be said of him. He 
was a scholar and a gentleman by family and association, 
a scion of the noble house of the Johnstones of Annandale, 
the friend and relative of Spencer Compton, Earl of Wil- 
mington, who was a member of the great house of North- 
ampton. His State papers show that he was a statesman 
and a man of humanity and regard for religion and educa- 
tion. He advised the inauguration of a militia force. He 
advocated more efficient execution of the penal laws. He 
pointed out the defects in the methods of acquiring lands. 
He saw clearly the evils of the issue of depreciated cur- 
rency and endeavored to check it. He showed no greed 
for money, as we find his salary twelve years in arrears, 
although he could have retained the same out of public 
funds. There was no tangible charge of corruption against 
him. 

As an excuse for his errors it may be said that politi- 
cians then, as now, in England and America, did not, and 
do not, hesitate to use questionable means to accomplish 
what they consider great public good. The Albemarle 
counties with their five members each, while the other 
counties had only two, always controlled the lower House 
of the Assembly, and refused to allow many good laws to 
be passed. What statesmen stand higher than those who 
procured the Union of England and Scotland? — and yet the 
Scotch Parliament was notoriously bribed. The passage 
of the Union bill through the Irish Parliament by unblush- 
ing corruption does not diminish the lustre of the fame of 
Wm. Pitt. The Congressional Districts in our day, gerry- 
mandered for political purposes, are quite in the line of John- 
ston's efforts. When forty members were a quorum of the 
House of Commons of England, and three members of the 
House of Lords, it was not a grossly extravagant claim 



107 

that fifteen should be a quorum in the diminutive House 
of Burgesses of North Carolina. 

The Governor trusted that the authorities in England 
would see the reasonableness of the change, and by ratify- 
ing make it final. The object sought to be accomplished 
was praiseworthy. It was not best that the seat of gov- 
ernment should continued at Edenton in the extreme 
northern part of the Province. The Court system for which 
he struggled was vastly superior to the old system. It cer- 
tainly was unjust that certain counties should have five 
members, and counties larger and more populous, should 
have only two. And it must be remembered that the 
action of the Governor was sustained as a political 
necessity by many of the ablest and best men, such 
as Mosely and Swann, and Ashe and Starkey and 
others like them, good and wise inhabitants of the coun- 
ties south of the privileged region of Albemarle. As to 
his actions in other matters, it should be noted that as 
deputy of the Crown he was compelled either to carry out 
orders and enforce its demands, or lose his place, and possi- 
bly be subjected to punishment for malfeasance. In truth, 
he was sharply censured for yielding too much to the de- 
mands of the people. 

While not always wise I think he was on the whole a 
good Governor according to the political ideas of that day 
and under the difficulties of being compelled to act in ac- 
cordance with the views of distant directors, not one of 
whom had ever visited the Province. He came to his 
government imder the most adverse circumstances. The 
opening words of his address to his first Assembly are no 
exagerated picture of the evils resulting from the misrule 
of Everard and Burrington. 

Everything was in **disorder and -confusion.'' **The 
members of the Council and the Superior Court exi>elled 
the country by violence, and such men arbitrarily put in 
their places whose characters alone was sufficient to bring 



io8 

all magistracy and government into contempt and ridi- 
cule. ' ' The inferior Courts in some places quite discon- 
tinued, and in others under the management of persons 
who, instead of protecting the people in their just rights, 
made use of the power they were invested with to harass 
and oppress them. In short, all business, commerce and 
improvements seemed to be very much at a stand. The 
answer of both branches of the General Assembly admitted 
the truth of this statement. The Governor should cer- 
tainly have credit for evolving order out of this chaos. 

The accusation that he did not regularly report the state 
of the Province to the Board of Trade is well founded. 
The inference is that he was not of an active temperment. 
He was not disposed to undergo the fatigue, discomfort, 
and dangers of journeying through his Province, as did 
Burrington and Dobbs and Tryon, to get materials for his 
reports. 

The long continued anarchy resulting from the refusal 
of the Albemarle counties to submit to the laws passed, as 
they contended, by a rump legislature, cannot be altogether 
attributed to him, because he sent the action of the Assem- 
bly to the Board of Trade for approval, and the seven 
years delay on the part of the Board could not be foreseen 
by him. He asked for troops to enable him to enforce 
order, but none were furnished. 

He certainly was in favor of education and the advance- 
ment of religion, and was of a humane disposition. His 
benevolent action in favor of the people on the subject of 
quit-rents met with strong censure from the Board of 
Trade. Among other recommendations by him was one in 
advance of the age, that the brutal practice of boxing, so 
brutal that it had been the cause of four deaths in a short 
while, be prohibited by law. Certainly he is entitled to 
considerable credit, because of the rapid increase of popu- 
lation and wealth under his administration. There must 
have been confidence in his character and purity of inten- 



log 

tions. It is fitting that his name should be honorably per- 
petuated by one of our central counties. 

Matthew Rowan, whose name belongs to one of our coun- 
ties which once stretched from about the longitude of 
High Point to the Mississippi river, who, after the short 
incumbency of Nathaniel Rice, was, as President of the 
Council, acting Governor for nearly two years, was always 
faithful and trustworthy. 

He was a member of the Council from 1732 until 1760, 
and for several years its President. He showed activity 
and wisdom in the performance of his private and public 
duties. He was the son of a clergyman of the Church, 
Rev. Andrew Rowan, of an old Scotch family, rector of 
Dunaghy, diocese of Connor, county of Antrim in Ireland. 
He settled as a merchant in Bath and was one of the church 
wardens in 1726. He represented his county (then called 
precinct) in the Assembly. He was an importer in Irish 
goods, and as such often crossed the ocean to his native 
country. He was for a while Surveyor General of the 
Province, and as such assisted in 1735 in running the 
l>ouridary line between North and South Carolina. He 
became before his death an inhabitant of New Hanover 
county. As he seems not to have been involved in the 
bitter quarrels so prevalent during his long official career, 
and as we find no censure of him by the people or Board 
of Trade, and although one of nine children of an Irish 
clergyman, he accumulated a handsome estate and left 
legacies to three of his brothers in Ireland, it is clear that 
he was a good specimen of the level headed and good 
hearted, sagacious and energetic, cautious and wide awake, 
Scotch-Irish. The sense of justice which led to the pro- 
vision in his will for an illegitimate child reveals to us the 
oiily obliquity in his conduct of which we have any know- 
ledge. 

Arthur Dobbs, one of the landed gentry of Ireland, 
though a Scotchman by descent, was very different in char- 



acter from Rowan. Born, according to Burke, in 1689, ^^* 
was in October when he took the oath of office as Govem^i> 
of North Carolina, sixty-five years old; according to oth 
authorities he had passed his three score and ten. He w; 
a man of letters and an author, having published several 
books on subjects of interest in his day. He had held th»- 
important office of High Sheriff of Antrim, and of Eng-:i 
neer and Surveyor General of Ireland. He had also bee^ ' 
a member of the Irish Parliament. His estate in Irelancr 
called Castle Dobbs, is still in possession of his descemr": 
dants, among whom has been a clergyman of the Churc 
One of the females married a Duke of Manchester. 

He was a man of considerable sprightliness and gre 
energy. He wrote on questions of commerce relating 
Ireland, and even stirred up the Admirality to find tl 
mythical North West Passage. An official letter to 
great War Secretary, Wm. Pitt, written in 1759, gives 
clear view of the character of the mind of Governed- 
Dobb§. He heaps congratulations on the Secretary oxa 
account of the capture of Quebec and defeat of the FrencTi 
in Germany. Then follows this gorgeous sentence: 

''The glories and remarkable interposition of Divine 
Providence against such superior numbers will, I hope, 
induce his majesty, by your active and intrepid adminis- 
tration, with the unanimity of the Ministry and Parliament, 
to pursue his conquest until the French be expelled from 
this continent and Mississippi and Mobile, which is abso- 
lutely necessary for the peace and safety of these Colonies 
to be put into his Majesty's possession, and also the Sugar 
Islands, which will effectually ruin the French marine and 
give future peace to Britain. Upon account of such 
glorious success I have appointed a day of solemn Thanks- 
giving, and upon this happy event, and important crisis, 
have composed a Hymn to be sung that day through this 
Province, which I beg leave to send to you as being at 



HI 

present conformable to all the prophecies according to my 
interpretation of them at this era, 1760." 

The following is the Hymn of Thanksgiving over the 

xrictories of Quebec and of Minden. I cordially commend 

to the notice of the Hymnal Revision Committee. It 

'fll be appropriate when we come to celebrate the blowing 

out of the water of the fleet of the next Roman Catholic 

power conquered by us with the aid of our dynamite guns. 

This was probably the first Thanksgiving service in our 

State. 

HYMN. 



To God, our God*s Almighty name. 

Let Britons all their Voices raise 
And publish by the mouth of fame 

In songs of joy our SaWour's praise. 

For when surrounded and at bay, 
By mighty powers gainst Britain join'd. 

Our Allies country made a prey 
By papal pow'rs jointly combined; 

Then Christ our God commenced his reign 

And o'er our councils did preside. 
Did o'er our fleets and armies deign 

To rule, and all their actions guide. 

The glorious dawn, the morning star 
Which ushers in the sun of light 

Thro' the bright glade extended far 
And vanquished all the powers of night. 

His Church from papal thraldom freed 
And Gallic powers' united force; 

His great Vicegerent he decreed 
O'er Briton's Isle to steer his course. 

From wood the British lion roars; 

Uprears the Christian sanguine cross, 
O'er Eagle, Beast, triumphant soars 

With angels riding the white horse. 

Now Angels charged with vials dire 
Of Gods great wrath against Papal Beast, 

Are poured forth in Gods great Ire, 
O'er Beast, False Prophet, Heathen Priest. 

Let Angels then in chorus sing 
With us in Hymns of joy abroad, 

Hosanna to our Saviour King. 
Hoswina to his Christ our God. 




112 

This sophomorical State paper, with its accompanying 
doggerel, is a good index to the character of Dobbs. I^ 
shows that he was inclined to piety, that he was a student 
of the prophecies of Scripture, tha the erroneously thought 
himself gifted with eloquence and poetic fire, that he had 
abundant self-esteem. He was not lacking in courage, 
but his mind was narrow, his taste execrable, his ideas 
obscure. He was utterly lacking in business sense. He 
was fond of notoriety, a fussy, consequential gentleman of 
the old school. That such a man, transported to the wilds 
of a new country, with high ideas of his prerogative as 
lieutenant of a King, ruling over a people who claimed 
vested rights of freedom, with pluck to maintain their 
claims, should have perpetual turmoil, was most natural. 
Accordingly we find that though he started out with the 
best intentions he was a failure. The issuing of paper 
money, the bringing Sheriff's and Treasurers to account, 
the establishment of an independent judiciary and con- 
venient Courts, the location of the Capital, the selection 
of public printers, exorbitant fees, and other questions, 
were the causes of difference between him and the Assem- 
bly. He was fond of money, and sometimes stretched his 
prerogative in order to grasp fees not allowed by any law. 
He strove to take away from the Assembly their power of 
appointing the agents of the Province in London, Public 
Treasurers and Receivers. He occasionally ordered, without 
authority of law, payment to be made out of the money 
granted by the British Parliament for reimbursing the 
Colonies for their war expenses. He labored to establish a 
seat of government at a point not acceptable to the people. 

But the old Governor had his good points. He was 
possessed of enthusiasm and energy, and a kind of tumid 
rhetoric, which had on some minds the effect of eloquence. 
He was exceedingly active in securing the subjugation of 
hostile Indians. He urged provision for the support of the 
clergy, not only by payment of salaries, but by purchase 



^13 

of glebes and rectories, as ''the first and greatest principle 
and foundation of all social happiness, is the knowledge of 
true religion, and the practice of morality and virtue, to 
know, love, and adore the Divine Being. ' ' 

He urges on the Assembly provision for the education of 
youth. With his sonorous rhetoric he inveighs against 
the schemes of the Pope of Rome and the Spanish and 
French Catholics to ''conspire, conquer and enslave all our 
Colonies," and exhorts the Assembly to join him in 
behaving like "generous, brave, and true christians, to 
confine their appetites and luxuries, and part with a reason- 
able part ^of their wealth to preserve the remainder and 
our happy constitution in Church and State to our latest 
posterity." 

His eloquent portrayal of the evils of French domina- 
tion was successful in urging the Assembly to furnish men 
and money beyond the resources of the Province, and 
greater in propotion, it is claimed, than any other Province. 

The old Governor was stalwart for education. He 
writes to the Board of Trade that the chief want of the 
Province is a sufficient number of clerg>^nen and proper 
schoolmasters to instruct the youth. He discerned the 
true needs of the Church by applying for a Bishop "to 
confirm the youth, and keep the clergy to their duty, and 
concur in putting the laws into execution. " He advocated 
the education of the Indians and inducing them to engage 
in cultivation of farms. He urges that the killing, wound- 
ing, and maining of Indians and negro servants, shall be 
placed upon the same footing as similar offences toward 
other people. 

The corruption charged against him in endeavoring to 
secure the location of the seat of govennent on his own 
land is found to be untrue. 

Another charge, that he brought from Ireland swarms 
of impecunious kin, is a gross and unjust exaggeration. 
His second son, Edward Brice Dobbs, was a Captain in the 



114 

British army and, properly, as experienced officers were 
scarce, was given the command of a company sent on Brad- 
dock's expedition, was afterwards Major in the expedition 
to New York, and was for a short time a member of the 
Governor's Council. 

Richard Spaight, who married the sister of Dobbs, was 
made Secretary and Clerk of the Crown, was appointed one 
of the Associate Judges, and also was Paymaster of the 
troops, who served in Virginia. This appears to have 
been the extent of the nepotism of the Governor. 

Both these officers were good men. Spaight was the 
founder of a family, whose members have been and are 
conspicuous for their services to our State and to our 
Church. His son, Richard Dobbs Spaight, hastened home 
from his studies in the University of Glasgow when only 
twenty years of age, and engaged actively in the military 
and civil service of the State, assisting greatly in moulding 
her institutions, as State and National Legislator, and as 
the chief executive. I add that the change of the name of 
the county of Dobbs to Lenoir, was not until 1791, eight 
years after the close of the war, and probably was as much 
an ebullition of displeasure by a Republican Assembly 
against the strong Federalist nephew of the Governor, then 
in his grave over a quarter of a century, as it was against 
the uncle. 

Wm. Tr>^on had qualities more brilliant than any of our 
Provincial Governors. He was a military man, having 
attained the rank of ht Colonel in the British army. He 
was in the prime of his life and vigor, ambitious and 
energetic, accustomed to the best society, stylish in his 
tastes, courteous in demeanor, a good soldier and statesman- 
like in his aspirations. He committed grave faults in his 
administration; such as extravagance in the survey of the 
Cherokee boundary, and building his ^^palace,'' and cruelty 
in punishing the Regulators. 

In mitigation of censure in these regards it might be urged 



115 

that a display of power was useful in overawing the 
Cherokees, that a handsome official residence was needed 
to give a turbulent people respect for goverment, and that 
the appropriations were voted by an Assembly composed 
of some of the most prudent men in the Province, and pre- 
sumed to know what taxes their constituents could bear. 
In dtefense of his conduct about the Stamp Act, it may be 
said that it was his sworn duty to execute the orders of his 
King for carrying out the Act of Parliament levying the 
tax; and lastly, that the Regulators had defied his author- 
ity, broken up a Court, frightened the Judge into unseemly 
:flight, and treated with outrageous indignity and cruelty 
officers of the law; that they were in arms against the law- 
ful government, and threatening to march on the Capital ; 
and that his treatment of captured traitors in arms was 
wonderfully mild compared with that accorded those who 
followed the ill-fated standard of Charles Edward a few 
years before, or that accorded the Irish who resisted the 
English power a few years afterwards. 

And then it may be said in his behalf that he was sup- 
ported and approved by those we are accustomed most to 
honor. In his little army of i loo men, were such patriots 
as John Ashe, John Sampson, Francis Nash, Richard Cas- 
well, Abner Nash, Robert Howe, Adlai Osborne, Samuel 
Spencer, James and Maurice Moore, Alexander Lillington 
^nd Hugh Waddell. The bloody Act of Assembly under 
^Vhich the insurgents were prosecuted, was drawn by 
Samuel Johnston, and was passed by an Assembly of good 
I^orth Carolinians, signed by Richard Caswell, as speaker, 
^nd approved by James Iredell, who, although not a mem- 
Toer of the Assembly, was watching with interest all its 
mictions. 

Admitting that the Governor was blameable for not 
accommodating his expenditures to the situation of a poor 
people, that he was not careful to adopt mild before resort- 
ing to violent measures, in many other respects his char- 



ii6 

acter appears to have been that of a good man and w 
executive officer. He was undoubtedly an energe 
advocate of education and supporter of the Church. 

In r730, one Wm. Tryon, Esq., merchant of Lond 
was Treasurer of the S. P. G. Six years later it appe 
that Wm. and Thomas Tryon, merchants, were join 
Treasurers. About this time Charles Tryon, of BuUwic 
in Northamptonshire, married Lady Mary, daughter 
Earl Ferrers, a near relation of the eminent Admiral, I 
Washington Ferrers. As Governor Tryon' s sister -< 
called by the Lutheran Commissioners the *'Honora 
Miss Tryon,'' she may have been *^Maid of Honor" to 
Queen. Considering his rapid advancement which tl 
went by Court favor, even more than now, and further 
uncommon respect for religion, I think he was a son 
Charles Tryon, and his noble wife, and nearly akin to 
two Treasurers of the S. P. G. His wife, ' 'Lady Tryoi 
who brought him a dowry of ;^2o,ooo sterling, was pro 
bly a daughter of the noble house of Wake, which gave 
the Church the learned Archbishop of that name, who c 
about thirty years before Tryon came to North Caroli 
One of the daughters of the Archbishop bore the S£ 
name as that of the facinating sister of Tryon' s wife, ^ 
Esther Wake, who left an exceedingly pleasant mem 
among our people. 

The missionaries speak enthusiastically of Tryon ; 
his '4ady. " Rev. J. Barnett mentions also the Govern^ 
liberality in the building of St. Philip's Church in Brt 
wick. Rev. George Micklejohn writes, **He rules a \s 
ing people with the indulgent tenderness of a comn 
father." Rev. Mr. Morton calls him, ''that amiable, g 
man, who may be called the nursing Father of the Chu 
in this Province." Nor was this the opinion of Chui 
men alone, but of Presbyterian Ministers, such as Da 
Caldwell, Pattillo and McAden. He and his sister hea 
a subscription to enable the Lutherans of Rowan to obi 



117 

^^ minister and a schoolmaster for their first congregation 
^^TTganized in North Carolina. 

Col. Wm. L. Saunders in his very able *Trefatory 

totes'' to the 7th volume of Colonial Documents, while 

m the whole not approving Tryon's character, gives him 

he great credit of seeming '^earnestly to desire to fill the 

;5)arishes with clergymen of good character, a class of men 

"that he said were greatly needed in the Province." '*When 

Tryon came to this Province there were here just five 

clergymen of the Established Church. When he left it 

there were eighteen." In six years the number was trebled. 

His wife and her sister won all hearts by their beauty, 
generosity and aflfability. And his sister was distinguished 
for her charitable acts. The old rule, noscitur a sociis^ is 
especially true when the associates are women. We must 
conclude that Tryon had many noble qualities when we 
reflect on the three excellent ladies, whose virtues threw a 
radiance over him visible down the dim vista of a century 
and a quarter. 

The letters of Tryon, public and private, show that he 
was a good writer, and an active man of business, an 
executive officer of promptness, system and ability. He 
was too an accomplished gentleman and of great personal 
influence. In apportioning to him censure, which his 
public acts call for, let it be remembered that he was called 
to the dual position of minister of George III, and Gover- 
nor of a people, claiming the rights of Englishmen, and 
exasperated by a long course of misgovemment and oppres- 
sion. The wind had been sown by his predecessors and 
he was forced to reap the whirlwind. 

Of Josiah Martin little need be said. He began his 
administration well by procuring Acts of amnesty to the 
Regulators, and he showed concern for religion and educa- 
tion, but the causes of dissension between him, the sup- 
porter of the royal prerogative, and the people, aiming at 



ii8 

securing for themselves all the rights of Englishmen, and ^ 
ultimately at separation and independence, were such as to 
paralyze all his efforts, and to drive him from the State. 
Opposing his feeble protests and proclamations against the 
mighty forces leading to Revolution, he was in the absurd 
condition of Mrs. Partington fighting the angry waves of 
the Atlantic Ocean with a broom. His presence may have 
stimulated the Tory element to greater mischief, but the 
only lasting result of his rule is the" name of a county. 
Even that would probably have beeti changed as were those 
of Dobbs and Try on, but for a popular Governor of free 
JJTorth Carolina bearing the same name. 

Having finished the discussion of those who wielded the 
chief executive authority, and were known to be church- 
men, I now take up the laymen of the church, who in 
less exalted official station, or in private life, were most 
conspicuous in moulding the institutions and developing 
the resources of the Province of North Carolina- It will 
be found that they have been the foremost in resisting 
oppression, encouraging education, promoting religion, 
and training our people for striving for and attaining the 
blessings of a free government. 

The names of the first vestry ever appointed in North 
Carolina deserve to be recorded. They may be found in 
the vestry book of St. Paul's Parish, Chowan Precinct, 
and are as follows: 

The Hon. Henderson Walker, Esq., Col. Thomas Pol- 
lock, Wm. Duckenfield, Esq., Mr. Nicholas Crisp, Mr. 
Edward Smithwick, Mr. John Blount, Mr. James Long, 
Mr. Nathaniel Chevin, Mr. William Banbury, Col. Wil- 
liam Wilkinson, Capt. Thomas Leuton, Capt. Thomas 
Blount. 

They met at the house of Mr. Thomas Gilliam, Decem- 
ber 15th, 1 701. Nathaniel Chevin was appointed Clerk 
of the Vestry, Col. William Wilkinson and Capt. Thomas 
lycuten were the first Church Wardens. 



119 

^^- Edward Smith wick made the first donation, viz: 
one acre of land for a site for a church building. 

The wardens were ordered to raise the money for build- 
^^S a church by contributions if possible, if not by a poll 
^x» They were further ordered to provide a reader and 
^STee with him for his services. 

The inhabitants of the South West Shore, t. e. of the 

South Eastern part of Bertie, were authorized after the 

church should be finished, to build a chapel of ease and 

to have a separate reader employed, by either the Hon. 

Col. Thomas Pollock or William Duckenfield, Esq. 

The tax was twelve pence on each titheable of whom 
there were two hundred and eighty-three. After the 
church was finished at an expense of ;^33, say about one 
hundred and seventy dollars, the tax was raised to five shil- 
lings per titheable for the same, and for other charges, 
iQ^cluding ^7 lo sh. paid the reader. The name of this 
first lay reader was Richard Churton, the first regularly 
ctuployed ''minister'' in the State. 

The church, the first in the State, was twenty-five feet 
lc>xig, with posts in the ground, had a floor, and benches 
fc>r pews. It was ceiled with planks, the stained appear- 
^^ce of which was offensive to the vestry and so it was 
^^<3ered to be white- washed. 

At first it had no glass windows, but provision was made 

fc^r securing some. John Porter was the contractor for the 

^lailding. Soon afterwards the wardens were instructed 

^^ procure at as cheap a rate as possible **one fair 

^^d large book of Common Prayer, and the book of 

homilies.'' It is to be presumed that they had a Bible. 

On the 9th of September, 1705, to the vestry meeting at 

'-l^e chapel, was presented the first voluntary subscription 

^^st ever signed in this Diocese, the progenitor of a never 

^>^ding series of such formidable documents. The names 

^f the donors and the amounts pledged, deserve to be 

*^^nded down to posterity. 



I20 

£ s d 

Col. Thomas Pollock 500 

Wm. Duckenfield, Esq. 400 

John Ardem, Esq 300 

Mr. Edward Moseley 500 

Capt. Thomets Luten 100 

Mr. Nicholas Crisp . . 150 

Mr. Edward Smithwick 100 

Mr. John Blount 100 

Mr. Wm. Banbuiy 080 

Mr. Nathl. Chevin 100 

John Wheatley o 10 o 

Richard Rose o 10 o 

John L/innington o 15 o 

Capt. David Henderson o 20 o 

Henry Bonner o 10 o 

Total . . ' ^25 8 o 

This subscription was for compensation to Rev. Henry 
Gerrard, in addition to the ^30 paid him from receipts of 
taxes, in consideration of his entire services in the Parish 
of Chowan, he having reported that on account of the 
great distance and '^dirtyness of the roads" to Pequim- 
mins, ' ' (Perquimans) he was not able to serve two parishes. 

Of the vestry, Acting Governors Walker and Pollock 
have already been mentioned. Wm. Banbury, which 
name was afterwards spelt Benbury*, often a member of 
the Council, was founder of the Church family of Benbury 
of our day, two of whom, John A, and I^emuel C, from the 
same county of Chowan, both churchmen, were alumni of 
the State University, and gallant Confederate officers, the 
former killed in the desperate fight of Malvern Hill. 

Thomas, son of Wm. Banbury was likewise a vestryman 
of St. Paul's Parish, and was one of the signers of the 
spirited resolutions of defiance of British tyranny adopted 
by St. Paul's Parish on the 19th of June 1776, and an 
active member of the State Congresses of 1774 and after- 
wards. 

William Dnkinfield, which name we learn from Burke's 
Peerage, to have been fonnerly DeDokenfield, was the 

*NoTE. — The early settlers gave e the sound of a. e, g. Merchant 
was Marchant, Clerk was Clark, Bertie— Bartie, Hertford— Hartford, &c. 



121 

relation of Sir Robert Dukenfield, son of a noted Colonel 
in the Parliamentary army of the same name. William 
y^ss a constant attendant on the meetings of the vestry. His 
name appears at the head of the vestry, Edward Moseley 
being the second, subscribed to a letter of thanks to the 
Bishop of London for sending to them the Rev. Wm. 
Gordon. The description of Mr. Gordon shows that the 
early churchman had a proper conception of the character 
of a true minister of God. 

They write of him, as one, * 'whose meekness of disposi- 
tion and spotless conversation is so highly engaged, together 
^^^'ith his most excellent and practical way of preaching, as 
h^ve prevailed even with the enemies of the Church to be 
lent at his deserved applause.'' 
Such language suggests that the laymen, who used it, 

themselves largely endowed with christian graces. 
The next Dukinfield appearing in our annals, Nathaniel, 
F^'X^bably the son and heir of William, was an enlightened 
^liurchman as appears by his letters to the Bishop of Lon- 
^^n, July 14th, 1724. He declares that the people have a 
nging desire for missionaries, and as evidence of their 
disposition, he states that, when the missionary last 
nt, Mr. Newman, died after six months service only, 
ey gave his widow the salary for the year, being ;^6o 
^^d the Assembly gave her ;^40 more. He recommends 
t Jiat there be sent other ministers with salaries of ;^50 each 
l^d by the S. P. G., which with the allowance estab- 
lished by law, and other considerable advantages, would 
make a comfortable living. 

He concludes by hoping **that the Bishop will be the 
happy instrument of establishing the glorious Gospel in 
that remote and donnetory part of the Universe." 

This is the first charge on record of Rip Van Winkle-ism 
against North Carolina. The son of this Nathaniel Dukin- 
field of the same name inherited the baronetcy in Chester 
count)% Great Britain, by the death of Sir Samuel of that 



122 

ilk without heirs male. Returning to England about the 
beginning of the war, his lands in North Carolina were 
confiscated. He purchased an office in the British army, 
but at his request was allowed not to fight against America. 
He was a warm friend of Judge James Iredell, and his 
unsuccessful rival for the hand of the sister of Governor 
Samuel Johnston. 

The devotion of this family to the Church is further 
illustrated by the fact that one son. Rev. Charles Egerton 
Dukinfield, became vicar of Eden Hall, and another son. 
Rev. Sir Henry Robert, was also in holy orders. Two 
other members of the earliest vestry were of a family which 
has had an extensive inflence in our State. Capt. Thomas 
Blount and John Blount. 

During the reign of Charles II, three sons of Sir Walter 
Blount, a prominent Cavalier during the Civil Wars, 
descended from the le Blounts, who were trusted officers of 
William the Conqueror, emigrated to America. One 
settled in Virginia, the other two, James and Thomas, in 
North Carolina. Thomas Blount, the vestryman of 1701, 
was either the emigrant or his son. His son Jacob, 
removed to what is now Pitt county and resided on a plan- 
tation called Blount Hall, which is still owned by his 
descendants. Jacob was constantly a vestr>'man of Christ 
Church, Craven, and was a member of the Provincial Con- 
gresses of our State during the Revolutionary struggles. 
He left very distinguished sons, Wm. Blount, Senator of 
the United States, and Governor of Tennessee when a 
Territory; John Gray Blount, the great land owner and a 
useful member of the General Assembly ; General Thomas 
Blount, a Revolutionary officer and member of Congress 
of the United States. Major Reading Blount likewise a 
Revolutionary officer and member of the Legislature, and 
Willie Blount, Governor and Judge of the Supreme Court 
of Tennessee. The late General Wm. Augustus Blount 
was a son of John Gray Blount. 



John Blount, also a vestryman of 1701, was son of James 
who settled in Albemarle in 1669. The records show that 
he was a regular attendant on the meetings, and a suppor- 
ter of the Parish, often acting as reader, until his death in 

Tht extracts which I have given from the letters signed 
by him, Dukinfield and others, show his appreciation of 
the character of a good minister. A curt entry in the 
vestry book of St. PauPs Parish shows that they could be 
severe in denouncing a bad clergyman. 

We find that Col. Pollock and Mr. John Blount gave 
notice to Rev. Henry Gerrard to **disprove charges of 
debauched practices or be dismissed." They did not 
propose to have one of those ecclesiastical nuisances, a 
church trial, but reversed the common law method and 
acted on the principle that a clergyman, whose right con- 
duct could not be shown by himself, should have no place 
in. the parish. A sen of John Blount, by the same name. 
Col. John Blount, of Mulberry Hill, was prominent in 
civil as well as Church matters, and his daughter married 
the first Bishop elect. Dr. Charles Pettigrew. The Elder 
Jolm^s youngest son, Joseph Blount, likewise took up the 
Mantle of his father. He was a useful member of many of 
the Colonial Assemblies, was appointed one of the Com- 
missioners of the Port of Roanoke and was named first in 
the Act of Incorporation of the Edenton Academy in 1770, 
^hich was in effect a Church school; the other incorpora- 
tors being such eminent churchmen as Samuel Johnston, 
Joseph Hewes, Thomas Jones, and others. He transmitted 
his name to his son, who was a warden of the Church and 
^ member of the Standing Committee of the Convention 
^liich elected Dr. Pettigrew. And we see the name of 
Joseph Blount likewise affixed to his grandson, a loved and 
Venerable clergyman, whom it warms our heart to see with 
^s to-day, after fifty years devoted labor for the Church 
^f his ancestors. Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, D, D. ; and 



124 

to his great-grandson, who is following in his father's foot- 
steps, whose tireless energy has made him the originator 
of the scheme of this glorious centennial, Rev. Joseph 
Blount Cheshire, Junior. May I express the hope that 
the little Joseph Blount Cheshire, the third, of the seventh 
generation from the vestryman of 1701, inheriting the 
graces of his ancestors, may carry on their work of loving 
labor in the Master's vineyard. 

I will not describe in detail the other members of the 
first vestry of 170 1. I learn from my esteemed friend, Col. 
R. B. Creecy, whose mind is a storehouse of North Car- 
olina history, especially of that of the Albemarle country, 
that the names of all, except Crisp, Chevin, Leuten, and 
Dukinfield, are found still ainong the Albemarle people. 
Leuten died out within his memory, Blounts are 
numerous, also Longs and Benburys. There are some 
Wilkinsons and some Sniithwicks, corrupted , into Smid- 
dicks. 

The readers of the early records of North Carolina find 
their interest and admiration greatly aroused by the picture 
given by Governor Glover of a young layreader, whose 
light shone brightly in the general darkness. In Pasquo- 
tank, lie says, is an * 'orderly congregation kept together 
by the industry of a young gentleman. This gentleman 
being of an unblemished life, by decent behavior in that 
office [of school-master and layreader] and of apt discourses 
from house to house, according to the capacity of an igno- 
rant people, not only kept those he found, but gained 
many to the Church, insomuch that the Rev. Richard 
Marsden, waiting passage for South Carolina, administered 
the Holy Communion, the first time I can learn of its 
being administered. ' ' This first celebration of the Holy 
Communion in the Albemarle section, and presumably in 
the State, was on Trinity Sunday, 1706. Forty-five infants 
and adults were baptised. 

Rev. Wm. Gordon, who wrote in 1709, says that he was 



1^5 

urprised at the **order, decency, and seriousness with 
hich the congregation performed public worship;'' and 
hat the people were more * 'industrious, careful and 
leanly" than elsewhere, all owing to the young layreader 
nd school-teacher, Charles Griffin from the West Indies. 
The career of Griffin thus far is like a green spot in the 
general spiritual desolation. It reminds us of Henry 
IMartyn and Bishop Pattieson. It is exceedingly painful 
^o leam from a subsequent letter of Mr. Gordon, that being 
tx-emoved from Pasquotank to Chowan in consequence of 
'the coming of Rev. Mr. Adams, Griffin then fell into 
:«iotorious sin and joined the Quakers. 

I chronicle the story in order to impress three things, 
3St, the wonderful good which can be accomplished by a 
single earnest lay worker; 2nd, the spiritual famine of 
'the early settlers under the infamous neglect of the Lords 
Troprietors, and 3rd, that this spiritual famine was caused 
T)y want of teachers and preachers, and not by the abnor- 
Tnal wickedness of the people. 

In this terrible condition of sin and apostasy. Dr. Hawks 
and other historians leave poor Griffin. I am glad to 
restore his good name. In Bishop Meade's book on the 
**old Churches and Families of Virginia," I find that there 
^as, about ten years after the event spoken of by Mr. Gor- 
don, a Rev. Charles Griffin teaching an Indian school at 
Christina in Virginia, a little north of Chowan Precinct, 
^th skill and zeal closely similar to that shown by the 
lay-reader of Pasquotank Parish, and that he afterwards 
^as a Professor at William and Mary College. I am con- 
strained to believe that the backslider abandoned his sin 
^Ud returned to his former virtue and godliness of living. 
The name of Mr. Richard Sanderson, the elder, should 
likewise be recorded, as he attempted to make to the 
Church its first important benefaction, the gift of his plan- 
^tion and slaves, after the death of himself and his wife. 
The donation was set aside by the Court for alleged in- 



126 

capacity in the donor, but it none the less shows attach 
ment to the Church which is further proved by faithfii 
service as warden. In a letter to the Bishop of London- 
signed by the vestry, he being first named, after thanking 
his Lordship for sending to them Rev. Mr. James Adams, 
whose pious character and good works are earnestly praised, 
it is stated with pardonable pride that though Mr. Adams 
was the first to administer the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, they had more communicants than most of the 
neighboring Parishes of Virginia, who had the advantages 
of a settled ministry for many years. 

John Lawson, who was captured and tortured to death b> 
the Tuscaroras Indians in 171 1, and whose book on North 
Carolina shows much literary talent and a very observant 
eye, was one of the most eminent men of those early days- 
As he styled himself ' 'gentleman' ' he must have belonged 
to the ancient family of Lawsons in Yorkshire and North- 
umberland. He was Surveyor General of the Province, 
and an energetic and most active and enlightened ofl&cer. 
The peculiar enmity of the savages was caused by theii 
regarding him as the cause of the encroachment of the 
whites on their lands. De GrafFenreid shows that in pres- 
ence of his captors he behaved with conspicuous and 
defiant courage. 

Among the most prominent early churchmen was 
Samuel Swann, the older, a man of weight of charactei 
and of large earthly possessions, of great energy and use- 
fulness. 

There is an ancient family of Swanns, who have owned 
landed property in the county of Derby in England, evei 
since the conquest. A Samuel Swann was founder of one 
of its branches. I conjecture that the founder of the Nortt 
Carolina family was a scion of that in Derby. Samue 
Swann settled in Perquimans county in the year 1694. His 
grandfather, Wm. Swann was an alderman of Jamestown, 
in Virginia, and bought the land called Swann' s Point, oppo- 



127 

site, on the South side of James river in 1635. His father, 
Thomas Swann, five times married, was a member of the 
Governor's Council in Virginia. Samuel Swann, son of his 
second wife, Sarah Cod, bom in 1653, ^^ twice married, 
first to Sarah, daughter of Governor Wm. Drummond, and 
secondly, to Elizabeth, daughter of acting Governor 
Alexander Lillington. He held several important offices, 
was often Associate Justice of the General Court, and some- 
times acted as Chief Justice. He was for many years a mem- 
'>er of the Council. He held the responsible post of Collector 
of the Customs for Roanoke. He was the leading supporter 
of the Church in Perquimans. 

Rev. Mr. Gordon after praising the neatness 01 the 
unfinished Church, states that '4ts completion was 
hindered by the death in 1707, of one Major Swann, who 
zealously promoted the interests of religion in general, and 
forwarded by his continual pain and expense the building 
of that church in particular." 

TPhere is a family record written by him, a copy of 
^hich was furnished me by one of his ablest and most use- 
ful descendants, Samuel A. Ashe, of Raleigh, which 
l>reathes throughout the spirit of piety and affliction. One 
^i" two of the entries I will read for the edification of parents 
^ho have need to make occasional memoranda of a similar 
character. 

**Samuel, bom the 31st of October, 1704, being Tues- 
^^y, at I o'clock in the afternoon, the moon being full at 
^ ^ o'clock, was baptised Thursday the 23rd of August, 1705. 
He had a son, Samuel, by his Drummond wife, con- 
^^ming whom we find this tragic entry: '*My dearly 
t^^loved son Samuel Swann, was drowned at Roanoke 
Ixxlet, his boat oversetting on Friday, the ist of May, 1702, 
^^ the dusk of the evening, who, if he had lived until the 
^ext morning, six o'clock, would have been 21 years of 
a.ge." 

This brings to our minds the like fate by drowning of 



128 

two noble young sons of the Church in our day, who bor"^^ 
promise of future greatness in Church and State, botX^ 
University boys, Frank G. Hines and Charles N. Hill. 

The descendants of Samuel Swann have been in aLl 
generations, and are now, as a rule churchmen, and infla — 
ential in public or private stations, and many or them dis — 
tinguished. His sons, William and Thomas, by hi^ 
Drummond wife were both Speakers of the Assembly, an 
Thomas was likewise a member of the Council. The las 
of the descendants of this wife was Thomas Swann, 
member of Congress of the Confederacy in 1787, a man o 
unusual cultivation, who married a daughter of Govemo: 
Samuel Johnston and died young without issue. Samue 
Swann, the son of the Lillington wife, was a very eminen 
lawyer and legislator. He was selected as one of the Com 
missioners to compile the laws of the Province, and as h 
finished the work, it is called Swann' s Revisal. He wi 
for twenty years speaker of the Assembly and opposed wit 
ability and firmness the exertion of arbitrary power on 
part of the Governor. 

He was one of the Surveyors to run the boundary lin 
between North Carolina and Virginia and the first whit 
man to cross the great Dismal Swamp. Through hi 
daughter, Elizabeth, wife of John Baptista Ashe, an 
another daughter, Sarah, wife of Thomas Jones, a promi 
nent lawyer of the Cape Fear section, are descended i 
addition to the Swanns, such staunch church families 
the Ashes, Lords, Cutlars, Davises, De Rossets, Wrights, 
Halls, of Georgia, and others. 

Perhaps the most conspicuous figure in the Colonial 
period was Col. Edward Mosely, who was ah inhabitant o 
the Albemarle country in Chowan until about 1735, when 
he removed to the Cape Fear. We first read of him as a 
member of the Council in 1705, and as he was not a 
vestryman prior to this, he probably emigrated from Eng- 
land during that year. From the practice of the Lords 





129 

Ptoprietors, heretofore mentioned, appointing as their 
deputies on the Council Board scions of the nobility and 
gentry, and from Mosely's having had evidently good 
educational advantages, I think it likely that he was 
related to the ancient noble family of Mosely (or Mosley) 
in I^ancaster county, England, of which Edward was the 
favorite name. One of them. Sir Edward Mosely, was 
Attomey General of the Duchy of Lancaster, the latter 
part of the 17th Century, and we may reasonably conjec- 
ture that the Edward Mosely, found as a member of the 
Council, and an able lawyer, shortly after the death of the 
-Attorney Cieneral, was indebted to him for his legal bent, 
^* not education. He at once became a leader in Church 
^ixd State. We find him a member of the vestry of Chowan 
^^rish, and with Nicholas Leuten entrusted with the duty 
^f building a Chapel. He was a regular attendant at the 
^^stry meetings. He was by far more liberal in his gifts 
^o the Church than any other layman. I have already 
^t:ated that he and Pollock headed the first subscription 
I^aper for the Church in the Province. 

Later, in 1720, he set the noble example of providing the 
Members of his Parish with Common Prayer and other 
t>ooks, viz: twelve books of Common Prayer; twelve 
Copies of the Whole duty of Man, twelve copies of Dr. 
i^ichol's Paraphrase on the Common Prayer, twelve copies 
of Homeck's Great Law of Consideration, and Bishop 
^everidge's sermons, to be delivered to the twelve vestry- 
Xnen for the use of themselves and their neighbors. * He 
"Went further. He made a large donation of standard books 
on Church History and Theology to the S. P. G. ^'towards 
a. Provincial Library to be kept in Edenton, the Metropolis 
of North Carolina,'' the names of which showing twenty- 
three folio volumes, fifteen quartos, and thirty-seven 

*NoTB. — It is doubtful whether Mosely's good intentions took effect. 
Tie sent a bill of exchange to London to purchase these books, but we 
liave no record of their having been received in Chowan. 



I30 

octavos, in all seventy-six volumes, are filed as an appendix 
to this paper. The character of these works show that h« 
must have been a man of solid reading and literary 
instinct. He was a member and the speaker of the lowei 
House of the General Assembly for many years. During 
the first administration of Burrington, that of Everard and 
most of Johnston's administration, he was a member of the 
Upper House, and for a few months prior to the coming 
of Everard acted as Governor. He held the high office of 
Surveyor General of the Province, and was the principal 
representative of the State in running the boundary line 
between Virginia on the North, and South Carolina on the 
South, as well- as that bounding Granville's territory on 
the South. In a dispute with the Virginia Commissioners 
as to a scientific question connected with the location of 
the boundary line, it has been proved that his knowledge 
and skill were superior to theirs. He was the ablest law- 
yer in the Province in his day, and held the office of Asso- 
ciate Justice, of Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and near 
the close of his life was Chief Justice. He was also Public 
Treasurer, and when he died he was the Associate of 
Swann in the first revisal of the laws. 

In a public life extending from 1705 to his death in 1747, 
the services of Edward Mosely to the Colony were of prime 
iijiportance. He early espoused the cause of the people in 
their claims of vested rights as against arbitrary power. 
He resisted the attempt to exclude dissenters from oflSce 
and thus become a champion of religious liberty. He was 
Speaker in 1708 of the Assembly which decided in favor of 
Cary against Glover, but did not follow Cary in his factious 
and futile armed contest with Hyde. Eden's prosecution 
of him and procuring the imposition of a heavy fine and 
temporary disqualification for office so far from injuring 
his character, emphasized his fearless assertion of his rights 
as a freeman. 

As early as 1716, the Assembly, under his guidance 



131 

determined to put a stop to the arbitrary spirit which had 
grown up during the early troubles and Indian war by 
passing a resolution, probably phrased by him, which 
reminds us of Magna Charta, **that impressing of the inhab- 
itants or their property under pretence of its being for the 
public service without authority from the Assembly was 
unwarrantable and a great infringement of the liberty of 
the subject." 

From Mosely's union with the daughter of Governor 
Lillington, the widow of Governor Walker, was Sampson 
Mosely, who was prominent in the Revolutionary strug- 
gles. There are descendants of his still living, but none 
V)earing his name. The removal of Edward Mosely and 
liis family to the Cape Fear was doubtless caused by the 
relationship between his children and those of Maurice 
!Moore, his brother-in-law. 

Col. Maurice Moore was a churchman, at one time 
sharing with Mosely the distinction of being the strongest 
man in the Province. He was son of the first Governor 
James Moore, of South Carolina, whose ancestors belonged 
to one of the oldest and most influential families of Ireland, 
of which the Marquis of Drogheda is the present head. 
His grand-father, Roger Moore, is mentioned by Hume, as 
a man of great ability and capacity, who was forced to fly 
from his country in consequence of an unsuccessful rebel- 
lion in 164 1 against the English. The mother of Maurice 
Moore was daughter of Governor Yeamans. He first came 
to North Carolina as an officer under his older brother. 
Col. James Moore, who with signal ability finished Col. 
Barnwell's work by crushing the Tuscaroras rebellion, and 
was afterwards one of the best of South Carolina's Gov- 
ernors. Col. Maurice Moore married the widow of Samuel 
Swann, the elder. Governor Lillington's daughter, and for 
several years resided in Perquimans county. While a 
citizen of Albemarle he led, under order of Governor Eden, 
a company to defend the people of South Carolina against 



132 

Yemassee Indians, for which the Assembly of that State 
voted him most cordial thanks and a bounty of ^loo. 

About 1723, he, with his brothers, Nathaniel and Roger, 
commonly called *'King Roger Moore," and other rela- 
tives and friends, such as the Porters, Howes, Daniels and 
the children of John Moore, concluded to migrate to Cape 
Fear, and procuring large tracts of land on the waters of 
Town Creek below Wilmington, laid out and settled the 
town of Brunswick. This town for many years was inhab- 
ited by distinguished and refined people. The Assemblies 
were sometimes held there. In it resided some of the 
Colonial Governors. In the course of time Wilmington 
absorbed the population of Brunswick. 

As the settlement of his ancestor, Sir John Yeamans, 
had failed. Col. Maurice Moore is entitled to the distinction 
of being the pioneer of Cape Fear. Owning large estates 
and possessed of great weight of character, he and his 
brothers dispensed a generous hospitality, and exerted 
commanding influence on their community. His sons, 
Maurice and James, one in civil, the other in military life, 
were among our most distinguished men. Maurice was an 
Associate Judge of the General Court under Tryon, along 
with Richard Henderson. He was an able lawyer and a 
staunch advocate of the rights of the people. His pamph- 
lets, one against the Stamp Act and the other signed 
'^Atticus." criticising the acts and character of Tryon, 
show much literary power. In him alone of the three 
Judges did the Regulators appear to trust. He was a 
member of the Congress which formed our State Constitu- 
tion and aided to start the machinery of free government. 

James Moore had high i reputation as a military man 
and was elected in 1775 Colonel of the First Regiment, and 
in 1776, as General, was placed by Congress in charge of 
the southern department. He lived long enough to show 
promise of a brilliant career. In the same house and in 
the same hour in 1777, the struggling patriots lost two of 



133 

Aeir strongest men, Maurice Moore, the jurist, and James 
M'oore, the soldier. 

-Alfred, a son of Judge Maurice Moore, after some effi- 
cient service in the war, became Attorney General of free 
Morth Carolina, and at the close of the century a Judge of 
the Supreme Court of the United States. 

The Ashe family gave to the Province and to the 
Cliurch in the i8th century some of its most brilliant lights. 
There are several Ashe stocks among the landed gentry 
of England. The North Carolina family is from the Ashes 
of Heightsbury, an old borrough in Wiltshire. The name 
^^^ss originally D'Esse, and the pedigree runs back to the 
C2onqueror. The members have been prominent in Eng- 
^ish political life, in parliament and in official station. St. 
^-^^eorge Ashe was Bishop of Cloygher and Deny, and is said 
^^^ have married Swift to Stella in the Bishop's own gar- 
^^n. Another, Edward, was on the Board of Trade at the 
^ime of the purchase of Carolina by the Crown. We find 
J^hn Ashe sent to England in 1703, by the dissenters of the 
^^fDunty of Colleton in South Carolina, for the purpose of 
^liwarting the effi>rts of Governor Nathaniel Johnston to 
disfranchise all not belonging to the Church of England. 
^^Tiile engaged in his mission he died in London, and his 
family, of which John Baptista Ashe was the head, emi- 
grated to the Albemarle section about 1727. He at once 
iDecame prominent in the Province, identifying himself 
"with the people by marrying a daughter of Samuel Swann, 
t:he elder, and thus being connected with Edward Mosely, 
Samuel Swann, the speaker, the Porters, and the Lilling- 
tons. He was at one time a member of the Council and at 
smother Speaker of the Assembly, and had the nerve to 
resist with spirit the arbitrary encroachment of Burring- 
ton, thus incurring his mortal hatred and the abusive out- 
givings of his venomous tongue. His oldest son, John 
. Ashe, as speaker of the Assembly and as Colonel of the 
militia of Brunswick, was foremost in resisting the attacks 



1 34 

on the rights of the Colonies which led to the war of In- 
dependence. He was styled by Jones, the historian, '*the 
most chivalrous hero of the Revolution." Eight years 
before the tea was thrown into Boston harbor by men dis- 
guised as Indians, Gens. Ashe and Waddell, in open day, 
with six hundred men from the Cape Fear region, had the 
daring to march to Bnmswick and force the British men of 
war to surrender two merchant vessels, seized because 
their papers were not stamped, and surrounding Governor 
Tryon's house j took therefrom the Stamp-master who was 
then madie to swear not to execute the duties of his office. 

He was a leader in all the measures looking to resistance 
and a gallant, though unfortunate. General of the Revolu- 
tionary army. His younger brother, Samuel Ashe, was 
educated at Harvard and was a lawyer of ability. He 
likewise was an active patriot, a member of the State Con- 
gress of 1775 and 1776, and one of the Council of thirteen, 
which, during the provisional period preceding the adop- 
tion of the constitution, was the supreme authority of the 
State. 

He was for years one of the first Judges under the con- 
stitution, and then was transferred to the executive chair. 
He* was a man of great force and influence and acknow- 
ledged integrity, and has had the extraordinary honor of 
giving names to a county and two towns of our State. 

Mr. George Davis, in his admirable address before the 
Alumni of his Alma Mater, the University of North Car- 
olina, quotes from Jones' History, * *the Ashe family con- 
tributed more than any other to the success of the Revolu- 
tion in this State. Gen. John Ashe's son, Capt. Samuel 
Ashe, served two campaigns in the Northern States with 
the rank of Captain in the light-horse, and although he re- 
signed his commission, he continued to serve in the mili- 
tia expeditions of the State. So that there were five offi- 
cers of that family actively engaged in the war: *'Gen. 
John Ashe and his son, Capt. Samuel Ashe, Governor 



135 

Samuel Ashe and his sons, Colonel John Baptista and 
Samuel Ashe." Mr. Davis says, **True so far — and he 
might have added, that Gen. Ashe's son, John — '*Mad 
Jack Ashe," as he was called, served nearly throughout 
the war with the rank of Captain, and that the boys, Wil- 
liam, Acourt, and Cincinnatus Ashe, though too young to 
hold commands were old enough to follow the example of 
their sires, and march against the enemies of their coun- 
try." Wm. Shepperd Ashe, member of Congress and 
President of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad Com- 
pany, and the late Thomas Samuel Ashe, Confederate 
States Senator and Judge of our Supreme Court, were 
lineal descendants of Judge and Governor Samuel Ashe, as 
is also Samuel Acourt Ashe, the editor, and many other 
prominent men. 

The family of Lillingtons, both through its male and 
female members, was very influential in the Province from 
early times. Alexander Lillington was Deputy Governor 
of Albemarle in 1693 — '95» ^^^ Gen. Alexander Lilling- 
ton, his grandson, was one of the most daring spirits who 
i^ixaugurated the Revolution, sharing with Caswell the dis- 
tinction of defeating the Tories in the important battle of 
^Vl core's Creek Bridge, his son likewise being an ardent 
Soldier. It has- been already stated that a daughter of 
Q-ov. Lillington was successively the wife of Governor 
^^^alker and of Edward Mosely, and another daughter was 
^xixccessively the wife of Samuel Swann, the elder, and of 
^^aurice Moore, the elder. She was the mother of the 
^xninent lawyer and speaker of the Assembly, Samuel 
^^"wann, the younger, and of the wife of John Baptista Ashe. 
-^Vnother daughter married John Porter, and one of their 
^^ughters became the second wife of Maurice Moore, the 
^Ider, and thus the mother of Judge Maurice and Gen; 
James Moore; so that it appears that most of the Cape Fear 
^^^orthies had in their veins some of the excellent Lilling- 
^on blood. I do not find this name among the peerage or 



136 

gentry of Great Britain, but the high position held by the first 
I/illington in North Carolina, and by his father in Barba- 
does, makes it probable that they were relations of Admi- 
ral Lillingston, who was prominent in the latter half of the 
17th century, the dropping of a letter being very common, 
in the history of families. 

The members of the Davis family of Cape Fear were 
staunch churchmen. Four brothers, Jehu, John, WilliauL 
and Roger joined Maurice Moore's Colony at Brunswick. 
Jehu Davis was the progenitor of an extraordinary array 
of honored and useful citizens. His descendants inter- 
marrying with the Waddell, Ashe, Eagles, Moore and Hill 
families, gave to the State such men as Bishop Thomas F. 
Davis, Dr. Edmund Strudwick, Judge Thomas S. Ashe, 
and Dr. F. J. Haywood among the dead, and George 
Davis, Dr. Edmund F. Ashe, Alfred M. Waddell, and 
Du Brutz Cutlar among the living. He was for years a 
presiding justice of the County Court of Brunswick. In a 
well written and vigorous protest made to the Board of 
Trade in 1735, he and his brother, John, and seven others, 
are described as the nine principal inhabitants of the Cape 
Fear, owning 75,000 acres of land and numbering, with 
their families and slaves, 1,200 persons. The son of Jehu 
Davis, Thomas, and grandson, Thomas F. , father of Bishop 
Davis and the ex-Attoniey General of the Confederate 
States, were both men of high standing, and held ofifices 
of trust in their counties. Nearly all the descendants of 
Jehu Davis are staunch churchman. 

Conspicuous among the churchmen of the old times was 
Edmund Porter, and I believe John Porter, his father. 
Like John Ashe, the latter took part with the dissenters 
and like him was sent to England to oppose their disfran- 
chisement. He was an adherent of Cary in his contro- 
versy with Glover, and has been stigmatized by Dr. 
Hawks and other historians as a traitor and as having 
stirred up the Tuscaroras war. It is now certain that John 



137 

Porter was working for the defence of the chartered rights 
of the people, and as his family associations were with 
ckuTchmen, his son and daughter intermarrying with the 
UUingtons, and his grand-daughter marrying Col. Maurice 
Moore, I think it likely that he was not as alleged either 
a bad man or a Quaker. Nor do I credit the evil charges 
brought against his son, Edmund Porter. Party feelings 
was so excessively strong and foul language so common in 
those days that it is not safe to credit allegations unsup- 
ported by facts. Charges of extorting excessive fees were 
made against nearly all officers. Certainly Edmund Por- 
ter's associations were with good men and he showed com- 
mendable spirit in resisting arbitrary acts of the executive. 
He was for some time member of the Council and Judge 
of the Vice Admiralty Court and the records show that he 
was a man of independent and intelligent judgement, with 
courage to maintain his convictions. It was rather to his 
credit that he was deprived of his seat in the Council by 
the despotic Burrington. 

Christopher Gale was the most imposing figure in the 
^arly judiciary. We have his portrait, his noble counte- 
nance, surrounded by his flowing wig, showing true judi- 
cial dignity. We learn even from his enemy, Urmstone, 
that he was so much trusted that he was called on to fill 
^Very office in the Province except the executive. Under 
his administration as Chief Justice, the General Court 
for the first time took shape as a worthy imitation of the 
Court of King's Bench in England. So far as the records 
prove, he was the first Judge to deliver a charge to the 
grand jury instructing them in their duties, and the first 
to hold Court in a court-house, which was at Edenton. 
He was equal to Mosely in the universality of his employ- 
tnents. Major in the militia. Councillor, Commissioner to 
settle the Virginia boundary line, Commissioner to procure 
aid from South Carolina in the Tuscaroras war, Collector, 
agent to England to procure tjie deposition of th§ terrible 



138 

Burrington. Burrington praised hiin until he refused tc 
allow his Court to be made the instrument of the Governor's 
despotic conduct, and then the praises were changed intc 
curses and vilifications, followed by attempts at persona 
violence. The Lords Proprietors sustained Gale. He waj 
Chief Justice, with a short interval when he was absent h 
England, until 1731. 

As a churchman he stands as high as any other of tb 
men of his day. He was a son of Rev. Miles Gale, recto: 
of Kighley, in Yorkshire. More than one of his ancestor 
were clergymen of the Church, and so was one of hi; 
brothers. The vestry with whom he served praised hi. 
piety and zeal. 

It was his custom to have one of his brothers to read thi 
service of the Church weekly in his own house, for wan 
of a chapel. His letters to his father and the Bishop o 
London, show an earnest desire to procure missionaries fo 
the people so destitute of religious privileges. 

Gale married the widow of Governor Harvey, and Chie 
Justice Wm. Little married their daughter. Judge Litth 
was a lawyer of ability, at one time Attorney General, anc 
at another. Treasurer of the Province. Charges of extor 
tion and perversion of justice were made against him b^ 
the Assembly, but he was vehemently defended by Bur 
rington and his Council ; and as there was never any tria 
we are in no condition to take sides against the ancesta 
of some of the best people of our State. 

In addition to Christopher Gale and Wm. Little ther 
were others who held the high office of Chief Justice whoss 
names should be considered. 

There was Wm. Smith, in Governor Gabriel Jonhston' 
administration, who had his education at one of th- 
English Universities, and was a Barrister of two years stancf 
ing when deemed worthy by the King, at the suggestio 
of the Board of Trade, to occupy the highest judicial offic 
in the Province. He was evidently a man of parts, thoug ' 



139 

ncz^^ escaping charges of corruption, both by Burrington 
annuel members of the Assembly. 

Xater, in Dobbs' time, we have Enoch Hall, who, accord- 
in-^ to Dobbs, hacj a good character, but knowledge of law 
itx an inverse ratio. And then there were Janjes Harell 
ax::i_<i Peter Henly, good men, and Charles Berry, a sound 
a3:3.<i upright judge, who in a paroxysm of insanity com- 
irr^itted suicide. 

Xastly, there was Martin Howard, a convert from the 
ft^ptists, an able lawyer from Rhqde Island, whose resi- 
i^xice there was burnt because of his advocacy of the Stamp 
c;:t. - Obloquy has been heaped on his name by the patriot 
rty^ but as he was allowed to live on his plantation in 
"aven until September,. 1777, unmolested, where he 
clsimed that he had made two blades of grass grow where 
ox^egrew before, and was on friendly terms with Judge 
Ix-edell, it is likely that his chief offence was in adhering 
to the Crowu. With Howard, were Maurice Moore, al- 
ready mentioned, and Richard Henderson as Associate 
Jvidges, who, like Moore, espoused the cause of the Colp- 
CLists. He, Henderson, was an able, faithful and efficient 
officer, and was the father of two very distinguished sons, 
C^hief Justice Leonard Henderson, and Archibald Hender- 
son, an eminent lawyer and member of Congress. The 
^^scendants of Richard Henderson, who are ohurchme;n in 
^^r day, may be numbered by scores; among them there is 
^^Ue more staunch than one of our representatives in Con- 
S^^ss, John S- Henderson. 

A most notable churchman, of the period nearest the 
^Evolutionary struggle, was General Hugh Waddell, the 
^Uuder of the long line of devoted churchmen and useful 
^^d honored citizens, one of whom, Alfred Moore Wad- 
^^11, has recently published an interesting biography of 
^^s ancestors, and has delivered an able address on this 
^^Utennial occasion. 

liis father, of the same name, belonged to a leading fam- 



140 

ily of the great people who emigrated from lowland Scot- 
land, to North Ireland, and was a friend of Rowan and of 
Dobbs. Hugh Waddell, the younger, emigrated to North 
Carolina in 1754, when about twenty years of age. He 
won laurels, when barely of age, in the campaign in which 
Washington gained his first military experience, being 
promoted from I/ieutenant to Captain. As Major, he 
marched with General Forbes to Fort Du Quesne. In the 
next year, 1759, we find him protecting the North Caroli- 
na frontiers against the Indians by building forts and 
fighting, when need required. Two years later, in com- 
mand of North Carolina troops, he assisted in humbling 
the Cherokees. In 1765, he joined with John Ashe in 
leading forcible resistance to the execution of the Stamp 
Act. He took part in the campaign against the Regulators, 
being in command of the militia of the West. Cien. Wad- 
dell was interested in civil as well as military affairs, serv- 
ing as a member of the Assembly from Rowan and from 
Bladen. Marrying Mary Haynes he settled on Cape Fear 
River at Rocky Point, at a plantation then and now called 
Castle Haynes. Having great military talents and expe- 
rience, being of indomitable pluck and energy, possessed 
of large wealth, a big brain, commanding manners and 
impetuous zeal for liberty, he seemed destined to stand 
high on the roll of the great generals who justified the 
confidence reposed in them by Washington. He was cut 
off by disease two years before blood flowed at Concord and 
Lexington and before his kinsmen and friends began to 
arm in preparation for the coming conflict. 

It is remarkable that North Carolina should have lost by 
disease in the opening days of the Revolutionary struggle, 
two of her most eminent military leaders, James Moore 
and Waddell, and also her most trusted statesman. John 
Harvey. 

A citizen of Wilmington, conspicuous for attachment to 
Church principles and for faithfulness in his civil duties 



141 

was John Burgwin, a younger son of a good Welch family, 
who landed in America in 1751, and was a co-partner in 
business with Waddell. His first wife, one of the heires- 
ses of Castle Haynes, died childless. By his second wife, 
Miss Bush, of England, he was the father of J. F. Bur- 
g^wyn, of New Berne, and George B. Burgwin, of Wil- 
mington. The first was grand-father of one of the dele- 
gates to the General Convention in 1886 and 1889, ^^om 
the Diocese of North Carolina, Col. W. H. S. Bur- 
gwyn; the latter was father of one of the delegates from 
the Diocese of Pittsburg, Mr. Hill Burgwin. John Bur- 
gwin was clerk of the Council and Public Treasurer under 
Dobbs and Tryon, and had their full confidence. He was 
noted for strict business principles and talents as an ac- 
countant, his reputation in this regard extending even into 
the remotest regions where the Regulators nourished their 
hatred of free bills and taxes. 

General Robert Howe, a scion of the noble house of 
Howe, in England, and a descendant of Gov. James Moore, 
of South Carolina, and of Job Howe, one of the friends and 
supporters of Col. Maurice Moore, at Brunswick, was a 
churchman. 

Prior to the Revolution, he acted as Associate Judge on 

the bench with Chief Justices Berry and Howard. He was a 

member of the Assembly under Governor Martin and of 

the Provincial Congress of 1775, and was one of the leaders 

in the opposition to the Governor. He was foremost in 

organizing the militia for service in the field. He served 

throughout the war with varied fortune, and enjoyed the 

confidence of Washington to a high degree. He died soon 

after the the close of the war while on his way to take his 

seat in the General Assembly of the State, whose freedom 

he aided so largely in securing. Some of the State papers, 

written on the eve of the Revolution, that are certainly to 

te attributed to Gen. Howe, are remarkably fine produc. 



142 

tions, suflFering nothing by comparison with similar papers 
in any other Colony. 

Among the best churchmen of Brunswick must be men- 
tioned Wm. Hill, a native of Boston, who often acted as 
lay reader, said by Josiah Quincy, who lodged at his house, 
in his narrative of his Southern tour, to have been a ''most 
sensible, polite gentleman,'' and * 'warmly attached to the 
cause of American freedom." His wife was a daughter of 
Nathaniel Moore; and their son, Wm. H. Hill, became a 
prominent lawyer and member of Congress, A son of the 
latter, Joseph A. Hill, considered by many, one of the most 
able men in the South, was cut off by disease in early 
manhood. 

Among the later Colonial churchmen may be found 
conspicuous the name of De Rosset. 

On the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Captain Louis 
De Rosset, a man of rank in the South of France gave up 
his fair home for conscience sake and took refuge in Eng- 
land. His merit being known to the celebrated Schom- 
berg, a commission as Captain in the British Anny was 
given him. 

He left one son, Dr. Annand John De Rosset, who took 
his degree at the University of Basle. Dr. De Rosset re- 
moved to Wilmington in North Carolina with two sons, 
the elder of whom Louis Henr>', was speedily made a mem- 
ber of the Council and served in that capacity until the 
Revolution with great faithfulnes.s. Considering himself 
bound by the oath of allegiance, which as Councilor he 
had taken, he returned to England after the evacuation of^ 
Charleston and died childless. His brother, Moses John, 
a physician, served as Captain in the expedition of Col. 
Innes to Virginia. In 1766, the year before his death, as 
Mayor of Wilmington, he addressed a spirited reply to 
Tryon on the subject of the refusal by the people of Wil- 
mington to supply the war sloop. Viper, with provisions, 
because the vessel was engaged in enforcing the Stamp 



143 

A^cit He left a daughter, who became the mother of Judge 
Jolin D. Toomer, and a son, Armand John De Rosset, who 
fox" sixty years was one of the most skilful physicians and 
e^ccellent men of his day in America. This son marrying 
the niece of Hume, the historian, became the father, among 
otilier children, of the venerable Dr. Armand John De Ros- 
s^t: of our day, whom the Diocese of East Carolina delights 
to honor as its Treasurer, and delegate to the General Con- 
v-^ntion, as did the Diocese of North Carolina before the 
ixAdsion. Among his descendants are two clergymen of 
^T:ir Church. 

Col. James Innes deserves to be recorded among the 
Cliurch worthies of the Colonial period although he wa§ 
p:trobably a Presbyterian, when in Scotland. He was an 
oflBcer, according to Governor Dinwiddie, of **unblemished 
c^lxaracter, of great reputation for his bravery and con- 
diact,'' to whom history has not done justice. He was a 
tx^tive of Scotland, of noble family, a tried soldier of ap- 
E>X"oved courage and capacity. He probably came to North 
Osrolina with Governor Johnston. He was for years a 
ixrxember of the Council. He was a Captain in the expedi- 
tion against Carthagena. In 1754, he was selected to com- 
^^xxand the first troops raised by any of the Colonies for ser- 
"^^ice outside its own borders. He marched to Virginia for 
tlxe war with the French, in which Washington acquired 
Ix is first military experience. He did his full duty, and 
"tliat his ejflforts were not successful was due to causes which 
1^« could not control. He died in 1759, after showing his 
devotion to the Church by bequeathing a bell to the Par- 
^sli Church of Cannisbay in Caithness, and ;^ioo sterling 
"^o the poor of the parish. He gave his plantation, con- 
siderable personal estate, his library, and ;^ioo sterling to 
^^und a free school, of which the parson and vestry of St. 
J^mes,' Wilmington, and the Colonel of the New Hanover 
-Regiment were to be trustees. This is the first private 
^^^^uest for a school in the history of the State. Under it. 



;r44 

« 

by Act of Assembly, was founded Innes Academy. 

The Harveys of Perquimans, were prominent among our 
people for several generations. They probably belonged 
to an ancient family in England, descended froir 
De Hem^, one of the officers of William the Conqueror- 
I have a book which has the name and coat of arms o:l 
John Harvey, and the crest is like that of John Harvey, 
of Ickwell Bury, of the county of Bedford. It is noticea- 
ble that in Burke's Peerage the name 'John" is the sole 
christian name of the head of this family for six genera- 
tions. In North Carolina, John Harvey was acting Gov- 
ernor, as head of the Council, in 1678. Thomas Harvey- 
probably his son, was deputy Governor for four years prioi 
to his death in 1699, often acting as Chief Justice of the 
General Court. Both administrations seem to have beer 
successful in the preservation of law and order. 

But the greatest of the name was John Harvey, who, as 
Speaker of the House, had the responsibility of inaugura- 
ting measures which ultimately led to armed resistance- 
He was chairman of the Committee of Correspondence 
with the other Colonies. He had the nerve to issue calls 
for election of delegates to a Provincial Congress to meet ir 
New Berne, to take the place of the Assembly, in case Gov 
emor Martin should dissolve the latter. This Congress 
met notwithstanding a prohibitory proclamation from th« 
Governor, and Harvey was chosen as its moderator, th« 
first legislative body which met in North Carolina in defi_ 
ance of royal authority. In this Assembly there were thre* 
Harveys from Perquimans, John, Benjamine, and Thomas 
and two others, Miles and John, the younger, afterward;^ 
appeared in the Revolutionary legislatures. John Harvey 
the elder, although enfeebled by disease, with conspicuous, 
courage, energy and intelligent statesmanship, kept NortH 
Carolina in line with the other Colonies until his death 
Col. Creecy informs me that in the earlier half of thi;^ 
centur>' there lived at Edenton three elderly sisters, grand- 



145 

daughters of John Harvey, Misses Peggy and Patsy Har- 
vey and Mrs. Cranberry, very prim and precise patterns of 
old school etiquette; so exceedingly devout and attached 
to the Church that it was said of them that **they would 
never die, but would blow away and fly to the church 
steeple and stick there.'' The last of the lineal descen- 
dants of the great patriot are three maiden ladies of Hert- 
ford, Perquimans county, of the best type of womanhood, 
the best of christians, and like their ancestors, as far back 
as tradition goes, members of our Church. 

When Harvey died, Samuel Johnston, a churchman of 
W'ealth, patriotism, cultivation and ability, took his place 
as Moderator; and soon, as Chairman of the Provincial 
Council, was the first executive of our State. He was a 
tiephew of Governor Gabriel Johnston, and son of John 
Johnston, Chief Surveyor of the Province, a man of great 
^xxfluence and high standing. Although his greatest ser- 
V'ices to the State as legislator. Governor and Judge were 
^^ot in Colonial times, yet he was a man of much influence 
^fc>r many years prior to the Revolutionary struggle. He 
"^^as Naval officer of the Crown, and an active member of 
le Assembly. He was a supporter of Tryon in the sup- 
ression of the Regulators, but was soon afterwards in the 
►3)position, promoting the movement for resistance with 
^Xich activity and intelligence that he was chosen to take 
le place of Harvey. His further great career I will not 
race. As leader of the conservative wing of the Whig party 
.e aided in moderating the violence of the Radical element. 
The brother-in-law of Samuel Johnston was James Ire- 
.ell, the Collector of the Port, a bright young lawyer in 
Colonial times, who rose to be one of the ablest Judges of 
-Tie Supreme Court of the United States. 

Neighbors or connections of the Johnstons were, besides 
lose I have mentioned. Col. Richard Buncombe of Tyr- 
ill, a man of wealth and generous hospitality, who 



146 

equipped a company at his own expense and lost his life sl 
Germantown. 

There was Col. John Dawson, a lawyer, husband o 
Gabriel Johnston's daughter, living at Eden House, notec 
for his hospitality and refined society, whose son, Wm 
Johnston Dawson, became a member of Congress, and wa; 
one of the Commissioners to select the site and report thi 
plan of the city of Raleigh, giving his name to one of it 
streets. 

Another was Dr. Cathcart, of great wealth and cultiva 
tion, one of whose daughters was the wife of Samuel John 
ston and mother of the late James Cathcart Johnston 
There was also Thomas Jones, one of the ablest lawyers 
who is said to have been the chief author of the Constitu 
tion of 1776. And there were Joseph Hewes, one of th^ 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, who showed ; 
rare constancy by living a bachelor because of the death o 
his affianced, Isabella Johnston; and Robert Smith, hi 
partner, an ofiicer in the army and a member of the legis 
lature; and Thomas Barker, the legal instructor of Samue 
Johnston, and appointed, though not acting, with Mosely 
Swann and Allen to revise the laws of the Province. 

Another of the Albemarle churchmen, a very accom 
plished man, Charles Johnson had an eventful life. Hl 
name was originally Johnston, or Johnstone, being lik» 
Gabriel Johnston, a member of the great Johnston family 
of South Scotland, of which the Earl of Annandale wa 
head. When but a youth he followed the unfortunat 
Charles Edward and after CuUoden escaped to the contr 
nent, and for policy's sake changed his name to Johnsor 
He afterwards lived in Scotland and then spent some yeai 
in London in the service of the East India Compan^g 
Becoming a widower he removed to the Albemarle section 
and afterwards married a daughter of Rev. Daniel Earl, t 
whom he had one son, Charles Earl Johnson, the fathe 
of the eminent physician, and grandfather of the Treasure 



147 

of the Diocese of North Carolina, both of the same name. 
Charles Johnson was a very accomplished man and an ar- 
dent patriot, of great influence, serving faithfully in the 
State legislature and in the National Congress. He was 
also Vice-President of the Fayetteville Convention of 1789, 
which adopted the Federal Constitution, Gov. Saml. John- 
ston being President. There were no more refined commu- 
nities in the country than the circles of Church people, 
who resided in and around the old Capital of the State, 
and in and around Brunswick, Wilmington and New 
Berne. 

One of the most useful churchmen of the later period of 
the Colonial times was James Davis, a very active man of 
business, who in 1747, imported from Virginia and set up 
at New Berne the .first printing press. On this press he 
printed in good style the first book ever published in the 
State, the Revisal of the Acts of the Assembly, known as 
Swann's Revisal, and familiarly called, from the color of 
the binding, the ** Yellow Jacket.'' Davis was public prin- 
ter until the removal of the seat of government from New 
Berne to Wilmington, in 1764. He was likewise the pio- 
neer of periodical literature, publishing the first journal, 
With the ambitious title of * *The North Carolina Maga- 
zine, or Universal Intelligence," issued once a week, a 
Small quarto of eight pages, begining June ist, 1764, for 
four pence a number. He was also the first mail con- 
tractor, agreeing with the Assembly to **carry the public 
letters, expresses and dispatches relating to the Province, to 
^ny part thereof, and every fifteen days send a messenger 
to Suffolk, in Virginia, and to Wilmington" for one year at 
^ compensation of ;^ioo 6s 8d procln. money. What 
l^is charges were for private letters does not appear. That 
lie had the general confidence is proved by his being elect- 
ed a Burgess of the Assembly while holding the office of 
SherifiF. He was refused his seat on this account, but we 



148 

find him a member afterwards. Probably he gave up the 
office of Sheriff". 

John Haywood, the founder of a family which has given 
many distinguished churchmen to our State, was a 
nephew of Sir Henry Haywood, of England. He was 
bom in Barbadoes and settled about 1730 in Halifax 
county, in North Carolina. He was Treasurer of the 
Northern counties, about the middle of the i8th century. 

His son. Col. Wm. Haywood, removed to Edgecombe- 
county, and was one of its leaders in promoting the Revo- 
lution; serving on the Committee of Safety, and in all the 
various State Congresses and General Assemblies, until his 
death in 1779. From him and his brothers, Sherwood and 
Egbert, are descended some of the most distinguished peo- 
ple of our State, notably. Judge John Haywood, a very 
able lawyer of North Carolina and Tennesssee, and author 
of a history of Tennessee; Treasurer John Haywood, 
whose name belongs to a county and a town of our State, 
and Wm. H. Haywood, a Senator of the United States. 

Col. Philemon Hawkins, Senr., the founder of a large 
and exceedingly influential family, emigrated to Warren 
county, then Bute, about 1737, from Virginia. He was 
the chief aid to Tryon in the Alamance campaign, and was 
one of the most sagacious and prudent in his community. 
His son, Benjamin Hawkins, was selected by Washington 
as one of his aids; fought at the battle of Monmouth, and 
was afterwards one of the first Senators of the United 
States under the Constitution; while one of his grandsons, 
Wm. Hawkins, was Governor of the State in the begin- 
ning of the war of 181 2. 

One of the most sturdy patriots, one of the most ad- 
vanced in Republican ideas, one of the most simple in his 
habits and trusted among his fellow citizens, was John 
Starkey. He was for years Treasurer of the Southern 
Province. He had such influence in the Assembly that 
Dobbs charged that he acquired his power by lending 



149 

money to the members. He is said to have been an or- 
dained minister of the Church and to have had regular 
services in his dwelling house. His son, Edward Star- 
key, was a legislator in Revolutionary times, and a mem- 
ber of the first Council under the Constitution of 1776. 

Richard Caswell, the first Governor, and one of the 
leaders of the Revolution, in military and civil life, was a 
prominent churchman in Colonial days. He was an emi- 
nent lawyer, was Public Treasurer of the Southern part of 
the Province; as Colonel of the militia of Dobbs county 
commanded the right wing of Try on' s army at Alamance, 
and held the high position of Speaker of the Assembly. 
So high was he valued by Tryon, that he endeavored un- 
successfully to have him appointed one of the Associate 
Judges under Chief Justice Howard. Executive bland- 
ishments could not swerve him from patriotism, and he 
devoted his civil and military talents, which were of a high 
order, to the cause of independence. 

Prominent among the Tories were Edmund Fanning,* 
sippointed by Tryon Associate Judge in the place of 
i^aurice Moore removed for opposition to the Stamp Act; 
<}olonel of the militia and Register of Orange, and the 
object of the vengeance of the Regulators for exacting ex- 
cessive fees and for taking the lead in enforcing obnoxious 
laws; afterwards a General in the King's Army and Lieu- 
tenant Governor successively of Nova Scotia and of Prince 
Edward's Island; a good scholar too, a D. C. L. of Oxford 
University, and an LL. D. of his Alma Mater, Yale Col- 
lege, and of Dartmouth. 

And the names at least should be recorded of John Fro- 
bock, the land Surveyor of Salisbury, and* Henry Eastace 
McCuUock, with his claims as agent, and in his own right, 

*In Sabine's ''American Loyalists," Edmund Fanning is said to have 
been Gov. Tryon*s son-in-law. Sabine, however, does not seem to me 
to be altogether reliable in his statements about North Carolina matters. 

J. B. C.,Jr. 



of acres broad enough for a principality ; and Earl Gra 
villa's agents, Francis Corbin, and Thomas Childs, tl»^ 
latter at one time Attorney General. 

It would be a labor of love to continue this narrative; o 
the men of our Church in Colonial days, worthy and ua. 
worthy, but my paper is already too long. I will giv"< 
rapid notice of Some of them and close my work witl 
regrets for its incompleteness, and possible injustice tc 
those worthy of all honor. 

Among these should be mentioned Henry Baker, wh.< 
settled in what is now Hertford county, in 1720, amon^ 
whose descendants are Lawrence Baker, prominent in tlB-< 
Committees of Safety, and State Congresses of the Revol 
tion, and that excellent gentleman of the old school, D 
Simmons J. Baker, and in our day, Wm. Lawrence Sau 
ders, our Secretar}' of State, who is doing so much for tlm- * 
elucidation of North Carolina history. 

And there is Thomas Lenoir, of Edgecombe, a Hugu^ 
not, coming by way of Virginia, who bequeathed a Pray^ 
Book to each of his children. He was father of General Wi^ 
Ham Lenoir, of Wilkes, a Kings Mountain hero, a Speak ^ 
of the Senate of North Carolina, President of the Board -^ 
Trustees of the University, after whom an Eastern coun ^ 
and Western town are named. 

And then there was John Norwood, of Bute, now Fran^ 
lin county, an active churchman, the layreader in h^ 
parish, who married Leah, daughter of Thomas Leno:X 
and was father of the excellent Judge William Norwoo ^ 
of post revolutionary times, and progenitor of many fair^ 
lies of gi-eat influence in our State. 

There was also Jonas Johnston, of Edgecombe count I 
who distinguished himself in civil as well as military li^ 
a member of the Congress of 1776 which adopted o '^ 
State Constitution, and of the General Assembly of 1777 — 
'78; a Major in the Continental Army, wounded at Stoix^ 
and dying in service. 



I must include in my chronicle, the ancestor of the 
Sxxiiths of Scotland Neck, among them one of our most 
M^ise and influential members of the legislative Councils of 
oxxr Church, Diocesan and General, Richard H. Smith. 
T^his was Nicholas Smith, who, with his brothers, set- 
tled on the Moratoch (now Roanoke) river, about the year 
17 18, coming from Virginia, and worshipping in Kehukee 
Chapel on Chapel Run, which was standing in ruins in 
1795. Some of the bricks of the old chapel, by the pious 
providence of Mr. Richard H. Smith, are now in the 
ixorth-east comer of the new Trinity Church of Scotland 
Meek. I must name too, Robert Williams, an emigrant 
firom Wales, about 1730, and living to the advanced age of 
one hundred and five years, on Tar River. His son, John 
W'illiams, of Pitt county, great grand-father of one who 
\^^as for many years a colleague of Mr. Richard H. Smith, 
i^tx the General and Diocesan Conventions, Judge William 
. Battle, built a Church at his own expense and donated 
^lebe for its support. 

John Williams was an active patriot in civil affairs in 
evolutionary times, as was his nephew, Dr. Robert Wil- 
liams, who served as surgeon throughout the war. 

Worthy of mention too is old school-master Tomlinson, 
f the Newbem Academy, who did excellent work in 
oulding the characters of the Colonial boys, using chin- 
Tiapin and hickory switches with such keen severity as 
provoke the ire of parents, losing his place by too dili- 

practice of a precept of King Solomon. 

And there was another most worthy John Williams, in 

olonial times, a lawyer, for many years an honored 

upreme and Superior Court Judge, under the State Con- 

itution of 1776. It was from him that Williamsboro in 

e county of Granville was named, and it was he who in 

^785, moved old St. John's Church, built in 1754, to its 

Present site, and donated the site to the Church, with 

reversion to the heirs of Chief Justice lyconard Henderson, 




in case it shall cease to be used for religious purposes. He 
passed, with little preparation, from the carpenter's bench 
to that of a Judge. He is not to be comfounded, tradi* 
tion says, with a lawyer of the same name, called ^'Britisk 
John, ' ' who was scourged by the Regulators for taking 
cases against them. 

In this list should be included the names of Dr. Joh_ 
Leigh and William Clements, both of Tarboro, the onl 
lay members of the first Convention of the Diocese, c^^n 
June 5th, 1790. And it should be recorded that v ei 7 
many of the old families of Edgecombe county, such ^^ss 

the Johnstons, Haywoods, Tooles, Suggs, Irwins, Pender h 

Knights, were Church people, worshipping in St. Mary ^s 
church and several chapels in the country districts. 

I must not omit Major John Daves, of New Berne, 
an ancient Virginia family, coming to North Carolina 
1770, who fought under General Nash at Germantowi 
was in the battle of Brandywine and was wounded at Stonrr=^y 
Point, and fought again at Eutaw Springs. 

A prominent churchman too, was Abner Nash, the 
yer and war Governor, father of the late Chief Justii 
Nash, and so were his brothers. General Francis Nash wt-^o 
was clerk of the General Court of Orange, and fell ga»— 1- 
lantly fighting at German town; and Thomas Nash, Seni^ 
Warden of the Church at Eden ton, whose daughter ma — 
ried the rector of the old Banford Church in Petersbun 
and was the mother of Judge Duncan Cameron. 

There were likewise Thomas Person, the wealthy Rej 
lator, a General of militia during the war, afterwards- 
trusted legislator and benefactor of the University ; ai 
Joel Lane, too, who removed from the Albemarle count: 
to the county of Wake, was a true patriot and legislator 
the State Revolutionary Congresses, now chiefly remei 
bered by his prominence in selecting the site of the Ui 
versity, and by the fact that his plantation at Wake C01 
House became the site of the city of Raleigh. Servii 



153 

with Lane's ancestors on the vestries of Albemarle, was 
Wm. Badham, a church-warden of St. Paul's Church of 
Edenton ; selected with Edward Mosely and Edmund Gale, 
by the legislature in 1733, for the sale of lots in Edenton. 
He was also Clerk of the General Court in the stormy days 
of Everard and Burrington, and often represented the 
county of Chowan and the Burough of Edenton in the 
General Assembly. 

There was too, Samuel Strudwick, a member of the 
Council, one of the pioneer owners of the beautiful grass- 
lands of the Haw, the ancestor of many churchmen; and 
Wm. Herritage, of Lenoir county. Clerk of the Assembly 
and an eminent lawyer; and John Wright Stanly, the en- 
terprising merchant of New Berne, who lost most of a 
large fortune in the patriot cause. 

We must add Wm. Hooper, the bright young lawyer 
from Boston, a member of the Continental Congress, and 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Archibald 
Maclaine, an ardent patriot and scholarly lawyer; and Peter 
Mallett, who did great work as Commissary in feeding our 
troops, once strangely suspected of Toryism, but afterwards 
Icnown to be a true Whig*: and many others who did 
:xioble service for their country in the hour of need. 

* Rev. Dr. J. B. Cheshire, Junior, furnishes me with the following ex- 
;planation in regard to the cause of the odium against Mallett, obtained 
^rom his grandson, the late Dr. Johnston B. Jones, of Charlotte: — 

In the Act of Pardon, and oblivion passed by our Assembly 1783, C 6; 
J^eter Mallet, David Fanning, and Samuel Andrews are by name ex- 
empted from its benefit. No man stood higher for character in North 
Carolina, than Peter Mallett: no man was more deservedly infamous than 
David Panning. A word of explanation is demanded to vindicate the 
fame of the former. At the time of Comwallis* retreat down the Deep 
lUver and Cape Fear valley, after his disastrous victory of Guilford 
Court House, Peter Mallett, acting in the service of North Carolina as 
Commissary for the Patriot Army, had gathered large quantities of sup- 
plies in the very line of the British march. Their unexpected advance 
to Wilmington threw these welcome supplies into their hands. Mr. 
Mallett applied to the State for payment for these captured stores, but 
was refused, the authorities taking the ground that, as he had not for- 




154 

There is extant a petition fonraided to Governor Josi 
Martin, in 177 1. in favor of an Episcopal deigyman, 
Mr. McCartney. That the subscribers were, nominally 
least, members of onr Chnrclu or supporters, is eviden 
from the character of the paper, and from the fisict that al 
whose procli\'ities are known, were certainly churchmen 
also from the further fact, that none of the signers 
from the Presbvterian sections of the State. The listB 
shows the status of the religious complexion of our publico 
men at a time when our State was about to enter on the 
struggle for independence, and is given to prove the strongs 
hold the Church had among the leaders of the people. 

The names are as follows: John Simpson, Aquila Sugg^ 
William Gray, Richard Ward, Sam. Johnston, Robert: 
Howe, Fr. Mackilwean, Ben. Hardy, Thos. Hines, Rich- 
ard Evans, Edward Hall, William McKinnon, Thos. 
Gray, Jams. Green, Junr., Joseph Leech, Jos. Montfort^ 
Jas. Blount, Wm. Da\ns, Philemon Hawkins, Jno. Camp- 
bell, A. Nash, Hu. Waddell, Andr. Knox, Wm. Thomp- 
son, Joseph Hewes, Jacob Shepherd, Jacob Blount, Jas. 
Bonner, Wm. Haywood, Moses Hall, Jas. Hasell, Jno. 
Rutherford, Lewis De Rosset, John Sampson, Alexr. Me- 
Cullock, Wm. Dr>', Saml. Comue, Marmaduke Jones, Nat 
Duckenfield, M. Moore, John Ashe, L Moore, Corns. Har- 
nett, Rd. Caswell, John Han-ey. 

It appears that from the beginning of our histor\', the 
leaders of both parties, the aristocratic part}' sympathizing 

mally turned them over, they were his private property, and he must bear 
the loss. Finding himself utterly without redress, Mr. IftaUett secured 
formal evidence that the State had denied all interest in the Property, 
and procuring a safe-conduct within the British lines, laid his papers he- 
fore Comwallis, and claimed payment for his private p roper ty taken for 
the use of the British Army. Wliether it was the justice of his cause, 
Comwallis having publicly promised to pay for all private property 
taken for public use, or whether it was that Mr. Mallett had friends to 
second him, may be doubted. At any rate, Comwallis paid his claim. 
The excited state of public feeling resented this Act of Mr. Mallett, but 
there never was any ground to doubt his patriotism. 



155 

with the representatives of the Lords Proprietors and of 
the King, and the popular party, keenly active to their 
inherited rights as Englishmen, and their vested rights 
under their charters and subsequent grants, were at least 
nominally members of the Church of England and desirous 
of its prosperity. 

The fact that starting with this great advantage, the 

people not only wandered from the Church, but regarded 

it with suspicion, and even hatred, suggests some mistake 

in the conduct of its affairs, so monstrous as to reach the 

grade of a crime. Viewing things from our standpoint, 

in the year 1890, we can see that the policy of refusing a 

Bishop to the Colonies, and thus rendering it impossible 

to have a clergy native bom, of sending, as the only 

pastors to the suffering flock, a few missionaries, some weak, 

and others vicious, nearly all profoundly ignorant of the 

ways and modes of thought of those under their charge; 

the policy of endeavoring to force the people to sustain 

such unknown and unrespected clergy, of attempting to 

create a union of Church and State against the convictions 

of very large classes of the people, was a fatal policy. God 

grant that we may not make similar blunders in solving 

the great problems with which we must cope. 



APPENDIX. 



'^Catalogue of Books humbly presented by Edward 
Wosely, Esq., to the Honb'le and most august society for 
fie Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts towards a 
'rovincial Library to be kept in Edenton, the metropolis 
r J^Iorth Carolina." 

^his list diflFers from that given in the MS. , and printed 
I' the first volume of the Colonial Documents, which has 
^en wonderfully corrupted by the carelessness and igno- 
^-xice of copyists, and in some places is unintelligible. 

T^he corrections are due to the industry of Rev. Dr. 
>seph Blount Cheshire, Junior, who acknowledges his in- 
^T)tedness for assistance to the former scholarly Librarian 
^ Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., now a Professor in 
^^ Berkeley Divinity School, at Middletown, in the same 
tate. 

^. Pool. Matthew. Synopsis Criticorum, 5 vols. 

^. Augustinus, (S.) Opera: Col, AgHp^ 1616, 10 vols. 

^. Sanchez (or Sanctius), Caspar. In quartuor libros Regnm: Lugd^ 

^. In Jeremiam: Lugd. 1618. 

^. In Ezechielem: Lugd, 1619. 

<i. [Polanus, Amandtis?] Syntagma theoligiae Christianae: [Hanoviaoe 

^ 15,?] 

7. Leigh, Edward, Body of Divinity, in 10 books : 16S4 or 1662, 

8. Deodatus, Giovanni. Anotations on the Holy Bible : Lond 1648, 

9. Eusebias, Socrates, Evagrius; Ecclesiastical Histories of : \_Camb, 
^83 or i6g2 ?] 

10 Simson, Patrick. History of the Church: [^d edition London^ /^J#?] 

11. Cartwright, Thomas. Harmonia Evangelica: {about i630,'\ 

12. Notationes in totam Scripturam Sacram 

13. [Fuller, Thos.?] Church History of Britain: {Lond i6$s,'\ 

26 Polio volumes. 



158 

Quartos— 

14. Bilson, Bp. Thomas. True difference between Christian Subjection 
and unchristian rebellion: Oxon, i$8s, 

15. Ball, John. Answer to two treatises of Mr. John Carr, the first 

Necesity or seperation \sic\ from the Church of England .... 

the other, a stay against straying; unlawfulness of hearing the 

ministers of the Church of England: Land, 1642. 

16. Birkbeck, Simon. Protestant's Evidence: Lond' 1634, 

17. Rainolds, John. DeRomanae Ecclesiae Idolatria: Oxon. iS9^' 

18. Pierce, Thomas. The Sinner impleaded in his own Court. Lond, 
1679. 

19. Heinsius, Daniel. Exercitationes sacrae ad Novum Testamentum: 
Lugd, Bat 163^; Camb, 1640, 

20. Cartwright, Thomas. Commentarii in • Proverbia Solomonis: 
Amst, 1638, 

21. Usher, Achbpr. James. Britanicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates: 
Dubl, i6z9» 

22. — Answer to a Challenge made by a Jesuite: Dublin, 

23. Buridan, John. Quaestiones super viii libros Politicarum Aristo- 
telis: Oxon. 1640. 

24. Prideaux, John. Faciculus controversiarum Theologicarum: Oxon, 
1 6s 2, 

25. Ball, John. Friendly Trial of the grounds tending to Seperation 
[,sic]: Camb. 1640. 

12 Quarto volumes. 
Octavos — 

26. Francisco Le Rees; Cursus Philosophicus 2 p. 

27. Tertia Pars Sum. Philos. & quarta. 

28. Piccolominaeus; Uni versa Philos. de Moribus. 

29. Davidis Parei Exercitationes Philosophicae. t 

30. Buxtorfs Lexicon. 

31. Dialogue in answer to a Popish Catechism. 

32. Augustinus {S.)\ De Civitate Dei 2 vols. 
38. Greek Grammar. 

32. Hunnius; De Scripto Dei Verbo, &c'. 

33. Comment in Evang. secundum S. Matt. 

34. Eustachii a Sancto Paulo Summa Philosophise quadripartita. 

35. Scheibleri Liber Comment. Topicorum. 

36. Schiekard's Horologium Hebraicum. 

37. Melancthonis Chronicon Carionis. 

38. Calvin's Institutions Christianse Religionis. 

39. Davidis Parei Corpus Doctrinae Christianse. 

40. Aristotelis Organon. 

41. Heckerman's Systema S. S. Theologica. 

42. Systema Logica. 

43. Leusden's Clavis Graeca Novi Testamenti. 



159 

44- Baronii Metaphysica Generalis. 

45. Dounam's Comment in Jet Rami Dialect [?]. 

46. Job. Regii Commentarii ac Disputationes Logacse. 

47. Sallii Ethica. 

48. Buxtorfs Epitome Gramatices Hebraeae. 

49. Heyselbein*s Theoria Logica. * 

50. Amesius de Divina Predestinatione. 

51. Baronis; Annales Ecclesiasticae. 

52. Hugo Grotius; Defensio Fidei Catholicae. 

53. Augustini (S.) Confessiones. 

54. Amesii Medulla Theologica. 

55. Rescriptio Scolastica ad Grevinchovium de Redemptione 

Generali. 

56. Technometria. 

ST-. Wendelini Christiana Theologia. 

58. Lactantii Divinse Institutiones. 

59. Petri Cunaei de Republica Herbraeorum. 

60. Hebrew Psalter. 

36 Octavo volumes. 

In all seventy-four volumes. 



>LONIAL PARISHES AND CHURCH SCHOOLS. 

BY THE REV. ROBERT B. DRANE. 

When the Lords Proprietors in England acquired pos- 
^ion of this fair land of Carolina, and considered the 
:>bleni how to make the most out^of their extensive do- 
lin, they wisely concluded that their Colonists, in order 
"be at peace among themselves, and to be profitable 
nants to their Proprietors, must be under the govem- 
^nt of the civil magistrate and in the enjoyment of 
ligion, public and private. 

Looking to these ends, they employed the wisdom of 
e philosopher, John Locke, and adopted his design that 
e whole Province should be divided into eight counties, 
> be named after the Proprietors) and every county into 
ur precincts, and that for the promotion of religion every 
Le of these precincts should be a parish. 
But this design was never fully carried out. It included 
e territory of South Carolina, as well as that of North 
irolina. In the course of human events, these became 
ro Provinces, and two quite different systems of religious 
gulation prevailed in the two. 

Our concern is with North Carolina, where the regula- 
)ns for religion were milder; the Church of England was 
r law established, but liberty of conscience was guaran- 
ed to the individual, and conformity to the Church was 
)t enforced 

Now as to evidences of the execution of the above 
an: — as early as 1669, there is reference to **the Fower 
recincts of Albemarle" (C. R. vol. I. 181.) 
The Rev. Mr. Blair in 1703, states that there are five 



l62 

Precincts in the Colony, and he seems to use the terms 
*Trecinct";and **Parish" interchangeably. (C. R., I. 602.) 
And these were probably erected by Act of Assembly of 
the Province of November 12th, 1701, when we know 
that twelve Vestrymen were appointed for St. Paul's 
Parish, Chowan Precinct. 

In 1705, the Colony consisted of two counties, Albe- 
marle and Bath, and these were divided into four precincts 
for Albemarle, Currituck, Pasquotank, Perquimans and 
Chowan, each of which was also a Parish since 1701, and 
Bath county divided into three precincts, Pamptecough, 
Wickham and Archdale, but in the act erecting these, 
there is no mention of making three Parishes, so that I 
suppose that out of the three we can get but the one 
Parish of St. Thomas, Pamplico. (C. R., I. 629.) 

The Vestry Act of 170 1, has not come down to us, but 
out of available sources of infonnation, I conclude that the 
original Colonial Parishes of the Province of North Caro- 
lina were: — 

Currituck; Pasquotank, St. John's; Purquimans, Berke- 
ley Parish; Chowan, St. Paul's; and Bath (Pamplico,) St. 
Thomas', all in 1701. 

Urmstone in 1714 speaks of seven vestries (C. R. II. 
126.), may we therefore add to the foregoing list Wickham, 
1705; Archdale, 1 705(7) 

By Act of Assembly of 1715, (C. R. II. 207) new Par- 
ishes were made as follows: — 

Chowan, South West Parish; Pasquotank, North East 
Parish, (St. Peters?) Wickham became Hyde Parish, and 
Archdale became Craven Parish, all in 1715; and to this 
last all the Southern settlements of the Province were 
assigned **until further divisions be made." And the list 
was increased in the following order, sometimes by the 
erection of a new Precinct and Parish, sometimes by the 
division of a large Parish : — 

S. Bertie, Society Parish; and S. Chowan, South Shore 



Parish, in 1722; N. W. Bertie, North West Parish, 1727; 
Tyrrel, St. Andrews, (same as S. Chowan) 1729; New 
Hanover, St. James, about 1729; Onslow, St. John's, and 
Bladen, St. Martin's, 1734; Edgecombe, Edgecombe Par- 
ish, i74i;New Hanover, St. Philip's Brunswick, 1745; 
Johnston, St. Patrick's, and Granville, St. John's, 1746; 
Duplin, St. Gabriel's, and Anson, St. George's, i749;Orange, 
St Matthew's, 1752; Rowan, St. Luke's, 1753; Cumber- 
land, St. David's, 1754; Johnston, St. Stephen's; Pasquo- 
tank, St. John's, (St. Peters and St. Johns, consolidated); 
Edgecombe, St. Mary's, 1756; Granville, Granville Parish, 
and Northampton, St. George's, 1758; Hertford county, 
St. Barnabas', 1759; Pitt, St. Michael's, 1760; Mecklen- 
burg, St. Martin's, and Tryon, St. Thomas', 1768; Wake, 
St, Margaret's; Guilford, Unity Parish; Chatham, St. 
S^jtholomew's; and Surry, St. Jude's, 1770. 

T^o complete the list of Parishes may be added the 

f^^^Tish of Dobbs, erected on petition of the ^^Unitas Fra- 

'^-«<»f," in that part of Rowan county called Wachovia, in 

^^^5. This was not a Church of England Parish, but was 

^^*^^[anized by the Moravians. 

Originally, Edgecombe county was Edgecombe Parish. 
y^Xien the southern part was set oflF into St. Mary's Parish, 
len the northern part was set oflF into a county, Halifax. 
le name of the Parish unchanged, so that at this period 
^^^-^gecombe Parish was in Halifax county. 

^^^^URCH SHOOLS IN THE PROVINCE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Under the fostering aid of the Society for the Propaga- 
T-^^n of the Gospel in foreign parts, school work was under- 
:en on distinctively religious grounds, as the **instruc- 
ons for school-masters" show, (Anderson, History of the 
^^^^olonial Church III. 69.). 

The slight account we have of the first Colonial Church 

^^hool shows how closely allied was (and ever ought to be) 

^^hurch school work and missionary work. It appears on 



i64 

the first page of Colonial Church School History, that it 
was the good work of Mr. Charles Griffin, a Church of 
England school-teacher in Pasquotank Precinct, which 
made ready a people prepared for the Lord, for the recep- 
tion of the Holy Communion, on Trinity Sunday, 1706, 
from the Rev. Richard Marsden; the first time of its cele- 
bration in these parts, as Gov. Glover some time after 
wrote. He was lay reader as well as school-teacher, and 
tended the good seed sown by the Rev. Mr. Blair's Mis- 
sion of a few years before. 

The Rev. Wm. Gordon writes in 1709 of these people 
**above all, I was surprised to see with what order, decen' 
cy, and seriousness they performed the public worshii^- 
considering how ignorant people are in the other parishes - 
This they owe to the care of one, Mr. Griffin, who came 
here from some part of the West Indies, and has for three 
years past lived amongst them, being appointed reader by 
their vestry, whose diligent and devout example has im- 
proved them so far beyond their neighbors, and by his 
discreet behavior has gained such a good character and 
esteem that the Quakers themselves send their children tc 
his school, though he had prayers twice a day at least, anc 
obliged them to their responses and all the decencies oj 
behavior as well as others." (C. R., I. 714.) 

A sad day it was when that school was stopped by the 
removal of Mr. Griffin to the neighboring Precinct anc 
Parish of Chowan; the Rev. Mr. Adams, a missionary, 
having come to Pasquotank. 

The Chowan vestry minutes show that in 1708, Mr 
Griffin was engaged by the Vestry of St. Paul's Parish x 
lay-reader, hut no mention is made of his teaching school. 

But beyond question, there was a good Church school ir 
Chowan in 17 12, taught by Mr. Masburn, and the resulti 
of his labours, at the time of the Rev. Mr. Rainsford's 
visit, indicate that it must have been in operation for some 
time already. 



i65 

This Missionary had proposed to instruct a son of the 
Chief of the Chowanook tribe of Indians, but it was 
decided to send him to Mr. Masbum's school, to Sarum, 
to have him taught to read and write by way of founda- 
tion, in order to a further proficiency for the reception of 
Christianity. (C. R., I. 859.) 

This place **Sarum," is described as on * *the frontiers of 
Virginia, and neighboring upon two Indian towns. ' ' One 
of these was the seat of that Chief of the Chowan Indians. 
Now, any one who has ever seen the vast deposit 
of muscle shells, mixed with human bones, pottery, and 
3shes, on the north bank of Chowan river, near Bandon, or 
Holley's Wharf, cannot doubt the truth <5f Dr. Winbome's 
^njecture, that here was the location of an important 
tow^n of the Indians. This is about three miles from Bal- 
lard's Bridge, where, in after years, stood one of the Colo- 
Dial Chapels of St. Paul's Parish, which was, I am confi- 
detxt, the **Sarum Chapel" of the Vestry Book. 

^r. Rainsford. the Missionary, visited Mr. Masburn's 

^hool, at Sarum, and found the teacher highly deserving 

of encouragement. He asked the S. P. G. to allow him a 

s^-lary and sought to secure the continuance of the work. 

M^ir. Rainsford reports *'what children he has under his care 

^^xi both write and read very distinctly, and gave before 

^^^ such an account of the grounds and principles of the 

S^ristian Religion, that strangely surprised me to hear it." 

^"Vidently, the Bible was in that school! **The man upon 

^ small income would teach the Indian children gratis 

("^^v-liose parents are willing to send them could they but 

P^-y for their schooling) as he would those of our English 

faxnilies, had he but a fixed dependency for so doing. (C. 

^-, I. 859.) This is all that we know of Sarum school. 

At this period, and later, we find scattered through the 
letters of the Missionaries, statements of the need for school- 
^^^ters, and requests that they be sent out in the interests 
^f Religion and Learning. 



i66 

Humphreys, who brought his History of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel down to 1728, in summing 
up what that Society had done for this Colony, states that 
it had **at several times (1701 — 1728), by their Missionaries, 
dispersed here above 300 volumes of bound books, besides 
about ;^JOO worth of small tracts of devotion and instruc- 
tion. A little later than this, in the Rev. Alexander 
Stewart's time, is given a suggestion as to the sort of 
**books of instruction;" some of them were school books. 

And now we leap from Chowan to New Hanover, and 
find this same sort of work going on. The Rev. James 
Moir, the Society's Missionary at Brunswick in 1745, 
lodged in his garret and used down stairs for a chapel and 
school room. (C. R., IV. 755.) 

In 1754, Col Innes, of Cape Fear, made his will pro- 
viding for what seems to have been the first bequest to 
public school education in North Carolina. It was not to 
be a **church school," but **a free school for the benefit of 
the youth of North Carolina," and he named as trustees 
* *The Colonel of the New Honover regiment, the parsoii 
of Wilmington Church, and the Vestry for the time being, 
or the majority of them," this design was not carried out 
As this was the first bequest to public education in Nortiv 
Carolina, so the last intention of the Century, which ^^ 
gone, may be seen in the will of the Rev. John AlexanA^^^ 
recorded in Bertie. He was a Church of England A^^^ 
sionary, licensed by the Bishop of London to Georgia, 
1766, and wrote his will in Bertie county, North Caroli ^ 

in I795-— 

**Should both (my daughters) decease before the 1^^ 

capacitate to will, then my remaining property is to 

wholly converted to educating the poor children witE^ 

the counties of Hertford and Bertie, under such regu^^ 

tions as my executors shall think fit. " This from a cler 

man who goes on to bewail that **the manly, mascul 

voice of orthodoxy is no longer heard in our land. 



167 

therefore from my grave be the senseless Rant of whining 
Fanaticism, her hated and successful rival," shows what 
sort of education he would have preferred. But we turn 
now with pleasure to the plain signs of the Colonial 
Church school, which was established in 1763, in Hyde 
county. 

It was then that the Rev. Mr. Alexander Stewart, the 
S. P. G's Missionary at Bath, being in feeble health, 
visited Atamuskeet in Hyde, for the benefit of sea air. 
(C. R., VI. 995.) He instructed and baptized (besides the 
whites) some Indians and negroes, was deeply moved for 
their welfare and took action, as he described to the Society, 
(which, principally, supported him in his good work). 
Such a man deserves to be listened to. He writes, '*The 
femains of the Attamusket, Roanoke, and Hatteras Indians 
ive mostly along that coast, mixed with the white inhabi- 
:ants. Many of these attended at the places of public 
ivorship, while I was there, and behaved with dencency, 
jeemed desirious of instruction and offered themselves and 
:heir children to me for baptism. And after examining 
some of the adults, I accordingly baptized 6 adult Indians, 
5 boys, 4 girls, and five infants, and for their further 
instruction (at the expense of a society called Dr. Bray's 
Associates, who have done me the honor of making me 
the Superintendant of their schools in this Province,) have 
fixed a school-mistress among them, to teach 4 Indians 
and 2 negro boys and 4 Indian girls to read and to work, 
and have supplied 'them with books for that purpose, and 
hope that God will open the eyes of the whites every- 
where, that they may no longer keep the ignorant in dis- 
tress, but assist the charitable design of this pious society 
and do their best endeavours to increase the kingdom of 
our Lord Jesus Chirst. ' ' 

The Dr. Bray here mentioned was the Bishop of L<on- 
lon's Commissary in Maryland, and very active in all good 
Vorks. While impressed with a sense of the duty of this 



i68 

Catholic and Apostolic Church to all men, he felt keenl 
the reproach which was aimed at the Clergy by the ques 
tion **Who made you ministers of the Gospel to the Whiter 
only and not to the Tawneys and Blacks also?" (Andetr 
son Hist. Col. Ch. II. 418 — 19.) 

In Holland he became acquainted with a Mr. D' Allen e- 
with whom he frequently conversed upon the degradec 
state of the slave population in the English Colonies, and 
from whom he received a bequest of ;^90o with a view 0: 
forming a fund to be applied to their instruction. Dr- 
Bray having undertaken the trust, and having been 
attacked in 1723 with an illness which threatened to ter- 
minate his life, nominated certain persons to carry on the 
work. Their authority was confirmed by a decree in 
Chancery, in 1731, the year after his death, and the title 
of **Dr. Bray's Associates" which they received in 1733 
has ever since been retained by them. 

At first, the interest of the Fund committed to their 
hands was applied to the support of a catechist for the 
negroes in Georgia. It has since been devoted, with othei 
benefactions for the same object, to the maintenance oi 
schools for the education of negro children in Nova Scotia, 
Philadelphia and the Bahamas." 

Anderson might have added North Carolina, and possi- 
bly others, to the field of its benefactions. I cannot trace 
that school further, but that it or other Church educational 
work lingered in the minds of the people is evident from 
the traditions of that part of Hyde county. 

For the higher education of youth, there was a private 
school maintained in Chowan county at this time, or a fev, 
years later, by the Rev. Daniel Earl, at Bandon, his 
home on the north shore of Chowan river, about fifteer 
miles above Edenton. 

He was assisted in this work by his daughter. Miss 
Nancy, who was never married. The course of instruc- 
tion included Mathematics, Latin and Greek, besides the 



169 

usvLstl English branches. Mr. Earl was at the same time 
R^otor of St. Paul's Parish, Chowan. The school was 
instrumental in inculcating Church principles, which 
wexre fruitful in the activities of such men as Mr. Collins, 
in "the first quarter of this century. 

In 1757, Governor Dobbs recommended to the Society 
fox- the Propagation of the Gospel, that it should establish 
a school for the benefit of the Catawba Indians, some- 
wlaere in the region of Salisbury or Charlotte, and offered 
a d^onation to that object. The Society thereupon resolved 
to establish such a school so soon as a competent teacher 
coxild be procured. Nothing seems to have come of this. 
(A^xinual Report of S. P. G. 1758.) 

"T^he first mention we find of a school enterprise in New 
B^ine, which afterward became quite prominent, is in Act 
of Assembly of 1764, for erecting a school house on part of 
ttie Church property. The house was to be built by pri- 
VQ.t:e subscription. 

In June, 1764, the Rev. James Reed, writing from New 
B^xne, to the S. P. G. says, **we have now a prospect of a 
V'^xy flourishing school in the town of New Berne. In 
I^^cember last, Mr. Tomlinson came here . . . and, on the 
fix-st of January, he opened a school in this town and imme- 
diately got as many scholars as he could instruct, and many 
^^^re have lately ofiered than he can possibly take, to do 
^■t^^m justice. He has therefore wrote to his friends in 
^xigland to send him an assistant.'' A subscription for a 
^^^Tiool house was started. Doubtless this was for a larger 
T^^^use than the one previously mentioned, required by the 
^■^^ crease of the school. The subscription was made paya- 
. le to the Missionary who was evidently deeply interesited 
the scheme. (C. R. VI. 1048.) 

In 1765, the citizens of New Berne petitioned Governor 

ryon that he would move the Society for the Propaga- 

5)n of the Gospel to allow Mr. Tomlinson a stipend to 

^^ach the children useful learning and the principles of the 



170 

Christian religion as professed in the Church of England. 
This the Society did, granting him ;^io for that year, and 
for 1766 ;^i5, which seems to have become a settled 
annual stipend to the teacher. 

(At this point I must acknowledge my indebtedness to 
the Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, for abstracts of docu- 
ments inaccessible to me. The publication of vols. VII 
and VIII of Colonial Records will facilitate the further 
study of this and kindred subjects.) 

About this time, Mr. Reed wrote that the school house 
was building and Mr. Tomlinson doing well. It must 
have been completed in 1766, for in November of that 
year, the preamble to Act of Assembly makes the follow- 
ing statements: * Whereas, a number of well disposed 
persons, taking into consideration the great necessity of 
having a proper school, or seminary of learning established, 
whereby the rising generation may be brought up and 
instructed in the principles of the Christian Religion and 
fitted for the several offices and purposes of life, have at a 
great expense erected and built, in the town of New Berne, 
a convenient house for the purpose aforesaid, and being 
dcsirious that the same may be established by law on a 
permanent footing, so as to answer the good purposes by 
the said persons intended, therefore Trustees were to be 
elected to whom a charter was given. This is really a 
sort of reincorporation of the trustees, and it provides for a 
tax on rum imported, to raise a salary of ;^2o per annum 
for the School-Master, to enable him to employ an assistant. 
In consideration of this salary, he was required to admit 
ten poor scholors, tuition free, upon nomination of the 
Trustees. 

The Teacher must be a member of the Church of Eng- 
land and licensed by the Governor. 

Now, from all this it is evident that the New Berne 
Academy was begun as a private enterprise, on Churchly 
lines: that, desiring a charter the Trustees of the Academy 



171 

agpreed to receive the income of a penny a gallon on im- 
ported rum, and to give an equivalent to the State in the 
education often poor scholars: that all along, the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel (a voluntary organiza- 
tion among churchmen in the Mother Country) paid a por- 
tion of the teachers salary. 

The New Berne Academy is to be regarded as conducted 
on as equitable a plan, considering the rights of all citizens, 
as that age was anywhere capable of showing. 

The churchmen of Edenton were not far behind those of 
ivhom we have just been speaking, although they did not 
undertake the responsibility of State aid. 

By the year 1770, they had bought two lots of land, 
built a school house thereon, and petitioned for a charter 
securing, among other things, that a Church of England 
man should be the teacher. 

The old Academy building is still standing, but the 
records of the Proceedings of the Trustees do not antedate 
1800. 

Now, to sum up, the earlier of the Colonial schools were 
very much like what we have to-day among the Indians, 
and wherever the policy is to rear up the rising genera- 
tion in the knowledge and love of God, and in obedience 
to His Kingdom. The later were like some of our Paro- 
Cihial schools, in ,'well settled communities, in which the 
spirit of the instruction is secured to loyalty to Christ and 
His Church, while most attention is given to human 
learning. 

We do not desire the State's aid in such, nor court the 
State's interference, but if, in any case, the State should 
T^argain fairly for educational facilities, it might be accepted 
T^y us without bitter denunciation. 

And when we think of mens civil and religious ideas 
one hundred and fifty years ago in North Carolina and in 
New England, there is nothing strange in the arrangement 



172 

which w^ made, and which was doubtless faithfully per- 

fMTiKBd by both parties. 

NOTE BY THE EDITOR. 

THE ACADEMIES AT NEW BERNE AND EDENTON. 

The interest and importance of the subject seem to justify the Editor 
i|i adding some particulars in regard to these institutions, which could 
not so well be introduced in the preceding address. 

The Trustees appointed for the New Berne Academy by the Act of 1764, 
C. XX., were the Rev. James Reed, Rector of the Parish, and John Wil- 
liams, Joseph Leech, Thomas Clifford Howe, Thomas Haslen, Richard 
Cogdell, and Richard Fenner, Esqs. 

Hie property appropriated for the purposes of the school was taken 
from the Churchyard. The title to this property had been confirmed to 
the Vestry of Craven Parish by the Act of 1740, C. II. A careful exami- 
nation reveals the fact that this property was in fact given to the Church 
^by Col. Thomas Pollock, one of the original vestrymen of Chowan parish, 
or by his heirs. Hevf perne was built upon the land of Col. Pollock. We 
learn from a letter of Col. Pollock to his agent at New Berne, that he 
gave a lot for the parish Church. Thp title to this lot was confirmed to 
the Vestry by the Act of 1723, -C. XIII. When the Church came to be 
built however, as we learn from the Act of 1740, C. II.; the Vestry were 
allowed to take up, in lieu of the piece of ground originally appropriated 
for that purpose, another more suitable property, consisting of four town 
lots, which were substituted in the place of Col. Pollock's original dona- 
tion. Part of these lots, viz: half of lots Nos. 59 and 60 on the comer of 
Pollock and Craven Streets, were by the Act of 1764, C. XX., appropri- 
ated to the use of the Trustees of the Academy as a site for the proposed 
building. The language of the Act may be interpreted as meaning that 
two buildings were to be erected, one for the Academy and another for 
the residence of the teacher; but it probably intended only one building 
to serve both purposes. 

In the meantime, Mr. Thomas Tomlinson, who had lately come 
from England, induced thereto by the influence of his brother, who 
resided near New Berne, had opened a school in January, 1764, apparently 
under the active patronage of the Rev. Mr. Reed. It was the opportu- 
nity afforded by the presence of this excellent teacher which stirred Mr. 
Reed up to the effort to establish a permanent institution for the benefit 
of the town and tlie people of the country generally. In May, 1765, a 
petition, signed by Mr. Reed and thirty -nine of the principal inhabitants 
of New Berne and its vicinity, was sent to Gov. Tryon, requesting him to 
represent to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the earnest 
desire of the petitioners that the Society would assist them by granting 
Mr. Tomlinson an annual stipend, in order that he might be able to con- 
tinue in New Berne and instruct their children "in such branches of use- 



173 

fal Icaniing ae are neceseary in several of the offices and stations in lifb, 
and imprint on their tender minds the principles of the Christian religion 
agreeable to the establishment of the Church of England.** The Memo- 
rial is signed by the following persons:— 

James Reed, Missionary, John Franck, 

Thomas Clifford Howe, Tho. Pollock, 

Samuel Cornell, Bernard Parkinson, 

John Williams, Wm. Wilton, 

Richard Cogdell, Christ Neale, 

James Davis, Thos. Sitgreaves, 

Peter Conway. Com. Grosnendeyk, 

John Clitherall, Jno. Green, 

Jacob Blount, John Fonville, 

Richd. Ellis, Longfield Cox, 

Francis Macilwean, Jno. Smith, 

Alexdr. Gaston, Cullen Pollock, 

Phil. Ambrose. Richd. Fenner, 

Jacob Sheppard, Amb. Cox Bayley, 

Jos. Jones, Andr. Scott; 

John Daly, Andr. Stewart, 

Will. Euen,. Elin Cotting, 

Timo. Clear, Jno. Moore, 

Jno. Pindar, Alex. Eagles. 
Pat. Gordon, 

Gov. Tryon forwarded this Petition or Memorial to the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, with his hearty approval, giving Mr. Tomlin- 
son a high character; and the Society granted him a yearly stipend, ^lo 
sterling the first year and £1$ thereafter. 

That this scheme for the establishment of an Academy was projected 
and carried through by the Rev. Mr. Reed, is, I think, beyond reason- 
able doubt. This is suggested by his name standing at the head of the 
list of incorporators and of the memorialists of the Society, and it is con- 
firmed by his correspondence, and such other scanty evidence as has 
come down to us. He obtained the original subscriptions, took the notes 
of the subscribers for the several sums promised, collected the funds, 
managed the finances, and gave a laborious and intelligent oversight to 
all its affairs. He had many discouragements and many disappoint- 
ments. He found great difficulty in collecting the money which hadf 
been subscribed, and he had to resort to various ways of meeting the 
cost of the work. In January, 1766, he writes to the Secretary of the Society 
that the building is going on slowly: in July he writes that the house has 
been closed in, but the subscription is completely exhausted, and he has 
preached and begged for it until the "the suppliant is weary and charity 
cold.** The floors were still to be laid and the chimneys to be ^uilf. 
That the work might not stop at this stage he drew upon the Treasurer 
of the Society for his salary for the preceding half year, and sent thf 



174 

draft to New York to buy brick for the chimneys. In the letter convey- 
ing this intelligence, he expresses the hope that by bringing the matter 
forward during the approaching session of the Assembly, which was to 
meet in New Berne in November, 1766, he might be able to raise addi- 
tional subscriptions to complete the building. 

The school-house when completed was a framed structure forty-five 
feet long and thirty feet wide. It cannot be ascertained when Mr. Tom- 
linson began to use it Probably it Jwas occupied before the end of the 
year 1766, or early in 1767. He carried on the work of the school with 
general acceptance and with the best results for a number of years. Gov. 
Tryon says that he was "the only person of repute of that profession in 
the country/* and Mr. Reed says that he was the only teacher who had 
kept a school in New Berne who had no trouble in collecting his bills 
for the tuition of his pupils. In July 1765, he had thirty scholars from 
whom he received twenty shillings by the quarter in proclamation 
money, equivalent for the whole to about sixty pound sterling per annum. 
This was presently augmented by the grant from the Society, and in 

1766, the Vestry of the Parish gave him twelve poimds in the local cur- 
rency for acting as lay-reader in the absence of Mr. Reed, who had a 
number of chapels in Craven and the adjoining counties. 

It seems that after all the school-house was not erected upon the lot 
cut off from the church-yard, as was contemplated by the Act of 1764, 
C. XX. The Board was re-organized by the Act of 1766, C. XIX. By 
this act it appears that the Trustees had bought a piece of ground from 
one William Bastin Whitford, and had built the house upon that lot; 
nevertheless, the Act confirms to the Trustees the title to the lots taken 
from the church-yard. The Act further directs that the subscribers to 
the Academy fund should hold a meeting on the first Tuesday in April, 

1767, and choose eleven of their number to form the Board of Trustees. 
Hiese Trustees, when thus elected, were to constitute a close corporation 
to hold the property of the school and to manage its affairs, under the 
name and style of the ^^Incorporated Society for Promoting and Estab- 
lishing the Public School in New Berne.'' 

It is declared in the preamble of this Act that the purpose of those who 
had established this school was that *'the rising generation may be 
brought up and instructed in the principles of the Christain religion, and 
fitted for the several offices and purposes of life." The second section 
therefpre provides that the Master shall be a member of the Episcopal 
Church, chosen by the Trustees and licensed by the Governor. 

Hie Act further provided for the tax on distilled spirits imported into 
Neuse river, as mentioned by Mr. Drane, for the benefit of the 
school, and in order to pay Mr. Tomlinson twenty pounds yearly towards 
the salary of an assistant teacher. This Act was to continue in force 
seven years. In consideration of the revenue thus granted to the school, 
ten poor children, whose parents were unable to pay their tuition, should 
be nominated by the Trustees, and these children were to receive the 



175 

benefits of the school free of charge. This is the only public provision 
ever made for the school. In May, 1768, Mr. Reed estimated that this 
duty upon spirits would 3rield an annual revenue of sixty pounds, which 
would be sufficient to pay Mr. Tomlinson twenty pounds towards the 
salary of his assistant, and also to supply during the seven years of its 
continuance a fund which would pay off all the indebtedness of the 
Trustees, and enable them to complete the building. In March, 1772, to 
anticipate a little, Mr. Reed sent the following account of the income and 
expenses of the school for the preceding three years : 

Cr., 

By net proceeds of duty on spirituous liquors ^^247 114 

Rent of school house chamber by the Assembly of 1 769 ... 20 o o 

•* ** ** *' ** for 1770 and 1771, ;f 40 each . . 80 o 6 

Ground rents, first payment June 16th, 1771 19 rb o 

367 I 4 

Annual income average /*I22 7 i 

Dr., 

To Assistant Master j^to o 6 

" poor scholars, supposing 10 at £% 40 o o 

" books, paper, fire-wood, &c., for same .... 10 o o 

jf 70 o o 

" balance for repairs, &c 52 7 i 

/122 7 I 

The income from this tax seems therefore to have been much greater 
than was anticipated. The additional benefit however was incidental, and 
should have been held to bind the Trustees to a more general extension 
of the benefits of the school. How this was we are not informed; but it 
is evident that the legislative grant, though necessarily uncertain In 
amount, was not a mere gratuity to the school, but was granted, as a favor 
indeed, to a useful institution, but a favor for which the Assembly prop- 
erly required a return of valuable service to the public. 

Mr. Reed's purpose and hope with regard to the school was that its ben- 
efits should be as freely and as widely extended as possible. With this 
hope he had given and labored unsparingly for its success. And under 
the first organization he seems to have controlled the policy of the school, 
standing at the head of the Board of Trustees, and having to assist him 
six of the leading laymen of his parish. But the Act of 1 766, in proxnding 
for the election of Trustees by the subscribers to the fund of the school, 
had to a certain extent impaired Mr. Reed*s control of the school, as a 
Church institution, and had put it more in the hands of the parents of 
the pupils. The first effect of this was seen in the dismissal by the new 
Trustees, apparently about the end of 177 1, of five poor scholars, much to 
the distress of Mr. Reed, and a plain violation of their obligation to the 



176 

pttblic. Otfatr troubles also arose fix>m thia selfish management, as we 
shall presently see. 

There is another small source of income available for the purpoeea of 
the school, mentioned in the preceeding account of receipts. The two 
half-lots cut off ftom the church-yard, were leased out by the trustees 
upon leases of twenty-one years, and constituted the beginning of a fund 
intended for the permanent endownment of the Academy. 

Soon after the passage of the Act of 1766, we find Mr. Tomlinson em- 
ploying an assistant in the person of Mr. James Macartney. He was 
probably employed near the beginning of 1767, and continued in the 
school until May, 1768, when he became a candidate for Holy Orders. 
He was ordained in England and licensed by the Bishop of London for 
North Carolina, July 25th. He returned and served Granville parish 
faithfully for several years. 

It may be mentioned in passing that the Assembly of 1768, as well as 
those of 1769, 1770 and 177 1, was held in the New Berne Academy. The 
sum of twenty pounds was paid to the Trustees for the use of the room 
in which the Assembly sat in 1768. Afterwards, as we have seen, the 
amotmt paid was increased to ^40. 

Mr. Tomlinson continued his useful career as teacher in the Academy 
until some time early in the year 1772. He then had a disagreement 
with the trustees, and they dismissed him. This was much about the 
same time that they had turned off the five poor scholars. There are 
several letters from Mr. Reed to the Society in regard to this trouble, in 
which Mr. Reed takes Mr. Tomlinson's part most zealously. He had 
been an admirable teacher and master of the school, Mr. Reed thinks, in 
every respect. He says that Mr. Tomlinson's impartial discipline had 
offended the parents of some of his pupils, and under the new Act of 
incorporation, the subscribers to the fund governed the school. Gov. 
Martin wrote to the Society that the Trustees were angry with Mr. Tom- 
linson because he corrected their contumaceous children. Mr. Tomlin- 
son himself writes in a very moderate strain, and, so far as we can judge, 
he was not unworthy of the good opinion which the others seem to have : 
had of him. Mr. Reed says that Mr. Parrott, who had been appointed to 
succeed Mr. Tomlinson, refuse to accept the place after learning how Mr. - -: 
Tomlinson had been treated, and so Mr. Tomlinson kept the school until XLi 

he voluntarily retired. During the year 1772, he left New Berne and re ^ 

moved to Rhode Island. Gov. Martin goes so far in his condemnation oi 
the action of the Trustees as to express a desire that the Act incorporating 
them should be repealed; but Gov. Martin, we know, was not an emi- 
nently judicious man. And we should remember that, after all, we have 
only one side of this controversy presented to us. The Society, however, 
showed their regard for Mr. Tomlinson by granting him a gratuity of 
fifteen pounds, equivalent to a year's stipend. 

Mr. Tomlinson must be placed at the head of the line of professional 
teachers whose work has gone into the history of North Carolina. There 



177 

had been ministers before his day, or contemporary with him, who, act- 
ing also as school-teacher, had done, and were doing, an incalculable 
work for the State, which was to be, in training men to guide and to govern 
it in its development to wealth and power, but so far as the writer is 
informed, Mr. Tomlinson was the first professional teacher who had 
under his training a large element of the youth of the Colony. New 
Berne and the district about it were fruitful of men of eminence and of 
inAuence in the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth 
centuries. Many of these must have laid the fotmdation of their intellectual 
and moral training in the New Berne Academy between the years 1764 
and 1772, while Mr. Tomlinson presided as master. It would be an inter- 
esting study for some local annalist to inquire what men of mark in the 
State took their first rise from this institution. 

One misconception in regard to this Academy needs to be noticed. Mr. 
Camthers, who wrote at a period when prejudices against the Church 
were peculiarly strong, and whose investigations were almost exclusively 
<:arried on in that part of the State most remote in feeling as in locality, 
from the New Berne districts, says in his Life of Dr. Caldwell, that there 
was a popular prejudice in the East against the New Berne Academy 
because of the requirement that the master should be a churchman. 
Other writers taking the word from his mouth, have repeated the state- 
ment in one form or another; and it has recently been incorporated upon 
this authority in the History of Education in North Carolina, published 
by the National Bureau of Education. 

It is a mistake to suppose that the people of that time had the same 
senHiiveness to such regulations as we have to-day. The Episcopalians 
and the Presbyterians were the two great and controlling religious bodies 
in North Carolina, one representing the English element in our popula- 
lion, the other the Scotch-Irish. Both these were committed to the prin- 
Ciiple of a religious establishment, by their whole history and traditions, 
t^liough in the new life of America they had both gone a good way 
'^ovrards learning something better. So far from this requirement in ques- 
tion being offensive to the people of New Berne or of that district, a 
glance at the list of names, given on a preceding page, will show that the 
"Xrery best and most influential class of people in and about New Berne 
%ad petitioned the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to grant a 
stipend to their school-master in order that he might by precept and by 
example, that is their phrase, instruct their children in the principles of 
the Christian religion, as it was held in the Chturch of England. In those 
^iays it was thought most essential that schools should exert a distinctly 
:sreligious influence, and certainly if any form of religion was to be taught, 
mt must be the religion of the people of that section. Not only was the 
:requirement of the Charter, that the master of the school should be a 
<!hurchman, in accordance with the feelings of the persons most inter- 
•<8ted at the time, but for fifty years after the breaking up of the ante- 
revolutionary ecclesiastical status^ when there was no longer any such 



178 

requirements of law, the master of the New Berne Academy continued to 
be an Episcopalian and a clergyman, with scarce an intermission in the 
succession. 

And secondly, it is perfectly apparent that the New Berne Academy 
was by its founders intended to be a Church school, under the control 
and management of the Church, and exerting a distinct Church influence 
upon its pupils. The father of the enterprise was the Rev. James Reed. 
He took the subscriptions in the first instance; by private solicitation and 
by public appeals, and by unceasing application of all kinds, he raised 
the scanty funds from a people impoverished by the ruinous fiscal sys- 
tem of the Colony. When other resources failed his own stipend fix)m 
the Society, the only part of his scanty salary which was payable in ster- 
ling money or its equivalent, went to buy brick for the chimneys. And 
it was clearly understood on all hands that the school was intended to 
give religious as well as secular instruction. It was set forth in the 
Memorial to the Society for the l^opagation of the Gospel, and it was 
recited in the preamble of the Act of Incorporation. Part of the Church- 
yard was designated as the proper place for the school, and when another 
site was purchased, this property of the Church was let out upon leases 
to form an endownment for the institution. And finally, part of the 
salary of the master was paid by the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, and the vestry of the parish also contributed its aid by gfiving 
him a small salary to act as reader in the Church. 

In view of all these facts, which, it is but fair to state, have not hereto- 
fore been generally known, it is believed that no one can justly say that 
it was unreasonable or intolerant to require that the head of the school 
should be a churchman. Unless it is wrong for the Church to have 
schools at all, it cannot be wrong to take all reasonable precautions to 
make and to keep the teaching and the influences such as the founders 
desire. And so far as the writer has seen there is no evidence to support- 
Mr. Caruthers's assertion.* This criticism was probably first made upon- 
the idea that the New Berne Academy was an institution built and main- 
tained at the public expense. This we know was not the case. 

There is less to be said of the Bdenton Academy, becauce less is known 
of its early history. The Act of 1770, C. XXIII., after reciting that the 
inhabitants of the town of Bdenton had **by voluntary subscription pur- 
chased two lots, and erected a convenient school-house thereon, in air 
agreeable and healthy situation in the said town," goes on to enact "fo« 
the rendering more useful and effectual so laudable an undertaking,' 



* In his life of Dr. Caldwell, as well as in his two volumes entitled "The OldNortK 
State," Mr. Caruthers has done most valuble work for the history of the Middle au» 
Western sections of our State. But though he writes with an evident intention of faim 
ness he cannot see any matter affectingr the Church except through a di.storted mediunc: 
His references to the religious affairs of the Province are entirely unreliable. H-J 
seem- to have been under the influence of a strong and inveterate prejudice, and hr~ 
totally misrepresents both the condition of ecclesiastical affairs in North Carolina befona 
the Revolution and the feeling of the people in reference thereto. 



179 

tHat Joseph Blount, Joseph Hewes, Robert Hardy, Thomas Jones, George 
Blair, Richard Brownrigg, and Samuel Johnston, Esqs., shall be Trustees 
of said school, and a sort of close corporation for its management and 
government. The master, as in the case of the school at New Berne is 
required to be a churchman, he must be recommended by a majority of 
the Trastees and licensed by the Governor. The Trustees above named, 
who must be presumed to have been the persons chiefly concerned in 
building the school-house, were all prominent churchmen in St. Paul's 
parish. And long after the Revolution the Trustees of the Academy and 
the vestry of the parish seem to have been composed of very much the 
same persons. The duties of teacher of the Academy and minister or 
reader in the Church were also frequently united in one person, as was 
likewise the case in New Berne. The Edenton Academy therefore seems 
to h.ave been like the New Berne Academy, what we would call a church 
school, so far as it was practicable under the circumstances of those 
times. There is no reason to believe that the requirements that the mas- 
ter should be an Episcopalian was any ways offensive to the founders or 
to the patrons of the school. 

It may be said however, that neither before nor after the Revolution do 
the Trustees seem to have been very rigid in inquiring into the religious 
views of the persons whom they employed. Mr. Pettigrew came to 
Edenton to take charge of the Academy while he was a Presbyterian in 
1773; ^ 1808 the Rev. Jonathan Otis Freeman, a Presbyterian minister. 
Was in charge of the school; and about 1814, Mr. John Avery, a Congre- 
S^tionalist, was made master of the Academy. Mr. Pettigrew and Mr. 
Avery became members of the Church, and rose to be distinguished and 
useful ministers. Probably any reverent conformity to the worship of 
tHe Church, such, for example, as a consistent Presbyterian might be 
a'ble to practice when he had no minister or service of his own to attend, 
may have been thought by the Trustees sufEcient to justify them in 
electing such a teacher before the Revolution; and of course after that 
time the restriction of the Act might be disregarded. 

Too little attention seems to have been paid to the work and influence 

of" these two institutions in New Berne and Edenton upon the early 

History of the State of North Carolina. We hear but little of them in the 

Wstory of the State compared with what is told of the usefulness of the 

private schools of Mr. Pattillo, Dr. Caldwell, Dr. McCorkle, and others in 

t^e up-country. But it is a fact that up to 1835, the history and develop- 

^^^Jit of North Carolina were almost exclusively controlled by the men 

^* the East, and Edenton, New Berne and the lower Cape Fear country 

^'^linated their respective sections of the East. If the roll of the pupils 

. tlxese two Academies could be recovered, and if the story of their 

■^Uence upon the public men of North Carolina from 1790 to 1835, could 

^^ ^lly told, it would probably be found that only the University of the 
^^t^ has had a greater effect^ in our history than these two Colonial 

^^o^ls. 



VI. 
THE CONVENTIONS OF 1790,-93 AND '94, AND 

THE BISHOP-ELECT. 

BY THE REV. WILLIAM S. PETTIGREW. 

As far as tradition has informed us, the Episcopal clergy 
of North Carolina were, with few exceptions, zealous sup- 
porters of the Colonies in the war of the Revolution. 
Among whom are the names of Blount, Capples and Petti- 
grew. And there were others, doubtless, who were no 
less patriotic for their country and its independence. 
Among the laymen of the Church in North Carolina, were 
Johnston, Iredell, Hewes, McLaine, the Nashes, Hooper, 
the Ashes, the Joneses, the Moores, Caswell, Harvey, Bun- 
combe, Harnett, who were leaders of the Revolution; 
many of whom would have been great men in any age or 
country. Many of the leaders in the great event, in other 
Colonies, as well as North Carolina, were among its lay- 
men. Among whom may be numbered the great name of 
Washington, of the neighboring Colony of Virginia — that 
beacon-light that shines high above the heroes and con- 
querors, who have been influenced only by ambition — that 
bright star that leads and guides the wanderer away from 
the desert of human selfishness, and would stimulate him 
to patriotism and virtue. 

At the close of the Revolution, the Church was in a 
most depressed condition in all the colonies, and certainly 
it was so in North Carolina. It was without an Episco- 
pate, without revenues, without influence, without an 
united organization, with but few clergy, and its members 



l82 

and friends were in Parishes comparatively inaccessible to 
one another. 

The Rt. Rev. Dr. William White made the first move- 
ment towards the re-organization of the Episcopal Church 
in North Carolina, after the Revolution. 

Bishop White was, of all the eminent men who figured 
in the re-organization of the Episcopal Church after the 
Revolution, the great leader. He was a leader for his piety 
and zeal, as well as for his administrative ability ; ii^ all 
which qualities he was singularly gifted, and has left £ 
name that will ever be honored. 

In the autumn of 1789, probably in the month of Octo- 
ber, he addressed a letter to Gov. Samuel Johnston, whc 
was at that time, the chief executive officer of North Car- 
olina, having succeeded Gov. Caswell, who had been the 
first Republican Governor of the State after the Revolu- 
tion. Gov. Johnston made the purport of this letter knowts 
to the Rev. Charles Pettigrew. Gov. Johnston's residence 
was at Hayes near Edenton, where his son, the late James 
C. Johnston afterwards resided. He had long been, anc 
intimately, acquainted with the Rev. Charles Pettigrew, 
who had for some years been his pastor and friend, as rec- 
tor of St. Paul's Church, and when not its rector noi 
residing in Edenton, he resided in one or another of the 
neighboring counties, and preached in different Churches 
or Chapels in the Albemarle country, and in the county or 
Bertie, where he resided for several years at Scotch Hall- 

The object of Bishop White's letter to Gov. Johnston,^ 
was to express a wish that the clergy of the Episcopal 
Church, in the State of North Carolina, would meet aH 
some convenient place, and consult among themselves as 
to what steps should be adopted to revive the Church fronn 
the depressed condition into which it had fallen, as was 
conceded by all. The Governor filling a political office as 
he did, could not take part in the resuscitation of an eccle- 
siastical body, notwithstanding the desire he might have 



'83 

for its welfare. He therefore, placed the matter in the 
hands of Mr. Pettigrew, being assured that Ixe would 
gladly take the steps necessary to gather his clerical 
bretheren, that they might consult as to what measures 
should be adopted. 

Whereupon, Mr. Pettigrew addressed letters to the Rev. 
Dr. Cutting, of New Berne, the Rev. Mr. Wilson, of Mar- 
tin, the Rev. Mr. Blount, of Tar River, and to others of 
the clergy; requesting them to convey word to those to 
^whom he had not written (among whom he mentions 
^he name of the Rev. Dr. Micklejohn, of Granville county) 
SiS to the purport of his letter. He asks them to meet at 
T^arborough, on the 2d Thursday in the month of May next 
^1790) of which he speaks as being a central and convenient 
j)lace for their assembling. 

The intercourse and acquaintance among the clerg>- 
«eems to have been so slight, and the intercommunication 
T)etween the different parts of the State so difficult, that 
Mr. Pettigrew in his letter to Dr. Cutting says: **These 
are all the clergy of the Episcopal order that I have heard 
of in the State. Should you know or hear of any to the 
Southward of New Berne, I must request the favor of you 
to acquaint them with the matter.** 

He also says: **I presume I need not inform you, that 
there has been a Convention of the Protestant Episcopal 
Clergy from the United States, at Philadelphia, from the 
8th of July to the 8th of August last, and that they have 
appointed in one of their Canons such a meeting again 
on the first Tuesday in August, 1792, and successively on 
that day in every third year afterwards.'* 

Dr. Cutting in his reply to Mr. Pettigrew, expresses his 
great gratification at receiving his letter, and at the pros- 
pect of their having a Convention ; and speaks of his hav- 
ing received from Bishop White a similar letter to that, 
written by him to Gov. Johnston; also of his having 



1 84 

received a letter from the Committee of Correspondence in 
Philadelphia, to be communicated to his Brethren. 

Dr. Cutting proposes that each clergyman should bring 
one lay-delegate, which suggestion was approved of by Mr. 
Pettigrew and requested of the clergy. 

Dr. Cutting says, that since he had been in North Car- 
olina, he had not known with certainty where any of the 
clergy dwelt, except the Rev. Mr. Blount. He then men- 
tions something of the condition of the Church in New 
Berne. He says: **How it may be in other Parishes oc 
Congregations in this State, I know not; but here we have 
no Church-wardens, vestrymen, nor any officer to take anv 
charge or care of the Church. Whatever meetings there- 
fore we may hold in the Church will be spontaneous, un- 
backed by proper authority. ' ' He also speaks of his hav- 
ing received a private letter, in which the writer urges the 
Church in North Carolina to join the General Convention. 
Dr. Cutting also says, that he would **diligently enquire 
whether there are any of their Episcopal brethren to the 
Southward of New Berne. ' ' 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST CONVENTION. 

The first Convention of the Clergy and Laity of the 
Episcopal Church in North Carolina, met at Tarborough 
on the 5th June, 1790, in obedience to an arrangement 
made among the clergy of the State. The chief mover iir 
which, was the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew; whom Gov. Johnstor 
had conferred with on the subject, after having received s 
letter from Bishop White, expressive of his desire for the 
assembling of such a Convention. To this they had alsc 
been prompted by the letter addressed to them by the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence at Philadelphia, that had beer 
sent to the Rev. Dr. Cutting; the object of which was tc 
bring about, at as early a day as practicable, a union or 
the Church in ail the States in a General Convention. The 
Convention in Tarborough was to be attended by the 



i8s 

Clergy, and also by a Lay-Delegation; so that the Church 
^ight be considered in all its interests; and its growth and 
permanent welfare promoted in the New National Life, 
upon which the American States had so recently entered. 
But, in a letter written by the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew, bear- 
ing date the 6th of June, 1 790, addressed to Bishop White, 
he laments that the only persons in attendance were a cler- 
gy liian besides himself, (who was probably the Rev. jAs. L. 
Wilson), and Dr. John Leigh and Mr. William Clements, 
(both residents of Tarborough), of whom he speaks as be- 
ing gentlemen of distinguished merit and reputation. 

The writer of this paper regrets to say, that the lapse of 
a. century has so dimmed the history of the past, as to leave 
but little to be collected with regard to this Clergyman atid 
these two laymen; who seem to have been such zealous 
friends of the Church, at a time when its friends were few, 
and when its waning fortunes needed them. This cen- 
tennial meeting of the Church in North Carolina, will be 
reviewed with gratitude by historians in time to come, as 
having rescued from oblivion the names and actions of 
some of the worthies of that remote period, to whom the 
growth and prosperity of the Church were as dear as they 
3.r€ to us in this brighter day. At this Convention of June 
S^h, 1890, the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew was Chairman, ahd Mr. 
^iVilliam Clements was Secretary. 

(The proceedings of this Convention have been given in 
ftill elsewhere.) 

The Rev. Mr. Pettigrew' s letter to Bishop White: 

TARBOiiouGH, June 6th, 1790. 
^ight Reverend Sir: 

I recoUect to have had the pleasure of an introduction to you 
^y the then deservedly famous, but since, unfortunate Mr. Duchd, near 
lonrteen years ago: but the remoteness of that period, the vicissitudes of 
*^vidence, and the numerous occurrences of life, must long since have 
^'"^ced from your mind the memory of that short interview. 

However, permit me now sir, to congratulate you and the Churches on 
^^^ present station in the scale of ecclesiastical preferment. This I 



186 

must, cordially do, and I reflect with pleasure, that an address so concil 
tory as that with which nature has distinguished you, none extends L 
happy influence from so elevated a sphere, to abash the unreasonat^ 
Oppositions of bigotry and party spirit. 

Pardon this seeming freedom, which results from a persuasion tlL 
your mind is superior to any undue influence, from the just attributes - 
those gifts, for which you are indebted to the peculiar indulgence 
Heaven. As a Convention could not be called by the Gov'nor, co^ 
sistently with the principles of our free Republican Government, wlii« 
his Excellency was pleased to communicate to me, I entered into a cc» 
respondence with my clerical brethren, in which I proposed a meeting - 
this village on the 5th instant. My proposition met with general appr- 
bation, so that I expected our small Body to have been present, whic 
would have consisted of only six individuals; But to my great mortific 
tion, I have been met by only one of them. Yet as my own situatic 
was the most remote (I believe) of any, and the pressing necessity of o« 
Church urged us to do something, we proceeded to business, by way • 
beginning, with the joint aid of two lay-gentlemen, of distinguished mer 
and reputation; and hope our proceedings will meet with at least th 
indulgence of your Committee. 

The Clergy of this State find it neccessary to engage in the business c 
farming, for the support of their families, as contribution has ever bee 
found so precarious a dependence; and this is perhaps the most busy sei 
son of the year, which I did not consider when I made the appointmen 
This is perhaps a principal reason whj' our Convention has been so smal 

I have the honor to be with every sentiment of respect, and the higl 

est esteem, 

Right Reverend Sir, 

Your most humble and devoted servant in the Gospel, 

Chari.es Pettigrew. 
The Right Reverend— 

Dr. White, of Philadelphia 

Bishop Whitens reply to Mr. Pettigrew: 

Phi I, A., August ist, 1791. 
-litv. Sit: 

I should sooner have acknowledged your favor of June last yea 
but that, as it came to hand about the time when your next Conventi( 
was to be held, I thought it would be soon followed by a comniunicati( 
of your further Proceedings, which I might have acknowledged by tl 
same opportunity. 

I now learn from your late Governor Johnston, that the intended Co 
vention has been held, and that they have appointed deputies to the ne 
General Convention to be held in New York next Year. I commui 
cated to the Committee your enclosed Resolutions; and they are happy 
find, that the Church in North Carolina so readily acceded to the Ass 



i87 

dation of the General Body. Accept. Sir, of my thanks, for your con- 
gratulations and good wishes. I am not sure that I recollect llie occasion 
you allude to, at my friend Mr. Duch^*s; but it will probably recur to me 
whenever I shall have the pleasure of a personal interview with you. We 
were here well aware of the circimistance, that the Church in your State 
was almost destitute of Clergy; and we expected that this would occasion 
your being later than some others, in getting into an organized' State. 
But, as our Communion generally throughout the country seems recover- 
ing firom the condition in which the war had left us, we hope, that this 
is, in some measure, the case with you. 

Wishing you health and happiness vrith success in your Minisity, I 
am Revd. Sir, 

Your affectionate brother. 
Rev. Charles Pettigrew, Wm. White. 

North Carolina, 
Forwarded by your obedient servant, 

Sam. Johnston. 

In a letter from the Rev. Mr. Wilson, to the Rev. Mr. 
Pettigrew, bearing date December 30th, 1790, he speaks 
of the Convention of the 12th and 13th of November, 1790, 
as having had a small attendance; and as having proposed 
more business than could be accomplished, much of which 
had been deferred to the next Convention, which was 
to meet in Tarborough in October, 1791. He also 
says, that the Western members came near carrying th? 
next meeting of the Convention to Hillsboro, in which 
event he apprehended that something would have been 
proposed, which it would have required much wisdom and 
prudence to effect. In a letter from Dr. Leigh to Mr. 
Pettigrew, dated 29th of March, 1791, in speaking of the 
election of a Bishop, he says: '*I think it is something 
which may be deferred for sometime yet: but should it 
become necessary, I see no reason why we cannot appoint 
or recommend one of those now in the State. If the ap» 
pointment of a Bishop will tend in any degree to raise 
once more the fallen state of our Church, I am clearly con- 
vinced that it should be done." 

"This is the object to which the attention of the Clergy, 
as well as th^ Laity, shpuH be directed, ; Every exer- 



i88 

tion is now called for aloud. The enemies of our Church 
who are many, wish its destruction. Religion of wha 
ever kind can only be sustained by the zealous exertion 
of its supporters. I fear that the mode adopted by om 
last Convention will be productive of no good. No sul 
scriptions or donations have yet reached me, nor have 
heard of any one forwarding, although I had reason 1 
expect some. ' ' 

The Convention which was to have met in Tarborougl 
in October, 1791, in obedience to the appointment mac 
by the Convention of the 12 th and 13th of Novembe 
1790, as we learn from a letter from Mr. Pettigrew t 
Bishop White, did not convene. There were not in attei 
dance members sufficient to proceed to business. Mr. Pe 
tigrew, himself, was unable to attend in consequence • 
sickness, as he states in a letter to Bishop White. 

Letter from the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew to Bishop White: 

Edenton, 1 2th March 1792. 
Right Reverend Sir: 

At this length of time, permit me to return you my gratefi 
acknowledgement of your favor of last August (1790.) lam indee 
ashamed that so much time has elapsed, and beg here to offer somethin 
in excuse for my seeming negligence. I had determined to be at ox 
next Episcopal Convention^ which was to meet in October, 1791, and m 
far off when I received your letter: I therefore, defered answering i 
in hopes that would furnish some new communication, which might rei 
der my letter more acceptable. 

But being seized with a certain ague, two or three days before I wa3 t 
have set out, I found it out of my power to give my attendance, as tl 
distance was about a hundred miles. I soon after wrote to one of oi 
brethren, to know what was done on that occasion, that I might transm 
you the particulars. But his letter having fallen into the hands of son) 
careless person, I received it but a few days ago. It informs me, thj 
there did not convene members sufficient to proceed to business. 

Agreeably to your information by our late worthy Governor^ (Samuf 
Johnston,) deputies have been appointed for the General Conventiot 
to be held in New York in August, (1792). I wish they may attend. C 
some I am doubtful, as the distance is great, and the journey must b 
attended with both fatigue and expense. Besides, it is at this time ver 



•• V. 



i89 

difficult to get money from its great scarcity in circulation, and the 
clergy are generally indigent 

I have a great desire to attend; but am also importuned to be at Hills- 
boro at that very juncture, at the meeting of the Board of Trustees for 
the University of tiie State. The business that claims my presence there 
is, particularly, ihe fixing on the place where said UniverBity shall be 
situated; and unless the Eastern members generally attend, it will proba- 
bly be carried too far Westward. This is an object in which I feel my- 
self also a good deal interested. So that I am at present in a kind of 
<^leinma. As to the trouble and expense that may accrue, I would as 
soon attend at one place as the other, and rather at New York provided 
^ agreeable passage by water should offer. Our Church in this State is 
^deed at a very low ebb; and could I see how my attendance at the 
^neral Convention would be productive of its interest in any degree, I 
^<u sure no consideration of a temporal nature should predominate. I 
^^xx^ however, at present unable to determine whether I will be at New 
^ork or Hillsborough. Added to our almost total want of Episcopal 
clergy Iq ^1^ State, the indefatigable industry of those who are hostile to 
'^s is constantly employed against it. 

-Accept Revd. Sir, my sincere thanks for your kind vdshes in respect to 
^^^'y health, happiness, and the success of my ministry — and believe me 
^^^ T)e with sentiments of the truest esteem and regard. 

Your most obedient and most humble servant, 

^ Chari^bs Pkttig&hw. 

^i^ht Rev. Dr. WUliam White, Philadelphia. 

With regard to the third Convention which met at Tar- 
t>c:>rough, November 2ist, 1793, we learn from the Rev. 
^-^bert Johnston Miller's letter to the Rev. Dr. Hawks, 
t^at the Rev. James L. Wilson was its President, and 
^A7illiam Clements, Esq., its Secretary. Also, that the 
C^onvention appointed a Standing Committee; and pub- 
lished a circular calling another Convention to meet at 
T^arborough, in the month of May, 1794. The Rev. Dr. 
^Jailing seems to have been the leading spirit in this Con- 
"^^ntion, and in the effort to have the next Conven- 
tion called^ which assembled in Tarborough on the last 
Wednesday in May, 1794. His letter to Mr. Pettig^ew, 
"^mtten from New Berne on the i6th of December, 1793, 
Sives the fullest account that we have of the Proceedings 
^f the Convention of the 21st of November, 1793. 

This Convention consisted of only six persons, viz: The 



190 

Revs. Messrs. Hailing, of New Berne. Gurley, of Mur- 
freesborough, and Wilson,, of Williamston, and three 
laymen: — Mr. William Clements, of Tarborough, Mr. F. 
Green, of Craven county, arid Dr. John Leigh, of Tarbo- 
rough. The Rev. Mr. Pettigrew was unavoidably pre- 
vented from attending — probably by sickness. 

Letter of the Rev. Dr. Hailing to the Rev. Mr. Petti- 
grew: 

New Bbrnb, 16th December 1793. 
Rev. and Dear Sir: 

Yours by Dr. Leigh came to hand when I arrived at Tarborough, 
and I have also to acknowledge the receipt of your last by Mr. Shepard. 
It was to me the greatest disiippointment, that you could not meet with 
us in Convention, and I am sincerely sorry for the cause of your non- 
attendance. It would exceed the bounds of a letter to acquaint you with 
all the business we went through; but I hope the following short abstract 
of our proceedings, will afford you some idea of our transactions. I am 
sorry to inform you that only six persons formed the meeting. Three of 
the clergy, viz; Mr. Gurley, of Murfreesborough, Mr. Wilson, of William- 
ston, and myself. On the part of the Laity, Mr. Clements and Dr. 
Leigh of Tarborough — the former of the Presbyterian Church, and who 
was our Secretary— and Mr. F. Green, whom I desire the vestry of New 
Berne to appoint as a Deputy from Craven county. You may readily 
suppose, that it would have been unavoidable in us to appoint a Bishop- 
elect. 

The smallneas of our number would have subjected him^ to reproach, and 
our Church also, if anything possibly can, after it has evidenced such 
want of zeal; for the professors of our religion have not on this occasion 
even showed themselves to be lukewarm, I propose that we send another 
advertisement, accompanied with a circular letter to one or more respecta- 
ble and popular characters in every county. In this circular, we recom- 
mend in the most earnest manner a Convention of the people, who pro- 
fess the Protestant Episcopal Religion of the American Church. We also 
recommend to them to choose immediately a Vest/y; and to appoint Lay- 
readerd, where a regularly ordained Clergyman cannot be procured. We 
also resolved that this Vestry, the leaders, and whom ever they might 
elect in addition, as Deputies, should meet in Tarborough the last Wed^ 
nesday in May, 1794, to form a Constitution, and elect one of the Clergy 
to be conseerated as Bishop of this State. This is the sum of our pro- 
ceedings. When this advertisement and letter are printed, you will, I 
am sure my dear sir, be furnished with them, and perhaps with some 
copies in addition, to dispose of I have preached and read these to one 
congregation, and have declared myself a volunteer in this sacred cause, 



191 

and purpose to do the same in every part of the country, where I can 
collect the people together. May our merciful God restore you to per- 
fect health, and prolong your life to be useful in this dark land. I be- 
lieve it will be the general wish, that you should be elected to the Epis- 
copacy of North Carolina. My exertions shall not be spared on this oc- 
casion — ^and you must not refuse. Consider it a call from Heaven, and 
reflect on your former vows. Excuse me if I speak freely. My whole 
soul is engaged in this important business. May God in mercy for our 
c:x>untry preserve you to overlook and bless his little flock, 

This is the ardent wish and prayer of my dear and Rev. Sir, your un- 
-^worthy brother in our Lord Jesus, 

Soi«OMON Hai^ung. 
XR.ev. Charles Pettigrew, near Edenton. 

The efforts of the Rev. Dr. Hailing to arouse the Epis- 
^i^opalians in the State, to the importance of awakening 
^their slumbering spiritual life, seems not to have been 
^^^thout its influence. * 

It induced a respectable number of the clergy and laity 
f the Church to assemble together on the 28th of May, 
■^794 — impressed with the thought that the Church was 
theirs, and that they had an interest in its welfare; and 
still more, that each one owes a duty to the Great Head of 
^hat Church, whose Kingdom on earth he should seek to 
3)romote to the utmost of his ability. 

In order not to judge the friends of the Church too 
liarshly in those dark days, we should imagine ourselves 
as placed in their situation, and not in our own as we now 
find ourselves. The Church of England, as it existed 
before the Revolution in the Province of North Carolina, 
had been wrecked; and it required time, and circumstances 
which the lapse of years only could mould, to ripen the 
elements for the new Church organization. This new or- 
ganization was to be built with the scattered timbers of the 
old which had been wrecked 

It was to be built by new men, who had sprung up since 
the past had vanished; whose thoughts were adapted to 
the new order of things by which they were surrounded — 
things as new in population and society, as in Govern- 



19^ 

ment aud Laws. The efforts made to re-organize the 
Church were a remnant of the past. 

The first efforts that were made to re-organize the Church 
in North Carolina, which the writer of this Paper has en- 
deavored to delineate, were a remnant of the past rather 
than a commencement of the future. They were as the 
flickering flames, that rise from the smouldering ashes of 
the past, and not as the steady blaze that increases in per- 
manence and power. They were not the throes of a new 
birth, which is the precursor of a new life. 

That new life for the Church in North Carolina, began 
many years after the Conventions of 1790, 1793? and .1794. 
It began when the Convention met in New Berne, on the 
24th day of April, 1817. And it shined still more brightly 
when placed under the leadership of that justly distin- 
guished man and great preacher — Bishop Ravenscroft — in 
the May of 1823; ^^^ toiled faithfulUy for its building up 
until the year 1830, when he was taken from the labors of 
earth, as we trust to the rewards of Heaven. The writer 
of this Paper remembers when a little boy, probably about 
the year 1825, ^^ have heard of a visit he made to Mrs. 
Mary Pettigrew, the relict of the Rev. Charles Pettigrew, 
who had been his predecessor-elect, in the office that he 
now so highly adorned. I think, while there, he preached 
in Pettigrew's Chapel, which was built in 1803, and not 
far from the residence of its founder — about a quarter of a 
mile distant. Mrs. Pettigrew resided at ^'Belgrade" Plan- 
tation, in the lower part of the county of Washington, 
which in olden times was embraced in the county of 
Tyrrell, where she died in August of 1833, ^^ ^^^ ^5^^ 
year of her age. She was bom at **Scotch Hall,'' in the 
county of Bertie; and was a daughter of Mr. James Lock- 
hart, a native of Glasgow, Scotland, and Mrs. Elizabeth 
Lockhart, who was a sister of General Alexander Lilling- 
ton of the Revolution. General Ivillington's residence was 
the far-famed Lillington Hall, situated in what is now 



^93 

the county of 'Tender,'' near the banks of the North-Bast 
River, a distance of fifty miles from Wilmington. In this 
immediate region of the Cape Fear country, were the plan- 
tations of the I/illingtons, the Moseleys, the Ashes, the 
Moores, the Swanns, the Haynes — names distinguished in 
the annals of North Carolina — with their hospitable man- 
sions, and refined and elegant society. In the May of 
1795, after Mr. Pettigrew had been elected to the Episco- 
pal ofiice in the May of 1794, he received a verj' cordial 
letter from that most excellent man, Parson Miller, who, 
although at that time a Lutheran minister and not ordained 
to the Deaconate and Priesthood in the Episcopal Church 
until 1821, yet felt the deepest interest in the welfare of 
the Church. He was very anxious for the election of a 
Bishop, and had a hope that the Bishop-elect, when con- 
secrated, would have it in his power to induce a large por- 
tion of the Lutheran people in his own section of the 
country to connect themselves with the Episcopal Church. 
He expressed a hope that it would not be long before the 
Bishop-elect would visit him and his people in his of- 
ficial capacity. 

The cordial reception of Mr. Pettigrew, in the position 
to which he was elected, seems to have been an imiversal 
sentiment among both Clergy and Laity. They regarded 
the Church and themselves, as having been fortunate in 
the Clergyman whom they had selected, to lead them in 
the building up of the Redeemer's Kingdom in the State; 
and they esteemed him as possessing, in an eminent de- 
gree, the qualities of head and heart, and of Christian life 
and character, that were calculated to fit him for the task 
they had assigned him. 

THE DIFFICULTIES IN THE WAY OF THE CONSECRATION OF 

THE BISHOP-ELECT. 

The first step taken by Mr. Pettigrew after his election 
to the Bishopric of North Carolina, was to address a letter 



194 

to Bishop White, the presiding Bishop of the Episcopal 
Church in the United States, informing him of the par- 
ticulars with regard to the State Convention that had met 
in May, 1794. This letter was written on the 9th of June, 
1795. In which he informed him, of the various provisions 
of the Constitution that was drawn up and adopted at the 
Convention; of the approval of, and acceptance of the 
union of the Church in North Carolina with the General 
Convention of the Church in the United States; of the 
Article in the Constitution that there should be a Bishop, 
that he should be elected by ballot, and that two-thirds of 
the members present should constitute a majority for that 
purpose; and of his own election to the office of Bishop. 

He also encloses a copy of the recommendation givei^ 
him by the Convention, and says, that, if required, H^ 
could add a testimonal or certificate of the good people Cf^ 
the Eden ton District, where he had lived and preached fc:^^ 
the last twenty years. He requests him to inform him, ^-^ 
to the nature of the examination he would be required t^ 
undergo; and apologizes for not having written earlier froi^ 
the fact that it was the wish of the State Convention, a-^ 
well as his own wish, that he would attend the next meet — 
ing of the General Convention, which was to take plac^ 
in Philadelphia in September, 1795. 

He also called Bishop White's attention to the fact, that:^ 
the recommendation given him by the Convention in^ 
North Carolina as Bishop-elect, was drawn up by a commit — 
tee appointed for that purpose by the Convention; and was 
such as they could conscientiously and with propriety sub- 
scribe. He adds, that * *the distance at which the Clergy 
and Ivaity who composed the Convention live from each 
other, being so remote as to deny them such a personal 
acquaintance as would justify their adopting that form of 
recommendation prescribed, and enjoined by the General 
Convention^ they laid it aside,'* and adopted one of their 
own in its stead. He expressed an apprehension, that 



195 

Bishop White might not be willing to admit such a devia- 
tion from the General Canon ; and that the General Con- 
vention, which was to meet in Philadelphia in September 
next (1795), *'may refuse to rescind or alter the form 
already prescribed for that purpose. ' ' He requested Bishop 
White's opinion and advice on the subject. 

Bishop White, in reply to Mr. Pettigrew's letter, which 
reply was written on the 6th of July, 1795, said that he 
had consulted some of his brethren in the city of Phila- 
delphia, with regard to his (Mr. Pettigrew's) certificate, 
and the following was the conclusion he had arrived at. It 
occured to him, that the members of the Convention in 
North Carolina had not seen the 6th additional Canon 
passed in New York in September, 1792. **On comparing 
the certificate of the Convention in North Carolina with 
the 2d Canon of 1789, taken in connection with the 6th 
additional Canon passed in New York in September, 1792, 
it appeared to him, that the Testimony amounted as to sense, 
to the Testimony required; and that the Testimony only 
varied in form." He then went on to say: **If I am right 
in this supposition, it will be well for you to state the 
circumstance to the General Convention, which, it is ex- 
I>ected, will be assembled in this city (Philadelphia), on 
the second Tuesday in next September. It would be rash 
in me to undertake to say, what will be the determination 
of that Body on the point; any further, than that we may 
presume on their entertaining an inclination to do what- 
ever is in their power for the increasing of the respecta- 
bility, and the providing for the further increase of our 
Church." 

From the above extracts taken from letters that passed 
between Mr. Pettigrew and Bishop White, it is manifest, 
that the Bishop-elect could not be consecrated until after 
the meeting of another General Convention; which Body 
alone was clothed with authority to decide, as to whether 
they would be willing to accept the Recommendation by 



196 

the Convention in North Carolina, notwithstanding il 
irregularity. Bishop White, himself said in his letter t 
Mr. Pettigrew — That it would be rash in him to say, whs 
would be the decision of that Body on the point. K(e als 
said — That that decision would be essential, before tk 
consecration of the Bishop-elect could take place. Th 
first General Convention that was to have met, aft^r Mi 
Pettigrew' s election to the Bishopric of Nojjh Carolina b[ 
the State Convention of May, 1794, was to have been heli 
in Philadelphia on the 2d Tuesday in September, 179c 
This General Convention, however, did not assemble i: 
Philadelphia or elsewhere, in consequeece of the prevalenc 
of Yellow Fever at that time. 

In Mr. Pettigrew' s letter of the 5th of September, 1795 
to Bishop White, he informs him, that he had set out 01 
his journey to Philadelphia about five days before then, o] 
his way to Norfolk, tiience by Packet to Baltimore, an< 
thus onward to Philadelphia. But that he met with sucl 
reports, at Norfolk, of the prevalence of Yellow Fever an* 
the mortality that attended it, as to cause him to retun 
home. Had he proceeded, he thought it probable th 
Packet from Norfolk to Baltimore would have been stopped 
But had the Packet continued to run, it would have beei 
hazardous to have gone on board in company with passen 
gers escaping the infection, some of whom may alread; 
have contracted it. And the danger would have been m 
less, had he taken a passage on board a vessel sailing t 
Philadelphia or New York ; besides having to be quaran 
tined after arriving at either of these cities, which wouh 
have defeated his object of attending the General Conven 
tion. The journey by land would have been not less thai 
five hundred miles, and to be made in the sickly season o 
the year, which might have caused hinderances that woul< 
have delayed him on the way until after the Conventioi 
had adjourned. Thus we have the Jirs^ reason why Mr 
Pettigrew did not apply for consecration, viz: The neces 



197 

sity of an assemblage of the General Convention, which 
alone could decide whether that Bodv would be satisfied 
with the Recommendation given him by the Convention in 
North Carolina, thus disregarding the form prescribed by 
the General Convention. 

Then the General Convention, which was to have met 
on the 2d Tuesday in September, 1795, did not assemble 
in consequence of Yellow Fever. This he left home to 
attend: But, after having proceeded, some distance on the 
liiray, deemed it pnident to return in consequence of the 
prevalence and mortality of Yellow Fever. 

The second General Convention that was to have met 
after Mr. Pettigrew's election, was to have assembled in 
Philadelphia in the September of 1798: But it did not 
assemble in Philadelphia or elsewhere, in consequence of 
Yellow Fever, which lingering as it did in the country for 
many years, seems to have filled it with trepidation. 

In consequence of this dangerous malady, Mr. Pettigrew 
received a letter, bearing date August 8th, 1798, signed 
l)y Bishops Wm. White, and Wm. Smith, and certified to 
l)y the Rev. James Abercrombie, Secretary of the Conven- 
tion. The Bishops in this letter, expressed their regret to 
inform him, that the Yellow Fever had made its appear- 
ance within the preceeding week, with the probability of 
spreading through the city of Philadelphia: And unless 
abated by special Providence of God, that it would con- 
tinue beyond the time appointed for the meeting of the 
approaching General Convention, which would be in 
September, 1798. 

In consequence of this, the Chairman of the Standing 
Committee, with some of the members of the said Com- 
mittee having held a conference with Bishop White, on 
the subject, deemed it right to circulate this notice to our 
brethren in each State, to prevent their attempting to 
attend the Convention. But a special General Convention 
was called after this to assemble in the month of June, 



198 

I799» *'^^ discuss the various important matters, which 
were left unfinished at the last General Convention. " This 
special Convention met in Philadelphia at the appointed 
time. After which, the next regular meeting of the Gen- 
eral Convention was held in 1801, in Trenton, New Jersey. 

Thus we have the second reason, why it was impracti- 
cable for Mr. Pettigrew to be consecrated after his election 
to the Episcopate. The General Convention of Septem- 
ber, 1798, like that of 1795, did not assemble in conse- 
quence of Yellow Fever, of which he was notified by 
Bishops White and Smith. There is no ground for think- 
ing, that it was not his intention to attend the General 
Convention, which was to have met in the September of 
1798, had it assembled — then and there, to have received 
consecration to the ofiice of Bishop of North Carolina, if 
Convention should decide to accept as valid the Recommen- 
dation given him, though informal, by the Convention of 
North Carolina. We thus see, that it was out of Mr. 
Pettigrew' s power to have accomplished his consecration, 
between the May of 1794, when he was elected, and the 
June of 1799 when the ^rsi meeting of the General Con- 
vention was held after his election, in consequence of 
Yellow Fever in the country. 

The question then presents itself, why did he not attend 
the General Convention which met in the June of 1 799, or 
that which met in iSoi, or that which met in 1804, in as 
much as he lived until the 8th of April, 1807. This ques- 
tion can be easily answered by the inference that may be 
legitimately drawn from his own writings and those of his 
friends. In a letter of his containing a description of a 
beautiful lake — (Ivake Scuppernong) in Eastern Carolina,* 
situated in what are now the counties of Tyrrell and 
Washington, addressed to his friend Dr. John Leigh, of 
Tarborough, he says: **I write you from Bonaroa — a name 
I have given my situation on the Lake. I sit under the 
shade of three beautiful Hollys. The surrounding scene 



199 

^^ truly romantic. On the one side, the prospect towards 
^he water is very beautiful and extensive, while the gentle 
t^reezes play over the surface of the crystal fluid, and ren- 
der the air grateful for respiration, now when the.sun sheds 
liis warmest influence upon the earth — it being the 
Uieridian hour. In three angles of the improvement, the 
^oods are luxuriantly tall, and dressed in a foliage of the 
deepest verdure, while the cultivated field exhibits the 
utmost power of vegetative nature, and arrests my eye 
from every other object. Let me then, pursuant to the 
suggestion of gratitude, lift my eyes, and my heart, in 
a devout aspiration of thanksgiving and praise to the 
indulgent Author of my existence and of these blessings of 
^which I am an unworthy partaker in common with my 
species. But am I not growing too serious for you ? I 
liope not. We have our troubles. This never was 
designed to be a heaven for us. We are therefore crossed, 
that we may extend our views to a brighter world, where 
there is an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled and 
nnfading, in reserve for him that overcometh — What ? The 
world, the Flesh and the Devil. Two heavy crosses I 
have, are a poor crazy constitution, and a miserable clump 
of an overseer whom I am obliged to oversee. " 

We see from this that his health was poor at that time, 
although as far back as June, 1790. In a letter of the Rev. 
Dr. Hailing, of New Berne, dated December 16th, 1793 — he 
says: **May our merciful God restore you to perfect health, 
and prolong your life to be useful in this dark land. I 
believe it will be the general wish, that you shall be 
elected to the Episcopacy of North Carolina. * * 

In a letter of Mr. Pettigrew to the Rev. Dr. Hailing, 
dated February 2d, 1794, he says: **The sympathy which 
you generously express in respect to my indisposition, and 
your kind wish for the restoration of my health, together 
with the prolongation of my life, have not failed to 
awaken a grateful sensibility.'' In the same letter he 



200 

says: '*I had thought of publishing three sermons, ontl 
subject of Baptism : But my health has been so poor, th 
I could not transcribe them, and fit them for the publ 
eye." In a letter of the Rev. Nathaniel Blount, of t 
county of Beaufort, to Mr. Pettigrew, dated January lyt 
1799, he says: *'Your reasons for not applying for com 
cration certainly are weighty; and I make no doubt t 
you were right in declining. You certainly were the b 
judge in the matter. Perhaps it would have been bettei 
you had endeavored to get a Convention, and had mad( 
formal resignation: But I don't know whether it woi 
have been best or not; or whether the Convention coi 
have been gotten." In a letter of the Rev. Nathar 
Blount to Mr. Pettigrew, dated May 21st, 1801, he sa 
'*I am sincerely glad that your health is so far contini 
to you, as that you are able not only to communicate y 
thoughts to me in writing, but also sometimes to act y 
part in the duties of your Ministerial Functions." In 
same letter he says: ''Glad should I be to enjoy the pleas 
of your company and conversation, which I cannot expec 
your afflicted state, at my own house. But I still he 
should my life and health be spared, to find it conveni 
to visit you, and also to make a satisfactory stay with yo 

In a letter of the Rev. Nathaniel Blount to Mr. Pe 
grew, dated May 4th, 1802, he says: '*I observe you h 
an intention of Crossing the sound (Albemarle,) s 
after writing, though not then recovered of your c 
before caught. I hope you may have accomplished y 
intended voyage without injury. I suppose March to 
the most searching and piercing month to weak 
enfeebled constitutions, and presume your business n^ 
have been very urgent, otherwise you would have 
attempted it." 

It was doubtless Mr. Pettigrew' s wish and purpose 
attend the General Convention, either one or both of th* 
had they met in 1795^ or in 1798; and, after his Recomm 



20I 

dation by the Convention in North Carolina should have 
been acted upon, which there was every reason to think 
would have been favorable, to have received consecration 
to the oflfice of Bishop. But as years rolled away, his 
health which from the foregoing extracts, was poor as far 
back as 1790 — became still more so; and the disease — con- 
sumption — which terminated his life in 1807, progressed 
with more and more rapidity to its end. Thus we have 
the third reason why the Bishop-elect was not consecrated. 
It was in consequence of a combination of circumstances 
that were unavoidable, which prevented the carrying out 
of his own cherished wishes, and those of the Clergy and 
X^ity who had elected him to the Episcopate. It was 
ixot the result of any unwillingless to there being a Bishop 
Over the Episcopal Church in North Carolina; nor was it 
til^e result of a want of zeal in the service of his Lord and 
^^aster, or in the service of his Church which he loved. 

MR. PETTIGREW^S FAITHFULNESS AND TOIL. 

In a letter of Mr. Pettigrew to the Rev. Dr. Hailing, 
tiated February 2d, 1794, he says: '*! think the Episcopal 
Ordination has descended, in that succession which Christ 
evidently established in His Church, to continue," till the 
final consumation. (Matt. XXVIII: 18, 19, 20,) In the 
Same letter, he says: ''It appears to me in the clearest 
1 ight of demonstration, that our Church wants a Head. 
Don't misunderstand me — I believe Christ to be the Great 
Head of his Church. But for the sake of regularity and 
respectibility, one ought to preside primus inter pares^ 
^with an authority to call to account disorderly or inatten- 
tive, and consequently unfaithful ministers. Yet I would 
not wish the power of ordination, censure^ and degradation^ 
vested in him alone; but only to be exercised by him, with 
the concurrence of a certain number of his brethren of the 
Clergy in convocation. ' ' In a letter of Mr. Petrigrew to 



ao2 

his friend, the Rev. Mr. Blount, dated August the 23d, 
1803, he says: *'I am building a Chapel on my own land 
close by me; and am in expectation of having it so forward 
in about six months that we can convene in it with con- 
veniency to ourselves. We have also a Chapel nearly 
finished about 12 miles above, where I attend two Suti' 
4ays in the month, unless prevented by sickness or bad 
weather." 

In a letter of Mr. Pettigrew, to the Rev. Mr. Blount, dat^^ 
February 2 2d, 1804, he says: ''Since I have gotten o'*^ 
new Chapels in such a state as to meet comfortably in therJ^ 
I feel myself quite happy in the exercise of my Mini^ 
terial Functions, from a variety of favorable circumstance^ 
one of which is, the people attend much better. Inde^ 
my own Chapel is generally crowded; while they hear wiC^ 
great seriousness and attention; and now I begin to hop^ 
that through the concurrent blessings of God, my feeblJ 
labors may be useful among the people. ' ' 

In the same letter he says: ''I am in hopes they no"^ 
begin to think me in earnest, after having preached faz 
them about 7 years, and built them a decent and commc:^ 
dious Chapel at my own expense, except a few da^ 
work, besides attending at their funerals to the neglect ^ 

my own business, and taking nothing from them for an 

service I render them as Clergyman and Physician. ' ' HZ 
the same letter he says: ''I am happy in the though — 
that they cannot attribute my faithfulness to an expects 
tion of being paid for it. I have long ago relinquishe- ' 
all expectation of receiving anything during my life; an^ 
have positively declared I would receive nothing fron^ 
them. ' ' 

''My reasons are, I thank God, I can live without it— 
Also the people are poor; and when people are not unde# 
the influence of religious principles, they have little or nc^ 
gratitude, and contribute grudgingly what may be wrungf 
from their hands, which would hurt me quite as much a^ 



203 

giving would them. Before the Dissolution of the Estab- 
lishment, I absolutely forbid anything to be collected from 
the Quakers for me, as I would not receive it. Neither 
have I taken anything for either visiting the sick, or 
baptizing, during the course of my Ministry." 

MR. PETTIGREW'S HUMILITY. 

It is manifest that Mr. Pettigrew's humility not only 
prevented him from aspiring to the office of Bishop, but it 
prompted him to use his influence with his friend. Rev. 
IDr. Hailing, against his thinking of him in connection 
with that exalted position 

The language he used in his letter to Dr. Hailing of the 
^d of Febniary, 1794, which was four months before the 
meeting of the State Convention, which resulted in his 
lection to the Episcopate, illustrates so beautifully the 
^rue spirit of the Minister of Christ, that it will not be out 
of place to record it in this Reminiscence of the past. 

''Your zeal for the declining interests of religion," says 
^Ir. Pettigrew, ''I wish rather to emulate than praise. But 
^is my abilities are circumscribed within such narrow 
limits, and my strength so far short of my inclination, I 
dispair of it ever being in my power to be the useful min- 
ister of Jesus I would long to be. What you write me, in 
Teference to myself respecting the choice of a person for 
consecration to the office of Bishop, is so far from flatter- 
ing, that to me^ it is truly mortifying. It turns my 
thoughts inward upon myself, and awakens a painful con- 
sciousness of my being far — ^very far from adequate to the 
due and proper discharge of the duties of that humbler 
office. And much more, alas, how much more! Unfit 
for the discharge of a more awful trust, with the additional 
duties of a Spiritual Overseer in the Church and House- 
hold of God." 

**Believe me my friend, although there is nothing 
earthly I so ardently wish, as to be useful to the world in 



204 

the exercise of the Sacred Ministry; yet my great 
inferiority, in every view^ to the idea which I conceive of 
what a Bishop ought to be^ with its sacred and awful 
trusts. You must, therefore never expect me to be a can- 
didate. Let me requst yowx prayers in unison with mine, 
that unerring wisdom may direct and overrule the choice, 
whensoever made, in such manner that it may terminaA^ 
in the glory of GOD, and in the advancement of \^ 
Church." In addition to the foregoing, Mr. Pet"^^' 
grew's letter to Bishop White of the 5th of Septeml>^^^ 
1795, contains the following: *'I most sincerely wi^^'^^ 
that some Episcopal Clergyman of eminence would cor^^^ 
into this State. I would very cheerfully resign r^^^ 
appointment in his favor. We are but few, and the vaca^--^^" 
cies are numerious. " What a contrast there is betwe^^^ 
this, and what is so frequently seen in the Christi^^^^ 
Church, in all its branches; where ambition for distinctic::^^^ 

• 

and high position, are not so much as hidden from publ ^^ 
view, and certainly not hidden from that all-seeing e>^^ 
that looks into the heart of man, and beholds its mo 
secret impulses. Mr. Pettigrew accepted the appointmen 
of Bishop solely from a sense of duty, and was sincerel/ 
desirious of discharging its sacred functions, had unavoid- 
able circumstances not rendered it impossible. 

WHAT MR. PETTIGREW DID AS BISHOP-ELECT. 

In Mr. Pettigrew* s letter to Bishop White of the 5th 
September, 1795, in which he informs him of his unavail- 
ing effort to get to the Convention which had been 
appointed to meet in that month, but could not, in conse- 
quence of Yellow Fever — he tells him what he purposed 
doing as Bishop-elect. Said he, *^I must make use of the 
small influence I have, to have Vestrys chosen in the 
different counties, where they have not yet been chosen; 
and to have new elections, where that regulation has 
taken place, and their year has expired." He then states 



20S 

the names of the clergy and their respective counties, at 
the time of his election to the Episcopate in 1794, as they 
are elsewhere given in this volume. 

On the 2d of November, 1795, Mr. Pettigrew addressed 
a. letter to Charles Moore, Esq., of Mount Tirza, Person 
county, with the hope of getting his aid and that of his 
family, who were persons of means and influence, in the 
"work of organizing the Church among them, and in that 
section of country. 

This family was related to Bishop Moore, of Virginia, 
and came to North Carolina from the State of New York. 
Oeneral Stephen Moore, was an uncle of Bishop Richard 
Channing Moore, and was the owner of the site of West 
Point; which the United States Government purchased of 
liim, the Military Academy, which has furnished so many 
onen of renown since that day. 

He then emigrated to Mount Tirza, in the county of 
Person, in North Carolina, where he purchased lands, and 
spent the remainder of his life. 

In Mr. Pettigrew' s letter to Mr. Charles Moore, he says: 
**At our State Episcopal Convention, when choice was 
made of one of the Clergy for consecration to the ofiice of 
Bishop, we also passed a constitution for the regulation 
and government of the Church in this State. The 7th 
Article of which constitution is as follows: 

*That as speedily as possible after it is known in each 
county, what members are desirious of becoming members 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church, they be convened, and 
elect a Vestry, consisting of twelve persons, to form the 
people into a regular society ; and to procure a clergyman, 
who has been regularly ordained according to the rites and 
ceremonies of the said Church; and who is to ofiiciate 
among them as frequently as may in his power, and duly 
to administer the Holy Ordinances; and the Vestry shall 
be chosen annually. " 
Mr. Pettigrew also says: 'Termit me now sir, to 



2o6 

request you in behalf of our declining Church, to have a 
Vestry chosen in your county, of such as profess them- 
selves churchmen, agreeably to the above Article. You 
will also I hope recommend it to those of the next coun- 
ties, as opportunity may serve. By this means you will 
fall into an organized state; also place lay-readers in your 
Chapels, whereby you will be known from those of differ- 
ent persuasions by solemnly joining together on Sundays, 
in the worship of Almighty God; than which nothing can 
render society more truly respectable. * ' In reply to the 
above, Mr. Charles Moore wrote Mr. Pettigrew on the 21st 
of April, 1796, as follows: ** According to a recommenda- 
tion from the State Convention, held at Tarborough on 
the 2ist of November, 1793, an invitation was given to the 
inhabitants of this county, professing themselves to be of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in America, to meet at 
the Court House on the 26th of July, 1794, in order to 
elect a Vestry for said county, and to endeavor by all 
Christian means to promote said Church, General Stephen 
Moore being chosen chairman, the following resolutions 
were agreed to, viz: Vestrymen to the number of twelve 
persons were to be chosen by residents in the county of 
Person, professing themselves adhearents of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, to serve three years. 

''When thus chosen, they shall nominate two of their 
number to serve as Church- wardens. The presence of any 
one of whom, together with a majority of the Vestry, shall 
be necessary for the transaction of any business of the 
Church. The Vestry thus convened, shall be called a 
Board of Wardens and Vestry. One of the Wardens shall 
act as Treasurer for a year in alternate succession. 

"This Board shall have power to nominate a clerk to 
keep its Proceedings. To nominate fit persons to represent 
the Society in State Convention. To make regulations 
and orders for their own government. To receive sub- 
scriptions and donations. The general election for Vestrj-^- 



2oy 

men to be held on Easter Monday every third year. The 
foregoing rules having been considered and agreed on, the 
meeting then proceeded to the nomination and election of 
Vestrymen, twelve in number, which was done. One of 
whom was Mr. Charles Moore, the writer of this letter. 

**On the ist of September, 1794, the Vestry are to be 
chosen, only once in three years. The reason for which 
is, the difficulty of convening the inhabitants except on 
more public occasions; and the present mode coincident 
with the time of electing the Wardens of the poor, when 
the inhabitants convene for that purpose. 

' * As I was from my childhood brought up in the Church 
CDf England; and since I have arrived at mans estate, have 
tiad some opportunity of examining the tenets and prac- 
tices of other denominations, the more I know of my 
-^sisters, the closer I am attached to my mother Church. 
^-l^he prosperity of the Protestant Episcopal Church is 
5^5omething very near my heart. But I have to lament, 
:hat the few of us who are in this and the neighboring 
counties are almost as sheep without a shepherd: And 
:^nany who formerly were of that Church, have, from a 
^^notive of piety, been drawn aside to other denominations, 
'xiot having an opportunity of worshiping God in the way 
'in which they had been brought up. Should we be so 
liappy as to have a worthy, pious Pastor of the Church 
:fixed among us, I do not doubt but many would return to 
^he bosom of our mother, and the rising generation would 
l)e nourished under her wings. Perhaps should you write 
to the following gentlemen, who profess themselves Epis- 
copalians, and I believe of influence in their counties, it 
might stimulate them to exert themselves in behalf of our 
depressed Church: General Thomas Person, Col. Joseph 
Taylor, Col. Robert Burton, Capt. Henry Lyne, of Gran- 
ville; Edward Jones, Esq., John Macon, Esq., John Fal- 
con, Esq., of Warren." 

This correspondence between the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew 



ao8 

and Mr. Charles Moore, gives one some idea of the efforts 
of the Bishop-elect to promote the interests of the Church, 
as far as in his power lay. Not a large amount of good 
could be done; but he did all that it was in his power to 
accomplish. Instructions, similar to those given to Mr. 
Moore, were sent to the Rev. Dr. Hailing at New Berne, 
and to the Rev. Mr. Blount, as is seen from various letters; 
and the same was doubtless done whenever there seemed 
to be a prospect of accomplishing good, and the building 
up of the life and health of the Church The names of a 
few of the lay-readers of those times, have lingered down 
even . to this remote day, whose appointments may have 
been through the exertions of Mr. Pettigrew. 

**GLEBE LANDS*' 

In an old Record of the past, there is the following 
letter of Governor Tryon, bearing date June aoth, 1767, 
addressed to Earl Shelbume; in which he says: "The 
clergy had never any regular and certain establishment 
*till the Act of Assembly in May, 1765; which entitled the 
ministers to receive one hundred and thirty-three pounds, 
six shillings and eight pence per annum; and obliged the 
Vestry to supply them with a Glebe of two hundred acres 
of good land, and to build on it a mansion-house and con- 
venient out houses, for the residence of the minister; or 
for want thereof to pay him twenty pounds annually in 
lieu of them.'* 

This act was not repealed; but continued in force up to 
the Revolution.* And in 1776, Congress passed an ordi- 
nance granting title to all Church and Glebe lands. Also, 
an Act of Assembly of 1777, confirmed title. Also the 
Legislature of 1796, confirmed the title. (See Martin's 
Revisal of Iredell. Chapt, II, Sec 4 — Acts of 1796.) 

* But it must be observed that this Act did not provide Glebes; it only 
directed the vestrymen of each parish to buy a Glebe: and as a matter of 
fact very few of the parishes ever had any Glebe. 



209 

But this Glebe Property, which in all fairness belonged 
to the Episcopal Church, was in some instances sold, aild 
the money arising from said sales appropriated to county 
purposes; which was not only a desecration, but an act of vio- 
lence and wrong. Mr. Pettigrew contended earnestly, for 
years in his own section of country, against this manifest 
disregard of common justice. He insisted that the pro- 
ceeds from the sales of the Glebe lands should be delivered 
to the Episcopal Church — the rightful owner — to be appro- 
priated to the repairing and building of Chapels; to which 
he added, *'that not a stiver of it should come into his 
pocket." Through his exortions, a petition was sent to 
the Legislature, praying that the Glebe lands might be 
restored to the Church in the county of Tyrrell, to be laid 
out in houses of worship: But his efforts were of no avail. 
^he first Glebe-house finished in North Carolina was that 
of St. Thomas' Church, Bath. 

"I^It ADITIONS OF SOME OF THE OUX CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 

ST. THOMAS' CHURCH, BATH. 

St. Thomas' Church, in the town of Bath is the oldest 
^^ the State. It was built in the year 1734, of brick, said 
^^^ lave been brought from England, and is yet well pre- 
^^irved. The Rev. George Whitfield, the great Pulpit 
^^xi'ator and Evangelist, is said once to have preached in 
^■tiis venerable building. The old town of Bath dates 
^^ck as far as 1706, which renders it the oldest town in 
^^Drth Carolina. 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, EDENTON. 

St. Paul's Church, in the town, of Eden ton, was com- 

^^enced in the year 1736; and on the ist day of July, 1738, 

^^oney was placed in the hands of Thomas Luton for its 

^fDmpletion. It is built of brick, said to have been 

*^Tought from England. 

The Court House, within whose walls has been heard 



2IO 

the voice of so many eminent men, was built about the 
same time, of brick said to be brought from England. 

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, WILLI AMSBORO. 

The Parish of St. John's was probably established in the 
year 1746 — St. John's Church, in the village of Williams- 
boro, was built in the year 1757, and first stood at a place 
about a half mile distant from its present site, near what 
was then known as Church Spring. 

About fifteen years ago, the writer of this paper walked 
one Sunday afternoon, in company with the venerable Dr. 
William F. Henderson, (a son of the late Chief Justice 
Leonard Henderson,) who then resided at Williamsboro, 
to the place on which the old Church first stood, and where 
the old spring once was. It was the first, and probably 
the only time that my footsteps will ever tread that spot, 
which is to some degree hallowed to one, who has preached 
the Blessed Gospel of Jesus Christ within the sacred walls 
of old St. John's, now for more than twenty years. Wil- 
liamsboro and the country around it, in times long since 
past, were noted for wealth, intelligence, culture and 
refinement. There were few parts of North Carolina that 
have had more natural advantages, which in those days 
were highly improved; and the sacred precinct of St 
John's was the nucleus around which the glory of the past 
seemed to rally. Among the names that tradition has 
handed down to us, there are two that especially attract 
our attention — Chief Justice Henderson and Bishop 
Ravenscroft. The former was one of the great Jurists of 
North Carolina, the latter was the great Preacher of his 
day. It is the memor>' of the great and good men of the 
past, that transmits the glory of a former generation. 

The following is a copy of a paper given me years ago, 
which is not without its value; the names of the writers of 
which are affixed to it: 



211 
TRADITIONARY HISTORY OF ST. JOHN'S CHURCH. 

**This Church was framed and partially built, and placed 
about half a mile north-east of its present location in 1757, 
by a family of the name of Lewis in its vicinity. 

It was transferred to Judge John Williams; and by him 
it was removed to the village of Williamsboro in 1773. 
Vide inscription on a pillar supporting the center aisle. 
In Judge Williams* Will, written in 1790, he gave it to 
the vestry so long as it was used as a Protestant Episco- 
pal Church. It was to be the property of the heirs of 
I^onard Henderson, when it was no longer used as a 
I^rostestant Episcopal Church. It ceased to so be used for 
many years. It is within the recollection of one of the 
x^ecorders of this traditionary outline, to have seen rope- 
dancing, and punch and judy acted and performed within 
its sacred walls. It was used by all denominations as a 
Church, and was used by the citizens as a public theatre 
Tin til 1819. 

The timbers are massive and 'true lightwood,' and are 
put together shiplike with iron bolts and taps. Its bricks 
"were like the Church — moulded in our Father-land, 
glorious old England. The first minister who had charge 
of the Church was the Rev. George Micklejohn; a man of 
eccentric character. He preached in ithe closing years of 
the last century and the early years of this. * One of the 
recorders of this traditionary history, has heard from its 
pulpit the wayward Lorenzo Dow, at about the year 1820. 
The Rev. and pure Willian M. Green, now the octoge- 
narian and honored Bishop of Mississippi, preached in it. 
During his ministry, the Church was consecrated by the 
Rt. Rev. John Stark Ravenscroft, then the Bishop of the 
Diocese. Stephen Sneed, William Hunt, .Sr., and Col. 

* This must be an error, Mr. Micklejohn did not reside in GranviUe 
county until about the close of the Revolution. In 1770 there was a 
minister resident in Granville county: the Rev. Edward Jones, if there 
was none earlier. 



\^ 



I 

William Robards constituted the then Vestry of the Church. 
In 1824 ^^ Convention of the Diocese was held Within its 
walls. Bishop Otey, of Tennessee, was confirmed hy 
Bishop Ravenscroft in this Church. 

We, the writers, here record the names of the ministers 
who have had charge of this Church, in their line of suc- 
cession as far as our recollection serves us, viz : Rev. Geo. 
Micklejohn, Rev. William M. Green, Rev. Mr. Brainaird, 
(Mr. Brainard succeeded Mr. Green in 1826); Rev. N4r. 
Steel; Rt. Rev. John Stark Ravenscroft, (Bishop Ravens- 
croft had charge of the Parish, and resided at Williarx3.s- 
boro,) Bishop Ravenscroft' s successors were Rev. JoseI>l^ 
Saunders, Rev. Mr. Shaw, Rev. William Norwood, R^^v- 
Mr. Groves, Rev. Mr. Thurston, Rev. Louis Taylor, R^v- 
Mr. McLeod; Rev. Joseph Ridley, Rev. Sterling 
McMasters, Rev. Edwin Geer, Rev. Thomas Davis, ( 
Davis was son of Bishop Davis of South Carolina,) R^'V'* 
Richard Hines, Rev. Henry H. Pro at. Rev. Maurice 
Vaughan, Rev. William S. Pettigrew, the present pas 
Mr. Pettigrew's pastorate commenced on the 27th ^ 
February, 1870 — 4th Sunday. 

During the Rectorship of the Rev. Mr. Hines, tztt^^ 
interior of the Church was remodeled, and a Rectory \^^^^^ 
purchased and fitted up. In the year 1864, in the time ^^ 
the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Prout, a Convention of t:^^^*-^ 
Diocese was held in St. John's Church. 

WiLUAM F. Henderson, M. D., 
Henry J. Robards, M. D. 

P. S. — I gave to the late Dr. Curtis of Hillsboro, doc^^ 
ments that would have thrown much light on our ea; 
Church — St. John's. 

WiLUAM F. Henderson." 

BLOUNTS' CHAPEt. 

Parson Blount's Chapel, now known as Trinity Churc 
Chocowinity, Beaufort county, was probably built befc^ 



213 

he Revolution. It was built by the Rev. Nathaniel 
^ount, who was its first pastor — a native of, and all his 
ife a resident of the county of Beaufort. Chocowinity 
^as the residence of his father Reading Blount, and proba- 
ly Parson Blount was bom and brought up there, which 
as to some degree the scene of his ministerial labors in 
ibsequent life. The Chapel was about two miles from 
le town of Washington, and on the other side of the Pam- 
-o River. The date of its building is not known with 
rtainty; but is supposed to be about the year 1773. Par- 
ti Blount died in the county of Pitt in the year 18 t6 or 
iy\ and his remains were carried to Chocowinity, and 
terred in the family burial ground near his old residence. 
- was the last survivor of the Colonial Clergy in the 
ate, having lived beyond Parson Pettigrew, his old friend 
ci co-laborer in the ministry, about ten years. He was 
iained in St. Paul's Church, London, in September 1773. 
le relations that existed between these good men, judging 
►xn their letters, many of which are now in the posses- 
^n of the writer of this, were not only cordial, but very 
^ctionate, and beam forth a spirit of sincere and humble 
^ty, which is indeed beautiful and should stimulate us 
emulate their example. 

ST. THOMAS' CHAPEL, BERTIE COUNTY. 

St. Thomas' Chapel of Colonial times was situated in 
e county of Bertie, about five miles from Avoca, and one 
ile from the village of Merry Hill. It was destroyed by 
e about the year 1840, and was an old building at the 
gining of this century. 

The venerable Lorenzo Webb, of Windsor, who is now 
years of age, informs me that, at the request of his 
ther, the Rev. Mr. Avery, who was for many years the 
ector of St. Pauls Church, Edenton, would occasionally 
•me to Bertie and preach at St. Thomas', Mr. Lorenzo 
''ebb has in his possession the old English Prayer Book 



214 

that was used in the Chapel by Parson Pettigrew when 
preaching there in his day, Mr. Webb, himself, was 
baptized in the Chapel by the Rev. Wm. Hardy, a Meth- 
odist Preacher: and his father was baptized by Parson Pet- 
tigrew, within its old walls. 

It seems that no regular services were held for some 
years before the Chapel was burnt. The more modem 
building of St. Thomas' Church, at Windsor, is its suc- 
ce3Sor and name-sake. 

THE OLD CHAPEL ON THE SITE OF LEWISTON, BERTIE CO. 

The venerable Mr. Webb also informs me of an old 
Colonial Chapel, the name of which I have never heard. 
It was on the site of what is now the village of Lewiston, 
in the county of Bertie, and was built long before his day. 
It was here that the Rev. William Norwood, D. D. , com- 
menced his ministry about the year 1831. In addition to 
which, he also had charge of the Churches at Scotland 
Neck and Windsor. The Chapel was very old at that time, 
and was taken down between the years 1840 — '50, and the 
property went into private hands. 

SKINNERSVILLE CHAPEL, TYRELL COUNTY, — (nOW 

WASHINGTON.) 

At a place once known as Skinnersville, about fifteen 
miles east of Plymouth, in the present county of Wash- 
ington, but in the county of Tyrrell before the formation 
of the county of Washington, there was an old Colonial 
Chapel. Its date must have gone back many years anterior 
to the Revolution. There has been a Tradition in that 
region, which the writer of this has heard from persons 
who have long since passed away, that Mr. Wesley, the 
great founder of Methodism, once preached in its pulpit, 
which is not beyond the limit of probability, in as much 
as his fellow-evangelist, Mr. Whitefield, has a similar tra- 
dition in regard to his having preached in the old Colonial 
Church at Bath. 



:; 



215 

Early in Mr. Pettigrew's ministry, he preached in this 
old Chapel, when in the discharge of his duties as a mis- 
sionary and evangelist, his headquarters being Eden ton. 
It was about the year 1780, at one of his appointments at 
this old Chapel, that he met with a Mr. Anderson, who 
lived not far from Lake Scuppenong, who told him of the 
great fertility of the lands there. After this Mr. Pettigrew 
visited the lake; and was so much pleased with the fertility 
of its lands and the beanty of its water, that he invested 
there. He made a purchase of lands, from the finder of 
tlie lake — Josiah Phelps; who made the discovery of the 
l^ke about the year 1755, which has since been so noted. 
^IVlr. Pettigrew gave his place the name of Bonarva (Rich 
I^ields.) 

This old Chapel was situated on the northern side of the 
ublic highway. It had become quite dilapidated by time 
nd neglect; so much so, that it was taken down, and 
nother built through the exertions of Mr. Pettigrew in 
lie year 1803, situated opposite the Colonial Chapel, on 
Tie southern side of the highway: Mr. Pettigrew had his 
ippointments there every other Sunday, his residence, 
ince the beginning of the year 1797, having been at his 
lantation Belgrade, where it continued until his death in 
11807. ^^ ^^ ^^^ manuscript of Mr. Pettigrew's written in 
1803, he speaks of preaching occasionally at the Cour 
House of Washington, at Lee's Mills, a distance of twenty 
miles from Belgrade, his home. In the same manuscript, 
he speaks of the old Chapel (Colonial) at Skinnersville, as 
having been the only Chapel in the county, until his two 
new ones were built. He speaks of this 6ld building as 
having been in so dangerous a condition as to be unsafe 
for a congregation to be in. 

PETTIGREW'S CHAPEL. 

Although *Tettigrew's Chapel" does not date farther 
back than early in the present century; yet it may not be 



out of place in this Record of the past, in which Mr. Pe * 
tigrew's name occupies so prominent a place, to say som^ 
thing of the Parish of which he was the founder. Th£ ^ 
Parish is now known as St. David's, Scuppemong, Wash, ^ 
ington county. 

For many years perhaps as far as the commencement o 
Mr. Pettigrew's ministerial life in the year 1775, it was his 
habit to preach as a Missionarj* in different parts of the 
county of Tyrrell, which in that day, embraced what is 
now known as the counties of Tyrrell and Washington. 

In February, 1797, when he became a resident of the 
neighborhood known as Scuppemong, which is situated in 
what is now the upper part of Tyrrell and the lower part 
of Washington, the extent of which is about ten miles 
square, and on his plantation (Belgrade), he preached in a 
school-house in the neighborhood. 

This was the property of Joseph Phelps, Esq. , who was 
a Justice of the Peace, and a prominent man in his county 
affairs, as well as a School-master. 

The school-house was about a mile distant from the 
Parson's residence, and was small, and inconvenient to 
himself as well as to the congregation. In the year 1803, 
he built a Chapel at his own expense, with the exception 
of a few days work that was contributed. It was built in 
the same year with the Chapel at Skinnersville. The 
erection of this Chapel seems to afforded him great gratifi- 
cation ; of which he speaks with no little pleasure in a let- 
ter to Parson Blount, who seems to have been a friend 
with whom he communicated his thoughts unreservedly, 
and from whom he received a similar manifestation of con; 
fidence and affection. The Chapel was situated about a 
quarter of a mile from his residence, and was thirty feet 
by twenty in size. 

He survived this work but little over four years, during 
which time his health gradually declined; until death 
closed his earthly labors, and his spirit returned to the 




2l^ 

God who gave it. Seeing the manifest indication that his 
end was drawing near and feeling a deep interest in the 
spiritual welfare of the people, among whom he had 
preached for so many years, he naturally was interested on 
the subject of whom he would encourage in preaching the 
words of Salvation from his pulpit, when he would be no 
^ore to sound that good news himself. 

^here was no Episcopal minister in Edenton, nor any 

where else in that region of country. His eyes naturally 

turned to the Methodist Preachers, with whom he had ever 

^^n on friendly terms, and who seemed to cherish toward 

^i^xi a filial feeling — the chief object of whose preaching 

^^^xned to be, to persuade men to lead holier and better 

hxr^s, and the aiding them in the attainment of eternal 

^^-Ivation. The good old Parson, soon after the comple- 

^^^^ii of his Chapel, invited them also to have appointments 

^^^re, which they gladly accepted; and their regular 

^F^X^ii^tments, in what was known as the Columbia Circuit; 

^^^Te kept up there until the year 1839, when the Method- 

^^'^^^^s built a Chapel of their own about two miles distant — 

^^-Xled Bethel. 

^he writer of this was told about fifteen years ago by 
^ Rev. Dr. Closs (an old Methodist Preacher about 
^^^'^Venty five years of age at that time), that when he was 
^^oung man, he knew an old Methodist Preacher who was 
^ ^^^ung in the time of Parson Pettigrew. Said he, on one 
^^^casion I was standing by when a person offered Mr. Pet- 
-^-^ew a pecuniary compensation for his ministerial ser- 
ices; for which he thanked him, but declined accepting 
; but pointing to me, requested the person to hand it to 
e, saying that I was poor and needed it; which he did. 
Mr. Pettigrew invited the Methodist Preachers to his 
Ixouse, and entertained them, as Mrs. Pettigrew his widow 
>rho survived him until August, 1833, also did. A Meth- 
odist Preacher, who rode that circuit in the year 1 828, and 
who frequently was the recipient of the hospitality of the 



21 



h 



good old lady, once said to the writer of this, that he had 
been told by her — that Mr. Pettigrew, before his death, 
had said to her, that he wished her house ever to be the 
home of the Methodist preachers. 

The first Episcopal Minister who took charge of Petti- 
grew' s Chapel, after the death of Mr. Pettigrew, was the 
Rev. David Griffith, who went there in the month of 
May, 1834. Since then, there has been a constant succes- 
sion of Episcopal Ministers up to this time. 

BIOGRAPHICAI. SKETCH OF THE REV. CHARI.ES PETTIGREW. 

Among the papers of the late General J. Johnston Petti- 
grew, there is a sketch of his grand-father, the Rev. Charles 
Pettigrew, in manuscript; a copy of which is contained in 
the appendix to the 2nd vol. of the life and correspon- 
dence of Judge Iredell. It was written in the September 
of 1856, at the request of the late Griffith J. McRee, 
Esq., the accomplished author of the lyife of Iredell. I 
do not know that I can do better than to insert this sketch 
here emanating as it does from the pen of my lamented 
brother, which will now, after the lapse of a third of a 
century, adorn his own memory no less than that of his 
venerated ancestor. 

GENERAL pettigrew' S MANUSCRIPT. 

**The Rev. Charles Pettigrew was descended from a 
gentleman's family, originally from, and still resident in, 
Scotland, a branch of which removed, very many years 
ago, to county Tyrone, Ireland — extinct at present, except 
in the persons of two ladies. He was of this branch. His 
father seems to have fallen out bitterly with his people — 
why, was never known, but probably on account of differ- 
ence in religion, for he came to this country a dissenter of 
the dissenters, and so strict was he that his doors were 
always religiously closed on Sunday. On one occasion 
the Indians, on Sunday, having made an irruption into the 
settlement, passed by his house as uninhabited, while the 



neiglibors met tlie usual fate — an occurence which, doubt- 
less, did no little to steady the faith of his family. He 
followed the usual course of the Irish emigrants — landing 
in Pennsylvania, and halting finally in South Carolina. 
In North Carolina, his father left him. 

**The Rev. Mr. Pettigrew was indebted for his education 
to the Rev. Mr. Patillo, and the Rev. Mr. Waddel, Wirt's 
famous blind orator, who seemed to have taken a great 
fancy to him in his youth, as appears from their corre- 
spondence, wherein allusion is made to presents of Greek 
books, received at Grammar School. Having but little 
besides his intellect, he became a teacher. The date of 
his appointment to the public school in Edenton is June, 
1773, and under the seal of Governor Martin. Uniting 
t:o his inheritance of piety a lively intellect, and a consid- 
erable degree of literary culture, and having, moreover, 
x-etumed to the path of his forefathers, he was persuaded to 
enter the ministry; and accordingly, in the Winter of 
3 774-' 75, made a voyage to London, where he was or- 
dained by the Bishop of London, his Diocesan, and the 
Bishop of Rochester. He immediately entered upon his 
functions with zeal on his return to America, for which 
there was much room during the war of the Revolution. 
He succeeded the Rev. Mr. Earl, as Rector of St. Paul's 
Church, Edenton, and there was cast upon him the spirit- 
ual care of all that section of country. 

'*By his marriage with Miss Mary Bloimt, daughter of 
Col. John Blount, he became allied with the old Provin- 
cial Aristocracy, and thus had his sphere of usefulness 
enlarged. 

"In a letter, dated in 1789, he alludes to his former habit 
of preaching to great crowds, and states that he was con- 
strained to give it up, because of its almost invariably 
producing a fever. During all this period he seems to 
have been not so much at the head of the Episcopal 
Church, as of religion in general, for there are various let- 



2i6 

ters to him from Edward Dromgoole, and other Methodists, 
who either resided in, or traveled through that region, and 
also from lyutherans, giving him an account of their move- 
ments, and requesting his attendance at their meetings. 
Indeed the Church Establishment having been dissolved, 
and all religious organization broken down, the enemies of 
the Evil-one seemed to have fought together, with no other 
bond of union than that of a common foe. After the 
Revolution and the restoration of Peace, he received 
various invitations from the neighboring parts of Virginia, 
which were declined with one exception — and that one 
never acted on. 

**In politics he was a whig in the Revolution. In 1789, 
Bishop White suggested to Gov. Johnston the propriety of 
organizing the Church in North Carolina: But he deem- 
ing any ecclesiastical interference inconsistent with his 
position, referred the whole matter to Mr. Pettigrew, who 
requested the Clergy to meet at Tarboro', in June, 1790. 
The apathy on the subject seems to have been great, for it 
was not until a flood of letters had been written, and 
various small conventions held, that one could be assem- 
bled sufficently universal to organize the Church. 

**In May, 1794, such a Convention was held at Tarbo- 
rough, at which a Constitution was framed and adopted, 
and Mr. Pettigrew was selected as Bishop — with regard to 
this honor he sincerely said, ^Nolo Episcopari. ' 

**The state of his health seemed absolutely to forbid it; 
but in the depressed state of the Church, and the scattered 
situation of its ministers, the acceptance of this post was 
deemed by his fellow-christians a duty, and he yielded. 
The various alarms of Yellow Fever at Philadelphia and 
Norfolk, with the accompanying quarantine, cutting off" 
all communication during certain seasons of the year, pre- 
vented him from meeting the General Convention for some 
years; and, in the latter part of his life, declining health 
rendered him unequal to the exertion. Though he was 



221 

thus unable to put the finishing stroke to the foundation, 
yet his labours in rescAng the Ministers and their 
Parishes from the disconnected state in which they were 
disposed to continue, and in increasing and diffusing a 
zeal for religion, were of great service, not only to the 
cause of the Church, but to Christianity in general. 

About the same time another matter of general interest 
agitated the state, in which Mr. Pettigrew took great inter- 
est, and acted a leading part. The establishment of a Uni- 
versity. Such was his conviction of the importance 
of the measure, and his zeal for its success, that once, 
being compelled to choose between the General Conven- 
tion and a meeting of the friends of the University, h^ 
preferred the latter. On this subject there is a very good 
communication from him in the Archives of the Univer- 
sity. His literary attainments, though considerable for 
the time, were probably not very deep; but he had quite a 
classical taste. His favorite I^atin Author in youth was 
(to judge from his quotations) Horace, and subsequently 
Virgil. His written style seems easy, and his oratory 
from all accounts eloquent, but at the same time chaste, 
for he had a horror of physical religion. One gift I think 
he had by nature to a considerable extent, — that of poetry, 
for I find scraps, rough drafts of odes, and poems on all 
sorts of subjects and in all kinds of metres, either quite 
lively or the reverse. His turn for variety of metre proba- 
bly produced or was produced by his partiality for Horace. 

*'As a Christian, I believe he was as nearly without 
serious fault as is possible; for though he lived in an age 
when the clergy were rarely popular, and always subjected 
to hard criticism, I have heard of but few who have said 
aught to his discredit. The manner in which he dis- 
charged the very onerous duties of his calling in a sickly 
country was exemplary; and in that day, a clergyman who 
had three or four counties under his charge, and was 
expegted to preach a funeral sermon oyer eyery respectably 



222 

parishoner, was far from having a sinecure. In the year 
1797, he began to reside at tlie plantations of Belgrade 
and Bonarva, now the property of his grandsons, near 
and on I^ake Scuppernong; and in 1803, t)uilt Petti- 
grew' s Chapel, which he afterwards presented to the 
Church. From the above date (1797) to the time of 
his death in 1807, he refused to receive any com- 
pensation for his services. Indeed he had always, even 
under the Establishment, projiibited the collection of any 
thing from the Quakers. An enlightened, cheerful, and 
consistent Christianity pervaded his whole life, and particu- 
larly characterized him in his domestic relations, and I 
know not where the duty of a christian gentleman is more 
elegantly set forth than in his letter of advice to his sons 
at college in 1797, when he believed himself approaching 
dissolution. As a curious instance of the opinion then 
entertained, it may be mentioned, that he therein advised 
them to make arrangements for procuring white labor, as 
a change may take place sooner than is expected. 

**His health was always delicate; but his cheerfulness 
never forsook him, so much so that it was impossible to be 
with him without catching his sprightliness. His mar- 
riage placed him in comparative afluent circumstances; 
but, as might have been expected, he was an indifferent 
manager of worldly concerns, though his own opinion of 
his skill was probably different. He died in 1807, leaving 
his widow of the second marriage, formerly Miss Mary 
Lockhart, and one son by his first marriage. His remains 
repose in the family sepulchre at Bonarva. To this Mr. 
McRee adds the following: *The Bishop's only son; the 
Hon. Ebenezer Pettigrew, represented the Third Congres- 
sional District in 1835 — '7, in which was included the 
county of Tyrrell, in which he resided. He was distin- 
guished for his intelligence, his purity, and his refined 
manners.'' General Pettigrew concludes with this: **I copy 
below an obituarv taken from an old file of the ^Edentou 



223 

Gazette.' It accords substantially, with what I have 
always heard. ^During the interruption in this publica- 
tion we have to lament the death of many loved and val- 
uable characters. Among them we would particularly 
notice the death of that zealous and venerable disciple of 
the blessed jESUS, the Rev. Charles Pettigrew, Bishop of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in this State, who died 
at his home in Tyrrell county, on the 8th day of April last 
(1807.) To do justice to the character of this pious and 
excellent man would require talents we have not the hap- 
piness to possess, and far exceeding the narrow limits of 
this Paper. His public ministrations in tjiis place for 
many years render eulogy unnecessary. His chaste and 
classical discourses, his fervid and animated devotion, his 
irreproachable and evangelical life will long, very long be 
remembered with melancholy regret by those, who enjoyed 
the advantage of his public and private admonitions and 
instructions. In him were exemplified that simplicity 
and Godly sincerity, which are the perfection of the 
Christian character. Oppressed by the infirmities of a 
feeble constitution and frequent disease, his cheerfulness 
did not desert him. As the world and its fleeting joys 
receded from his view, his faith in Christ and hopes of 
immortal glory acquired additional strength and vigor. 
He was at all times blessed with that serene and placid 
temper, that meek and patient spirit of resignation, which 
are the strongest proofs of piety and virtue, and a rational 
well-grounded hope in the gospel of the blessed jESUS. 
Having fought the good fight on earth, having finished his 
course, having kept the faith, we trust he has now ascended 
to the bosom of his God, to reap a rich reward in the 
regions of eternal rest, peace and joy. Mark the perfect 
and behold the upright man, for the end of that man is 
peace. ' 

J. Johnston P^ttiqr^w." 



224 

REV. MR. PETTIGREW'S ANCESTRY. HIS YOUTH. HIS 
EDUCATION. HIS EARI.Y MANHOOD. 

James Pettigrew, the great grand-father of the Rev. 
Charles Pettigrew, was a native of France; but left his 
native country in consequence of religious persecution in 
the reign of Louis XIV. From France he went to Scotland, 
which became his residence. Perhaps his home was Glas- 
gow. He had two sons — John and James. Of John noth- 
ing has been handed down to posterity. He probably 
spent his life in Scotland, his native country. James 
Pettigrew, the grand-father of the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew 
married Miss' Martha Moore, a Scotch lady of wealth. He 
was an officer in the army of William of Orange at the 
Battle of '*the Boyne,'' which was fought in the year 1690 
between the troops of William of Orange and James II., 
resulting in the success of William and the subjugation of 
Ireland. After the restoration of peace, King William 
conferred on him, for gallant military service in the Battle 
of *^the Boyne,'' 300 acres of land not far from the town of 
Aughnaeloy, county of Tyrone, in the North of Ireland. 
To this place he removed his family from Scotland, and 
gave his residence the name of '^Crilly House,'' where he 
spent the remainder of his life; which is yet in possession 
of his descendants. William, the oldest son of the officer 
in the Battle of ^*the Boyne," resided at ^'Crilly House" 
after his father's death. He married Miss Margaret Ker, 
by whom he had three sons, viz : James, Robert and Wil- 
liam. James, who was a first cousin of the Rev. Mr. Pet- 
tigrew, at an early age received a commission in the British 
Army, and commanded what is called the forlorn hope at 
the Battle of Brandywine, in the American Revolution. 
His company was almost cut off, and himself badly 
wounded. He was a Captain in the loth Regiment of 
British Troops. After the Battle of Brandywine, he 
returned to Ireland, and received Knighthood from George 



225 

III, and was promoted to the rank of Major and Paymaster 
of the Troops. He died in Jamaica, where a tomb was 
erected over his remains by his brother officers. James, a 
younger son of the officer in the Battle of '*the Boyne," 
and brother of William who inherited Crilly House after 
the death of his father, was the father of Rev. Charles 
Pettigrew. He was born in April, 17 13, and received a 
classical education. At 19 years of age he married Miss 
Mary Cochran, about the year 1732. He remained in 
Ireland about eight years after his marriage; when he 
emigrated with his wife and four children to America, and 
landed in November, 1 740, at the town of New Castle. 
Not long after his arrival in America, he became acquainted 
with Dr. Franklin, who afterwards became so distinguished 
as a Philosopher and Patriot, whose residence was Phila- 
delphia which was not more than 32 miles from New 
Castle. They seemed to have been on terms of some 
intimacy — so much so, that the Doctor insisted on his 
studying medicine, for which he seems to have had a 
natural gift, and which he had to some extent already 
studied: But the emigrant did not follow his friends advice, 
which might have been wise. Not long after his arrival 
in America, he purchased 300 acres of land, at what is now 
known as Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, where he settled 
and remained until the year 1755. His son Charles Petti- 
grew, the subject of this sketch, was born at this place on 
the 20th of March, 1743. The relatives whom James 
Pettigrew, the emigrant, had left behind him in Ireland 
were Church of England people. But about the time of 
his arrival, that great pulpit luminary, Mr. Whitefield, 
was preaching in America; on one occasion he attended 
his meeting, and was so wrought upon by the power and 
eloquence of the Preacher, as to make a profession of 
religion. He joined the Presbyterian Church; and con- 
tined a faithful and zealous member of it until his death, 
which took place in Abbeville District, South C^trolina, 



on the 24th of December, 1784, at the age of seventy-one. 1. 
In the year 1755, he sold his property at Charabersburg, \ 
and removed with his family to the county of lyimenburg, 
Virginia, and rented a place near the county-seat. At this 
place his youngest child, William Pettigrew, was bom oti 
the 36th of February, 1758, who was the father of the lat^ 
James L. Pettigrew, the very distinguished lawyer of 
Charleston, who for so many years ranked at the head of 
the South Carolina bar, in which there was so mud 
ability. It was probably while the emigrant lived ii 
lyunenburg, that . his son Charles was sent to school t< 
those noted teachers and divines — the Rev. James Waddel 
Mr. Wirts famous blind Preacher, the Rev. Henry Patillo. 
whose piety no less than learning made its impress, doubt- 
less on the mind of their young pupil. About the yeai 
1760, James Pettigrew, the emigrant, removed fronrrm 
lyunenburg, Virginia, to the county of Granville, Nortlrr:^ 
Carolina. He there purchased 300 acres of land of Hornel 
Lewis, and settled in a neighborhood that was noted, foi 
many years afterwards, as the head quarters of the Presby- 
terian Church and known as '^Grapy Creek;" which ii 
said to be the oldest church building now standing of thai 
denomination in North Carolina. He gave to the Church 
the ground on which the building was erected. Probably 
it was built about the year 1761. For some years it had a 
succession of learned and distinguished Pastors, among 
whom were the Rev. Samuel Davies, afterwards President 
of Princeton College, New Jersey, and the Rev. Shepherd 
Kollock. James Pettigrew was chosen one of the Elders. 
Probably his residence was three or four miles from the 
Minister's school, to which his son Charles went until 
his education was completed. It is not likely this was 
accomplished before he was 22 years of age, subjected as he 
must have been to so many hindrances and delays in the 
pursuit of learning, on the accomplishment of which his 
mind seems to have been steadily fixed. 



^27 

MR. PETTIGREW AS AN INSTRUCTOR OF YOUTH. 

In the October of 1 768, Mr. James Pettigrew, the emi- 
grant, with all his family except his son Charles, removed 
3 Abbeville District, South Carolina. The county of 
►lite, consisting of what now constitutes the counties of 
i^arren and Franklin, was formed about the year 1764, 
^<i its Court House was about eight miles from the present 
>A?vn of Warrenton, and equi-distant from Ridgeway. It 
^-s probably here that Mr. Pettigrew, the subject of this 
^^tch, commenced teaching school about the year 1766, 
^d continued to do so, after his father and family had left 
^^ South Carolina, until he received from the Colonial 
"^^vemor, Josiah Martm, the appointment of Master of the 
'\iblic School at Edenton, in June, 1773. It is probable 
^at he taught six or seven years in the county of Bute, 
Uifficiently long to have acquired some reputation as an 
^structor of youth ; otherwise the Governor of the Province 
>^ould scarcely have appointed him to so important a place 
s that of Master of the school at Edenton, one of the chief 
Dwns in the Province. The distinguished Nathaniel 
lacon was a pupil of Mr. Pettigrew* s at his school in Bute, 
nd very likely was prepared by him for Princeton College. 
lis biographer states, that he was bom in 1757, and that 
e w^as a student at Princeton in 1776. From which it 
lay be inferred that he was about 16 years of age when 
Ir. Pettigrew' s school ceased in Bute, and when he, Mr. 
^ettigrew, left for Edenton. In 1776, at which time 
Nathaniel Macon left Princeton to take part in the Revo- 
ution, his biographer tell us he had not graduated. 

Among the old letters of Mr. Pettigrew, there is the 
bllowing, part of which may be interesting. It is written 
;o Benjamin Hawkins, who was a pupil of his at the same 
:ime with Nathaniel Macon. 

Washington County, Deer., 1802. 
Dear Sir: 

So much time have elapsed since we have had the pleasure of an 
interview, from the remoteness of our situation from each other, that it is 



228 

not improbable, that the name at the bottom of th^ concluding page may 
give you surprise. Think not however that I write you from any other 
sphere, for although we have seen many of our friends and acquaintances 
consigned to the grave in the run of our near 30 years absence from each 
other, through Divine influence I am still alive — still confined to this 
state of mutability and imperfection. 

My brother, from whose hand I expect you will receive this, and whom 
I take the liberty to introduce to you, has mentioned your name as 
standing high in the estimation of the Georgians. I confess I heard it 
with singular pleasure, and could not but recognize my early acquain- 
tance with you, which I believe was mutually happy; and, at the same 
time, I could not help recollecting the sentiments I was then induced to 
entertain of you, from that opening of mind and freedom of thought 
which appeared so natural to you, and which I expected would influence 
your future conduct through life. In this I am happy to think from the 
result, that I was not mistaken in my conjectures. Believe me Sir, the 
prosperity and respectability of any of my old pupils gives me the sin- 
cerest pleasure, and I am peculiarly happj' to find that your old school- 
mate Macon makes so respectable a figure in Congress. My brother is a 
resident at this time of South Carolina; but having been unfortunate from 
the death and insolvency of a Sheriffs foir whom he was security, he now 
wishes to try to repair his losses as an adventurer in the Western Frontier 
of Georgia, particularly by procuring a good spot of that land lately pur- 
chased from the Indians. With this view he thinks olf trjring to get a 
surveyor's place. His honor and integrity I have not a doubt may be 
relied on. Whatever services therefore you may find it convenient to 
render him, shall be considered as obligations on your old friend, who 
spent so many happy days and nights of his youth together with you 
under the same roof. I would be happy that my brother William Petti- 
grew and family were living beside me; but our country is very low, and 
the lands that are good hard to reclaim, and then uncertain. He there- 
fore cannot get over his partiality for the State of Georgia. As it is 
natural for friends to wish to be informed of the particular circumstances 
of one another, especially in cases of long absence, I beg leave to refer 
you to my brother for mine. Suffice it for me to say, my desires with 
regard to the world have been sufficiently gratified, and we have great 
cause for gratitude to the liberal Author of our lives, and the easy compe- 
tency with which he has blest us. I shall be happy to correspond with 
you by post. With sentiments of esteem and the sincerest regard, I have 
the honor to be my worthy friend, 

Your obedient servant 

Chari.es Pettigrew. 
Benjamin Hawkins, Esq., Georgia — 

Favored by Mr. William Pettigrew. 

The parents of Nathaniel Macon lived on the Southern 
side of the Public Highway, about two miles from Bute 



229 

Court House, which property now belongs to the estate of 
the late John Watson. The house is not now standing; 
but was taken down some years ago. It is said by old peo- 
ple to have been the first house in the county of Warren in 
which there were glass windows. It was here that 
Nathaniel Macon was bom. The parents of Benjamin 
Hawkins lived on the Northern side of the Public High- 
way nearly three miles from the Court House, which 
property now belongs to the widow of the late Mr. Thomas 
Plummer. Benjamin Hawkins' father was the first Col. 
Philemon Hawkins, the earliest of his name who came to 
North Carolina, and was an old man at the time that Mr. 
Pettigrew taught school in that neighborhood. As Mr. 
Pettigrew speaks of spending days and nights under the 
same roof with his pupil, young Hawkins, it is not im- 
probable that he boarded at old Col. Hawkins' while 
teaching. The walk could easily have been made morn- 
ing and evening by himself and the young Hawkinses 
who were among his pupils. In June, 1773, Mr. Pettigrew 
left the upper country of North Carolina, and ever after 
was identified with the Albemarle region. He first became 
the head of the public school in Edenton, where he con- 
tinued 18 months, until the close of 1774. During this 
time he was the lay-reader in. St. Paul's Church whenever 
the Rev. Mr. Earl, the Rector, might be absent; also he 
was a student of Divinity. The writer of this has heard 
his father, who was the son of the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew, 
speak of the extraordinary talent for control in the school- 
room which his father possessed, merely from his presence 
and manner without the exercise of personal severity. 

MR. PETTIGEW COMMENCES HIS MINISTRY. HIS MARRIAGE. 

HIS CHILDREN. • 

Mr. Pettigrew went to London in the Winter of 1774-5, 
and was ordained Deacon and Priest by the Bishop of 
I/mdon and Rochester. After which he returned to 



America in one of the last ships that sailed before the com- 
mencement of hostilities between the mother country and 
the Colonies. He immediately began his labors as a 
Preacher of the Gospel ; extending them, as he continued 
to do to a large degree during his life, over the region of 
country on the two side of Albemarle Sound and the 
county of Bertie. But Edenton seems to have been his 
headquarters during most of his ministerial life; from 
which he diverged, from time to time, in diflFerent direc- 
tions as circumstances would seem to render necessary. This 
was eminently the case, previously to his becoming a resi- 
dent of what was then the county of Tyrrell in the year 
1797. He was married to Miss Mary Blount, a daughter 
of Col. John Blount, on the 29th of October, 1778. She 
died on the i6th of March, 1786, in Harvey's Neck, in the 
county of Perquimans. By this marriage he had two sons, 
viz: John Pettigrew, who was born at Edenton, August 
2d, 1779, and died at Belgrade Plantation, Scuppemong, 
Tyrrell county, September 23, 1799. Ebenezer Pettigrew, 
who was born at Edenton, March loth, 1783, and died at 
Magnolia Plantation, Tyrrell county, July 8, 1848. 

ENGAGEMENTS MADE FOR MR. PETTIGREW TO PREACH ^ 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, EDENTON. 

FIRST SUBSCRIPTION LIST. 

The first information that we have of Mr. Pettigre 
preaching in St. PaiiPs Church, Edenton, is an old s 
scription list, in which the subscribers, members of t' 
congregation, engage the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew to preai 
for them every third Sunday, in the absence of the Re 
Mr. Earl. Commencing with the date of the paper, Ju 
22d, 1775, and to continue one year. The salary to 
paid ^79. 15. 2d. 

SECOND SUBSCRIPTION LIST. 

She second subscription list that we find, bears da 
May ist, 1778, in which the Rev, Mr, Earths name is n 



^entioned^ from which we infer that Mr. Pettigrew had 
l>ecome Rector of the Church. It engages Mr. Pettigrew 
to preach every other Sunday in the town or Edenton, 
commencing with May ist, 1778; and promises him one 
hundred pounds annually. 

THIRD SUBSCRIPTION UST. 

The third subscription list that we find, bears date 
November ist, 1781. It says: * We have applied to the 
Rev. Charles Pettigrew to perform public religious worship, 
and to preach on every Sunday in the Church in this town; 
and we promise to pay him the sum affixed to our respec- 
:ive names, which in all amounts to ;^i84. 12. 

FOURTH SUBSCRIPTION UST. 

The fourth subscription list, that we find, says : * We have 
ipplied to the Rev. Charles Pettigrew to perform religious 
;ervice and to preach every Sunday in the Church in this 
OAvn; and we promise to pay him the sum affixed to our 
lames for his services in one year — half to be paid at the 
:iine of signing, and the other half to be paid at the end of 
the year. Signed January ist. 1783." 

In the Historical Collections in the State Library at 
Raleigh, there is the following: '*In the year 1777, the 
Rev. Mr. Pettigrew writes — that he preaches at five places, 
and depends on voluntary salary. In the year 1779, the 
Rev. Daniel Earl, writes — that he knows of no Clergyman 
officiating in the Province except the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew, 
and he speaks of leaving in the Spring.'' 

Mr. Pettigrew, however, did not leave; but continued in 
North Carolina from the commencement to the close of his 
ministerial life — from 1775 to 1807. Mr. Pettigrew resigns 
the Rectorship of St. Paul's Church, Edenton. Moves to 
Harvey's Neck in the county of Perquimans. 

DEATH OF MR. PETTIGREW. 

It is probable that about the year 1777, Mr. Pettigrew 



became the Rector of St. Paul's Church, Edenton; whicT^ ^ 
he retained up to the close of the year 1784, at which tim^ 
he resigned his charge. Early in the month of January^ -a 

1785, he left Edenton on a visit to the West Indies, hopin^§ 
that the sea- voyage and a month or two spent in that mil^^ 
climate would be beneficial to his health. He arrived a^ 
the British Island of St. Eustatia after a voyage of twi 
months from Edenton. In a letter to Mrs. Pettigrew^ 
written while there, he says: **I have preached, sinci 
I have been here, at the request of the Governor and thi 
principal gentlemen of the Island. I am treated ver 
politely by them, being invited to dine among them almos 
every day." Remained on the Island about a -month; ant 
returned to Edenton early in the month of May, mucl 
benefited by the sea- voyage and balmy climate. In March 

1786, he removed from Edenton to a plantation he hac 
purchased in Harvey's Neck, in the county of Perquimans- 
situated in an angle between the Perquimans River anc 
the Albemarle Sound; which plantation in more recen 
years, was the property of the Rev. Thomas H. Skinnei 
Jr. , now of Raleigh, who in early life resided there. This 
place was about 20 miles from Edenton. The support hm 
received from the Church in Edenton was so meagre as t< 
constrain him to rely on his own resources as a means o: 
living for himself and family. The exposure encounterec^ 
in their removal in the changeable month of March, anc^ 
the open and uncomfortable house into which they wen* 
in Harvey's Neck, were such as to cause the death of Mrs. 
Pettigrew. She breathed her last on the i6th of March 
1786; and her mortal remains were carried to * 'Mulberr^CT'"-^' 
Hill," the old residence of her father. Col. John Blount, a 
which she was born and brought up, seven miles 
Edenton, and there deposited in the family sepulchre. 

Mr. Pettigrew probably remained at his abode in HslttM^ — ^* 
vey's Neck, with his two motherless sons, about thrt'^^^^^ 
years. The oldest of the Skinner family, whose name w< 



233 

oshua, (father of the late Joseph Skinner and his brothers), 
ud the Harveys, were among his neighbors while a resi- 
ent there — names that have been distinguished in North 
Carolina. 

IR. PETTIGREW COMMENCEvS HIS BONARVA PIvANTATlON. 

On the 9th of March, 1788, Mr. Pettigrew commenced 
is Bonarva Plantation on Lake Scuppernong, and proba- 
ly in the month of June, 1789, left his abode at Harvey's 
Jeck, with his two sons and what he could remove, and 
inded on the Tyrrell shore, at the mouth of Scuppernong 
liver, which was then the county seat of Tyrrell. The 
limit lire and other articles he had bought, were deposited 
ti the Court House. They landed at the mouth of the 
iver probably on Saturday, and left on Sunday for their 
ie>v home. 

The articles that had been deposited in the Court House 
vere permitted to remain for the present. The new abode 
which they were going was not Bonarva for the present, 
[t was a small place on the Southern shore of the Albe- 
narle, in a section known as the sound-side, bordering 
Dn and to the East of what bears the name of Shadberry 
Lane, which is about a quarter of a mile in length, as it 
runs from the main road to the sound. Between the 
years 1840-^50, the place was. owned and occupied by the 
late Edward Riggs, a brother of the late Mrs. Josiah Collins, 
of Somerset place. Lake Scuppernong. Mr. Riggs was a 
native of Newark, New Jersey, and a highly cultivated 
gentleman. This place was nearly opposite **Mulberry 
Hill," and convenient by water to Eden ton, which two 
considerations had their influence in inducing Mr. Petti- 
grew to select it as a temporary residence. Withal it was 
remarkable for its health. As Mr. Pettigrew and his two 
sons John and Ebenezer, the former of whom was ten and 
tlie latter six years of age, were on their way to this new 
residence, as they were almost wanderers without an abid- 



234 

ing place, in a country but little cultivated and sparsely 
peopled, there came up a thunder stonn as the desolate 
travellers approached an uninhabited and dilapidated 
building. In this they sought shelter from the wind and 
rain. The house was without windows or shutters, and 
destitute of every- comfort. It was in an old field that lay 
uncultivated, and was used as a common by the neighbor- 
hood cattle. It was on the South side of the Public High- 
way as it now runs, and was in front of the present stone 
house, which has for many years been part of a property 
known as **Sunny Side.'' In this desolate house. Parson 
Pettigrew and his two sons remained during the afternoon 
and night. The writer of this, who is a son of Ebenezer, 
the yoimger of those boys, has frequently heard his father, 
in years now long past, speak of that desolate evening 
and the cow bells in the old field as he heard them amid 
rain, lightning, and gloom, and the melancholy impression 
made on his young mind. The new place to which they 
were going on the sound-side was comparatively conve- 
nient to the Lake, being distant about 18 miles only, and 
without the waters of the Albemarle to encounter. Mr. 
Pettigrew' s object was to be within reach of Bonarva, that 
he might clear it, and render it valuable and one means of 
support. The lands were set with immense cypresses 
which were difficult to clear, and subject to water as it 
overflowed from the Lake, which was 9 miles by 7, and 14 
feet in depth; but the soil possessed extreme fertility. 
Ebenezer Pettigrew, the youth spoken of above, became 
the manager of this property in September, 1803, when 
20 years of age. He found an overflowing Lake, and a 
clearing of only 50 acres of imperfectly drained land, which, 
consequently, did not produce in accordance with its 
fertility. As years rolled away, he made this wilderness, 
by his capacity and energy, to blossom as the rose. Bonarva 
became a large and productive plantation: and in 1843, ^^^ 
writer of this heard his uncle, the late Hon. William B. 



235 

Shepard, who had travelled much in the Sonthern country 
as well as at the North, say that it was the most beautiful 
plantation he had ever seen. While living at the place 
on the sound-side, Mr. Pettigrew led the same missionary 
life that he had heretofore done, and, doubtless, preached 
occasionally at Edenton. It had been now two years that 
himself and his two sons had experienced the friendship 
of neighbors, which has been transmitted in their descen- 
dants as well as in his to this remote period, when he was 
again called to Edenton as Rector of St. PauPs Church. 
While on the sound-side, he probably preached at the old 
Colonial Chapel at Skinnersville, which was only two 
miles distant. He also sometimes preached below Scup- 
pernong River, as there were some friends of his residing 
in that part of the country of Tyrrell. 

♦MR. PETTIGREW IS AGAIN CALLED TO ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, 

EDENTON. 
FIFTH SUBSCRIPTION LIST. 

At the head of this list we find the following; ^^The 
Rev. Mr. Pettigrew agrees to reside in the town of Eden- 
ton, and to preach two Sundays out of three, and perform 
the respective duties of his function. The first year to 
commence from the 12th day of June, 1791." The sum to 
be paid is not stipulated. Nor the duration of his services, 
which probably continued some years. He was a resident 
at Edenton, from the time of this call up to his marriage to 
Miss Mary Lockhart, and Pastor of the Church. After 
his marriage he removed to Scotch Hall, where he remained 
two years and a half. It is also probable that he retained 
the Pastorate at St. PauPs Church during his residence at 
Scotch Hall, and until his removal to Belgrade Plantation, 
in the county of Tyrrell, in February, 1797. As far as 
any papers of his would throw light on that period, he was 
the only minister of the Episcopal Church who preached 
in Edenton, from the Pastorate of Mr. Earl up to Mr. Pet- 
tigrew' s death in 1807. 



236 

Mr. Pettigrew was married to Miss Mary Lockhart on 
the 1 2th of June, 1794. Her residence was Scotch Hall, 
Bertie county, a name given it by her father, Mr. James 
Lockhart, who died at his residence on the 7th of Decem- 
ber, 1753, at the age of 54 years. Mrs. Elizabeth Lock- 
hart, his wife, survived him until her death on the 3d of 
January, 1796, in the 87th year of her age. After Mr. 
Pettigrew' s marriage, himself and his two sons made 
Scotch Hall their home, except when his sons were at the 
University, at Chapel Hill. 

MR. PETTIGREW SETTLED AT BELGRADE PLANTATION, 

SCUPPERNONG, TYRRELL CO. 

In the year 1796, Mr. Pettigrew purchased this property^ 
of James Dillon. In February, 1797, he moved to it fron^^ 
Scotch Hall with his wife and two sons, making it hi^^ 
residence until his death. It was seven miles from ,th 
Lake where his Bonarva property was, which added to i 
desirableness. He gave it the name of Belgrade, whiclu 
name seems to have been a favorite with him, as he hadL 
given the same name to his place in Harvey's Neck. 
When first going to Belgrade, they occupied the house in^ 
which the fonner owner had dwelt, and he commenced ther 
erection of a new and more pretentious mansion. It was 
first framed at Bonarva, probably in 1796; but afterwards 
was moved to Belgrade probably in 1797, and placed about 
300 yards nearer Scuppemong River than it now stands. 
It was completed, and Mr. Pettigrew and family moved 
into it in March, 1798, being greatly gratified at having a 
residence so comfortable, after all his wanderings. It 
was moved where it now stands in the Spring of 1834, by 
his son Ebenezer Pettigrew. This mansion stands yet, 
after the lapse of 92 years, a monument of the piety and 
worth of the first Bishop-elect. 

MR. PETTIGREW AS A PREACHER; AS A MAN; AS A CHRISTIAN. 

The writer of this, in his early life, would occasionally 



237 

meet with persons themselves advanced in years, who 
knew old Parson Peiiigrew^ as he was usually denominated 
throughout the country when spoken of. They spoke of 
him in terms of unqualified praise as a preacher, as a man, 
and as a christian. He was a firm believer in the doctrine 
of Infant Baptism as practiced by his Church; and during 
his ministerial life, he was one of its most zealous advo- 
cates. He felt deeply the meaning and force of the words 
of the Rlessed Saviour when he said; **Suffer the little 
children, and forbid them not to come unto me; for of 
such is the Kingd6m of Heaven.'' (Matt, xix: 14). 

He baptized many children in the course of his ministry; 
but no record of their names has been preserved to this 
day. As a preacher, he had a great reputation. He 
W^as fluent and eloquent as a speaker, oftentimes preaching 
iivitliout manuscript or note. His voice was similar to his 
ion's (my father), which had much compass, yet was soft 
ind pleasant to the ear; and his manner was eminently 
Dersuasive, and calculated to win the hearer to him. But 
E*e^w speakers were more effective with their audience and 
tiis congregations were large and attentive. As a writer, 
his style was easy, chaste and eloquent. As a man, he 
vras popular with all classes with whom he might be 
thrown in contact. He had a gentle and sweet disposition 
and an unsual share of the milk of human kindness in his 
composition. But, at the same time, he was possessed of 
the highest degree of courage — moral and physical — and 
liad no fear of men. No question of personal favor or self- 
interest would cause him to shrink from the discharge of 
liis duty. He was a sincere friend, a generous neighbor, 
and especially amiable and pleasant in his family. He 
possessed, in a large degree, that wit and humor, which 
constitute so marked a feature among the people of his 
father's native country — Ireland. As a Christian, he was 
exemplary in his life, and faithful to the end. He was 
humble in his estimate of his own merits, with none of the 



238 

spirit of the proud Pharisee, but with much of the spirit 
of the humble Publican, He was ever dispased to help 
forward the cause of Christ, even when it was but a little 
spark. In his family-prayers beneath his own roof, he 
often used this passage of scripture: '*Use this world as 
not abusing it: for the fashion of this world passeth away.'' 
(I Cor. vii: 31.) The writer of this has heard his father 
say, when speaking of the subject of this sketch, **I never 
knew a better man than your Grand-father." Among the 
papers of the late General Pettigrew, there is a letter to 
him, dated January 4th, 1858, from Governor Swain, who 
was at that time President of the University. He was 
speaking of a letter written by the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew to 
the Rev. Mr. Caldwell (in after years the very distinguished 
Dr. Joseph Caldwell)* which letter was written in Novem- 
ber, 1797, and is yet in the Archives of the University. 
Mr. Caldwell was at that time 24 years of age, and the 
principal Professor at the University. Governor Swain 
was speaking of the prevalence of French Infidelity, and 
of its danger, and of Mr. Pettigrew and Mr. Caldwell as 
defenders of Christianity, when he uses the following lan- 
guage: **At the date of your grand-father's letter, he at 
the head of the Episcopalians and Mr. Caldwell of the 
Presbyterians, were the most prominent defenders of the 
Christian faith. There have been but few as worthy 
leaders in any period of our History; their followers, at 
that time were few, but tried and faithful." 

MR. PRTTIGREW^S DEATH. 

Mr. Pettigrew's life was now drawing near its close. 
The disease, Consumption^ which had been progressing 
gradually with him for some years, was now about to com- 
plete its task, and bid his spirit return to the God who 
gave it. The happiness that existed in his family would 
cause him to be willing to remain here longer; but the 



* This is not Dr. Joseph, but Dr. David CahlweU. — Ed. 



239 

final summons was at hand, and he was to bow in submis- 
sion to the will of the Creator, who had watched over him 
by day and by night for 64 years. In a manuscript, which 
he left behind for his son Ebenezer, who was his only 
surviving child, his son John having died in the year 1799, 
he says — That, at an early period of life, he had devoted 
and dedicated himself to God in a perpetual covenant, and 
that God had never forsaken him. When death was 
approaching he said, **I have talked a great deal to 
Ebenezer in my life, and when I am dead he will remem- 
ber it. I thank God I leave an honest son behind. ' ' He 
breathed his last on the 8th of April, 1807, ^^ 21 minutes 
past I in the morning, aged 64 years and 18 days. His 
xemains were carried to Eden ton, a distance of 40 miles 
from Belgrade Plantation where he had died. They were 
received at the wharf, and placed in a conveyance, which 
the first Mr. Josiah Collins had ordered to be there in 
readiness for their arrival; and were probably then carried 
to St. Paul's Church, where he had so often preached. 

The burial service of the Episcopal Church was read by 
the Rev. Dr. Freeman, a Presbyterian clergyman, who, 
for many years after this, was a noted teacher in Eastern 
Carolina. At that time, there was no Episcopal clergy- 
man in that region of country. His remains were carried 
to the family cemetery of the Blounts at Mulberry Hill, 7 
miles from Edenton. Here they remained until the year 
183 1, when they were removed with the remains of the first 
Mrs. Mary Pettigrew, who had been buried there in 1786; 
John Pettigrew, who had been buried there in 1799; and Miss 
Hannah B. Shepard, who had been buried there in 1818. 
They all were carried to Bonarva, and deposited in a 
cemetery which his son Ebenezer Pettigrew had then 
recently constructed. Here now sleep the remains of all 
the descendants of Parson Pettigrew, who lie beneath the 
sod, with the exception of one who rests beneath the soil 
of Kentucky. 



They all sleep beneath the sound of the same waves, 
that, in years long since past, they had heard as they 
lashed the shores of the beautiful Lake. 

Over the remains of the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew, there is a 
brown Stone, on which is the following inscription: 

SACRED 

TO THE MEMORY 
OF 

THE REV. CHARLES PETTIGREW, 

LATE MINISTER OF THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 

AND 
BISHOP-ELECT OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

WHO AFTER A LIFE 
DEVOTED TO THE CAUSE OF RELIGION AND VIRTUE, 

FELL ASLEEP IN JESUS, 

ON THE 8th OF APRIL, A. D., 1807. 
AGED 63 YEARS. 

In his private life, as well as in his public ministrations, 
he was the humble follower of his crucified Lord and 
Master. In his temper cheerful, humane and benevolent; 
in his manner mild, affable and engaging; in his discourses 
chaste, fervid and devotional. With manly dignity and 
christian fortitude he met all the changes of this sublunary 
state, and we trust has gone to receive the glorious reward 
of his labors in those mansions of endless felicity prepared 
for the righteous from the foundation of the world. 
"Mark the perfect and behold the upright man, for the 
end of that man is peace. ' ' 

My task, of recalling from the mists and obscurity of a 
century ago events long since forgotten, is ended. The 
actors then have long since gone on their silent march and 
we must soon follow. Thus ends the story of the early 



241 

Conventions; of the first efforts that were made to re- 
organize the Church in North Carolina after the Revolu- 
tion ; and of the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew, the first Bishop-elect. 
The writer of it will be more than compensated, if he 
shall have contributed, in any degree, to the gratification 
or instruction of the friends of the Church which he loves, 
or to the embalming; the me?nory of an ancestor whom 
he venerates. 



VII. 

DECAY AND REVIVAL. 

1800 — 1830. 

BY REV. JOS. BLOUNT CHESHIRE, JR. 

The effort to organize the Diocese of North Carolina, 

^iid to procure the consecration of a Bishop, which was 

^ade by the Conventions of 1790, 1793, and 1794, failed 

^^terly. These Conventions not only failed to accomplish 

^'^^ir particular purpose and the object immediately in 

^^^Vr, but they did not in any way revive the declining 

^^"Use of the Church in North Carolina. They did not 

^^I^xesent the birth of new energies, and the adaptation of 

^*^^ Church to her new surroundings; they were only the 

^^a.th-struggle of the old Colonial system. 

The Church, even after all her losses, was probably still 
^^e strongest body in the State in the number of nominal 
^^herents at the close of the Revolution. The greater 
Part of our population lay east of Hillsboro. Most of the 
people of this section were of English blood, and were 
attached to the Church of the mother country. The 
Methodists were a growing body among them, but the 
Methodists still counted themselves Churchmen. The 
Baptists were also numerous, but as yet they had only two 
Associations in the State, and they were in every way of 
much less importance in the life of the community than 
they have since become. There were also many Presbyte- 
rians in the Scotch settlement of the Cape Fear; and the 
tide of immigration from Pennsylvania and Virginia along 
the foot-hills of the Appalachian range was still bringing 
numbers of the same faith into the settlements of their 



H4 

brethren alon^ the Yadkin and the Catawba. So numerous 
had the Presbyterians become by the year 1788, that in the 
Hillsboro Convention of that year, Mr. Abbott, of Camden 
county, reckoned them the most numerous body in the 
State. But this was after almost all the congregations of 
Churchmen in the State had for years been without any 
ministrations whatever; after the Methodists had abondoned 
their original position as a Society in the Church; and 
after the Churchmen of North Carolina had been reduced 
in most of our old parishes, to the sad alternative of aban- 
doning the Church of their fathers, or of being wholly 
deprived of all privileges of common worship and instriKS 
tion. In every county from Hillsboro to the sea-coast the 
scanty records of the Colonial Church speak of Churches 
and Chapels, and local tradition preserves the memory of 
many which are not mentioned in any known document 
Some of these had been served by ordained ministers; ] 
many were supplied only by lay-readers. But in one way 
or the other the outward forms and services of the Churdi 
had been generally observed throughout the greater part 
of the Province, and the people had not forgotten the 
Mother Church. The enactment and re-enactment, 
all through our Colonial period of laws for the election of 
Vestrymen, the building of Churches, the support of min- 
isters, and, in one or two instances, for the benefit of 
parish schools, show that whatever may have been the 
strength of the various Dissenting bodies prior to the Rev- 
olution, they did not feel able to oppose this public rec(^- 
nition and support of the Church. 

In this general diffusion of the Church population, and 
their dependence upon legislative recognition and support, 
lay the weakness of the Colonial Church. The countr>' 
was too poor and the population too sparse, to allow of the 
building up of strong local organizations with their estab- 
lished institutions and endowments, which by a sort ot 
moral and intellectual momentum should carry the Church 



F5 

51 
35 
IS 
rf 

c 

be 

It 



o: 



through the crisis of change from one system to another; as 
was the case in New York and Pennsylvania, and to some 
extent also in Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina. 
At the same time the deceptive legal status, and the legis- 
lative provision for the Church, obscured her essentially 
spiritual character, and prevented her people from crystal- 
izing in strong and self-reliant congregations capable of 
sustaining themselves by the power of their faith in the 
divine authority of the Church and their love for her as a 
spiritual kingdom among men; as was the case with the 
Churchmen of Connecticut and the other New England 
States. 

In some few places in the Eastern part of the State there 
were comparatively strong local organizations. In Eden- 
ton, Newbem, and Wilmington, the Church people held 
together, and preserved some feeble sparks of light even 
during the darkest period. At the other extremity of the 
State, Parson Miller gathered together the handful of 
Churchmen of Lincoln and Rowan counties, who had never 
enjoyed the disadvantage of any participation in the old 
legal establishment, but who recognized the spiritual 
character of the Church; and in spite of his fatal error, 
whereby he compromised his principles and stultified his 
position, in consenting to receive Lutheran ordination, he 
did keep alive some little sense of loyalty to the Church in 
that distant field from 1785 until the happy revival under 
Bishop Ravenscroft, which he was permitted to see. But 
in all the intervening country the Church went utterly to 
decay. It had no strong organization, which by the power 
of numbers and of established institutions might have 
served to keep it together until it could adjust itself to its 
new conditions, and learn the new methods made necessary 
by the change; and moreover, it had not that strength which 
comes from a clear conception of the spiritual kingdom, 
which must command men by laying hold upon their 
hearts and consciences, nor had Churchmen had their love 




■V, 



for their mother Church developed by distinct instruction 
in her principles, and by the habit of freely bearing the 
burden of her support in order to enjoy the benefit of her 
ministrations. 

It has already been said that the Tarborough Conven- 
tions of 1790 — '94 were not an indication of new life in the 
Church, but only the vain struggle of a dying systeni- 
This is apparent from the records of the Conventions- 
There had been in the Province of North Carolina ncD 
strong and vigorous parishes. The Colonial system dL<3 
not tend to produce such. Even in Edenton, Newbern*^ 
and Wilmington, the ministers in charge had been nii^^ 
sionaries of the society for the Propagation of the Gospe 
as they were all over the Province. A notable exceptio 
to the rule was Edgecombe Parish, Halifax county, wher« 
the Rev. Thomas Burges was the minister from 1759 unti 
some time about the period of the Revolution, under i 
special agreement with his vestry and without any stipen 
from the Society. But this exception is more in appear^ 
ance than in reality, for his salary under the special agree- 
ment was only one hundred and twenty pounds in the 
paper money of the Province, a sum totaMy inadequate 
for the support of his family. It may therefore be affirmed 
with perfect accuracy that at the date of the Tarborough 
Conventions there was not a single vigorous congrega- 
tional or parochial organization in the proposed Diocese of 
North Carolina. The loose method of the old Vestry Acts, 
which left the choice of Vestrymen to the free-holders of 
the parish,* in an election held by the Sheriff, not even 




* As illustrating this statement the reader may refer to the letter of 

Mr. Charles Moore to Mr. Pettigrew, dated April 21st, 1796, and given on 

1/^ I pages 207 and 206 of this volume. Mr. Moore there says that the vestry- 

^ men of the parish were to be elected on Easter Monday, at the same 

] time when the inhabitants convene for the election of IVardens of the 

^ \ Poor. In like manner it appears by the circular letter sent out by the 

U / ( Convention of November, 1793, which will be found in the Appendix, 

that the parish elections therein provided for are to be held at the Court 






247 

requiring that the vestrymen should be members of the 
Church, had almost totally destroyed all sense of responsi- 
bility in the minds of Churchmen for the conduct of 
Church business, and by an unreasonable extension of 
privilege had sadly weakened the feeling of personal 
obligation and loyalty. By a common experience every- 
body's business came to be nobody's business. The first 
thing which the Church needed in 1790 was a Bishop; 
another thing it needed quite as much in fact, though not 
^n theory, viz: the organization of its few zealous members 
^Uto congregations, and the development of a spirit of loyal 
devotion to its service, and a sense of responsibility in the 
^tidividual for the welfare and prosperity of the Church in 
^Xi his particular sphere. The old system had thrown the 
I>rivilege upon the ground to be picked up by any who 
A^ould: as a consequence it had been trampled under foot, 
'^he Church was now at liberty to prescribe the terms upon 
\vrhich her privileges should be enjoyed, and to command 
the allegiance of her children. 

The failure of these Conventions to accomplish anything 
toward the revival of the Church in North Carolina was 
not solely because Mr. Pettigrew failed to be consecrated. 
That might easily have been remedied by a new election. 
The fact that there never was any prospect, or even possi- 
bility, of another election, would go far towards excusing 
him for having remained unconsecrated, had that been the 



House door Though these are slight particulars they show that there 
was a clinging to the old order of things, and a failure to appreciate the 
condition and necessities of the new situation. 

It is interesting to observe in this connection that a distinct trace of the 
old religious establishment of the Province runs down through our civil 
institutions until the total overthrow of an old system in 1868. Up to 
that time, the county officers who had the charge of poor of the county 
were called Wardens of the Poor. This was but a survival of the old 
office of Church Wardens, stripped of its ecclesiastical functions, and 
confined to one of the duties which before the Revolution had been as- 
sociated with others. 



248 

result -of his own choice, which it certainly was not. These 
Conventions accomplished nothing permanent because they 
could not cast away the old methods of Colonial times, 
and rise to ^'he demands of the hour. It is not meant that 
any mere reso4aition or direction put forth, different from 
what was done, would of itself have produced a different 
result; uut the absence of a new spirit of vitality was man- 
ifested in this inability to rise to an appreciation of the 
needs of the time. Nothing whatever was done at 
any of the meetings towards the proper organization of 
the scattered congregations, or towards setting before the 
few large parishes their privileges and.-responsibilities as 
Churchmen. The Constitution adopted in 1794 provided 
that not only the parish vestries should send one delegate 
each to the Convention, but that each county should send 
two, and each town {i, e. , I suppose, the six ^ ^borough tozvns^ ' 
of that date, Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Halifax, 
Hillsboro, and Salisbury), one, **to be elected by the peo- 
ple.*' No local organization was required to be formed or 
kept up, in order to be entitled to representation in the 
Convention. At the same time only one-third of the 
Clergy ^^and an equal number of the lay deputies'' were 
required to make a quorum for the transaction of business. 
These may seem but small matters, but they indicate a 
condition of disorganization and an indefiniteness of 
allegiance most unfavorable to the Church. Her privileges 
were still to be made so common that they could not seem 
to possess any value, and no one need feel any special 
responsibility for her interests, which could be attended to 
by three Clergymen and a like number of laymen. The 

elections were to be held at the Court House in each 
county, according to the former custom, and the Church 
was thus kept as close as possible to the memories of the 
past ^'establishment,'' at the very time wlien of all things 
it was most needed that her spiritual character should be set 
forlli and emphasized in the eyes not only of her own 
people, but of the community. 



249 

The subsequent history of Mr. Pettigrew need not be 
considered here, nor his efforts to arouse the interest of 
Churchmen in different parts of the State. It is enough 
to say that those efforts were fruitless. In Edenton, in 
Newbern, and in Wilmington, the parochial organizations 
were kept up, as perhaps also in one or two more obscure 
country or village congregations, and the people recused to 
accept any substitute for the old Church and her solemn 
services. When they were unable to procure a minister 
they had lay-reading, and from time to time the necessity 
called forth men to go forward and to seek Holy Orders 
that they might return, and keep the light burning in our 
few remaining shrines. From the end of the Revolution 
to the organization of the Diocese in 1817 no less than six 
candidates for orders went from the little handful of strug- 
gling Churchmen in North Carolina; Adam Boyd, from 
Wilmington; Solomon Hailing, Thomas P. Irving, and 
John Phillips, from Newbern; James F. Wilson, from 
Martin County, and John Avery, from Edenton. There 
were in the three towns above mentioned a large number 
of people attached to the Church, and many of them per- 
sons of the first distinction and most exalted character. In 
Kdenton, Gov. Johnston, Judge Iredell, Charles Johnson, 
William Littlejohn, the Blounts, Skinners, Collinses and 
others equally well known, made up a congregation which 
had every element of strength, if only they could have 
been aroused to a proper zeal. In Newbern, Dr. Isaac 
Guion, Col. Joseph Leech, the Nashes, Speights, Stanleys 
and Shepards, were of equal reputation and influence. In 
Wilmington almost the whole body of the most intelligent 
and prominent people were connected with the Church. 
Moore, Ashe, McLean, Hooper, DeRosset, Walker, 
Eagles, are names of families attached to the Church, and 
eminent for all civic and social virtues. And this was 
almost equally the case in every community through all 
the section of the State lying east of Hillsboro, except in 



250 

the Scotch settlements on the Cape Fear. The great body 
of the population, though under the defective and vicious 
ecclesiastical system of the Provincial period, they had 
been allowed to grow up in ignorance of her principles and 
insensible of their own responsibilites to the Church, were 
still Churchmen by tradition and by preference. Even 
in the West, in the region settled chiefly by the Scotch- 
Irish and the Germans, there were many Churchmen. In 
his missionary tours as evangelist of the Lutheran Synod, 
Parson Miller tells us that he found many members of the 
Church scattered among the Presbyterians of that section; 
and in Rowan and in Lincoln were very considerable com- 
munities of them. Such was the situation of affairs at the 
beginning of the present century. 

It is easy to understand the rapid and total ruin which 
overtook the scattered congregations throughout the State 
after the failure of the attempt to revive the cause by 
means of the meetings at Tarborough. Ancestral regard 
for the Church and a preference for her doctrines and her 
mode of worship could not hold the congregations together 
after they had been deprived of her ministrations; nor 
could the most sincere belief in her divine origin and mis- 
sion render her members entirely insensible of the advan- 
tage, and even the necessity, of actual communion with 
their fellow Christians in common worship, however defec- 
tive that worship might be in respect to the authority of 
the minister or the mode of service. Add to this the natural 
desire of other religious bodies to recruit their ranks from 
so intelligent and influential a class, and the result needs 
not to be described. The Address to the General Conven- 
tion drawn up in June, 1790, by the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew 
and Dr. John Leigh, declares that the **state of our 
Church in this Commonwealth is truly deplorable from the 
paucity of its Clergy and the multiplicity of opposing secta- 
rians who are using every possible exertion to seduce its 
members to their different communions. ' ' 



Another cause of weakness and decay, implied in what 
has already been said, but needing to be emphasized by a 
distinct ennumeration, was the demoralized and hopeless 
feeling of Church people themselves, even those who 
remained faithful to the end. ^^Posssunl quia possse 
Tndentur^^^ is a maxim which holds equally good when 
thrown into the negative form. The Church was powerless 
because Clergy and laity thought that they were powerless. 
And this feeling arose not so much from the really hopeless 
condition of affairs, as from their inability to adjust them- 
selves to the strange conditions of their new situation. 
This is apparent from the fact that this hopelessness and 
helplessness was greatest where there was least cause for 
it. Neither Wilmington* nor Eden ton were represented 
in any of the Tarborough meetings; and although the 
purity of Mr. Pettigrew's motives and the sincerity of his 
devotion are altogether above question, yet a careful 
reading of his correspondence during this period convinces 
me that he felt but little confidence in those efforts for the 
revival of the Church, in which he bore so prominent a 
part. He was by natural disposition very averse to con- 
troversy or contention of any sort; and he must have seen 
that a new spirit could not be aroused in the Church, and 
new methods devised to set her in her true position, and to 
assert her proper influence in the community, without 
danger of violent opposition and bitter controversy and 
sharp criticism both within the Church and without. In 
a letter to Dr. John Leigh, of Tarborough, in regard to 



* So little interest was taken by Wilmington in these meetings that 
when in 1813 Mr. Empie began his eflFort for the revival of the Church in 
the State and the organization of the Diocese he could learn nothing 
whatever of the attempt made by the Tarboro' meetings only twenty years 
before. When Bp. White's memoirs of the Church were published in 
1820, they seem to have given him the first account of those Conventions 
which he had received, except what he had learned from Parson Miller's 
letters. 



252 

the proceedings at the meeting of Jnne 5th, 1790, he 
writes: 

The time employed in that Business was too short, and our hurry too 
great, to prepare anything for the pubUc Bye; at a period too when there 
are so many would be Critics still agape for something to fault. And 
to be candid, there is nothing I dread more than the severe tribunal of 
the public. 

It was probably his consciousness of this softness of 
natural disposition and his unfitness for taking the part of 
leader in what might prove a long and trying struggle, 
which made him reluctant to accept his election to the 
Episcopate in the first instance, and willing to give over 
the effort to obtain consecration when his first attempt 
seemed to be providentially frustrated. To the end of his 
life he remained faithful to his conception of ministerial 
duty, but the thought of making any further exertions to 
arouse the slumbering congregations throughout the State 
seems never to have crossed his mind. 

It has been common to attribute the many defections 
from the Church during this sad period to the ineflSciency, 
or even to the irreligion, of the Clergy. It is easy for 
those who desert the sinking ship to blame the officers: 
and then too we are glad to accept any explanation which 
those whom we love and honor may give of their conduct. 
But without questioning the honesty and sincerity of such 
persons, we may be allowed to doubt the faithfulness of 
their memory or the justness of their discrimination with 
respect to their motives. There may have been unfaithful 
and vicious men in the ministry then, as there have been 
since; but even where the ministers are known to have 
been most exemplary and diligent, the same gradual decay 
and loss was going on. No better men have ever served 
God and their fellow men in North Carolina, than Parson 
Burges in Halifax, Mr. Reed in Newbern, Mr. Stewart in 
Bath, and Clement Hall in Chowan, before the Revolu- 
tion; and Mr. Pettigrew in Edenton, Nathaniel Blount in 



253 

Beaufort County, and Solomon Hailing in Newbern and 
Wilmington, after the Revolution : and yet we do not find 
that the Church in these localities was exempt from the 
common experience. 

It is a prevalent opinion that popular prejudice against 
the Church as the former legal establishment, associated by 
its very name with the memory of English rule, was the 
great cause of weakness and decay after the establishment 
of American independence. I believe that this feeling, so 
far as it applies to the Church in North Carolina, has been 
much exaggerated and misunderstood. The laws in favor 
of the Church had not been enforced in those parts of the 
Province where a majority of the people had not been in 
favor of them; and when the struggle with Great Britain 
had come on, almost all the leaders on the patriot side 
had been Churchmen. There must have been some such 
prejudice against the Church in parts of the State, though 
contemporary evidence of it is very scanty. But after the 
Church had ceased to be seen and known among the peo- 
ple, and when it was remembered only as a part of the 
old order of things, then it was I believe, that it acquired 
by association its share of the popular prejudice against 
all things British. 

The true cause of the sad experience of lethargy and 
decay through which the Church had to pass before it 
could begin the upward course of real progress, is to be 
found in the three quarters of a century of state patron- 
age which preceded the year 1776. This civil **estab- 
lishmenf had been maintained by the action of the peo- 
ple through their representatives in their legislative assem- 
blies. It had never been felt to be a popular grievance, 
nor had it created prejudice against the Church among 
the people of the Revolutionary period. But it had pro- 
duced a fatal weakness in the Church itself by obscuring 
its spiritual character and its divine claim upon the 
hearts and lives of its members. The people had not been 



254 

taught the duty and privilege of supporting the Churcli 
by their prayers, their offerings, and their personal service; 
and the Clergy had forgotten that it was not only honora- 
ble to the minister to **live of the Gospel,'' but they had 
lost sight of the fact that * *even so had the Lord also 
ordained, ' ' for the good of the laity, who should thus be 
trained in love and gracious liberality, as well as for the 
support of the ministry in the discharge of their holy 
function. Mr. Pettigrew not only served the people of his 
neighborhood in the double capacity of pastor and physi- 
cian, without compensation, but he built them a church. 
And he confesses that he was as unwilling to be depen- 
dent upon the people, as they were reluctant to give to 
his support. In a letter to the Rev. Nathaniel Blount, 
dated February 22d, 1804, he says: **I own that I derive 
a far greater pleasure from it, ' ' that is, from the exercise 
of the pastoral office, '^than ever I did while as a depen- 
dant I received an emolument for my services." 
While the Colonial Vestry Acts made no adequate provi- 
sion for the Church, even while they continued in force, 
their evil results remained long after they had been 
forgotten. 

The decay and ruin wrought by the preceding causes 
would be too tedious to follow out in detail. It will be 
sufficient to indicate briefly the course of events in the few 
larger parishes where the remnant was left, which in God's 
good time was destined to take root downward and to bear 
fruit upward; and then, in tracing the progress of the 
gracious revival, to note how it was the smoulding brands 
of the old Colonial Churches, which by the spirit of the 
Lord were blown into a flame to show forth again the 
light of Apostolic truth in North Carolina. There are 
only three of these which demand our special attention, 
St. Paul's Church, Edenton, Christ Church, Newbern, and 
St. James's Church, Wilmington. 

The parish of St. Paul's, Edenton, is, I believe, the 



oldest corporation (using the word in its popular sense) in 
the State of North Carolina, dating back to the year 1701*. 
It still has for its parish Church the spacious and hand- 
some brick structure erected in Colonial days, which was, 
with St. Philip's, Brunswick, probably the most ambi- 
tious building in the Province, with the exception of 
Tryon's famous ^Talace.'' The character of the congre- 
gation has already been referred to. It suffered in com- 
mon with other congregations, but as a rule the people 
remained faithful to the Church, and rejected with becom- 
ing spirit a proposition made during Mr. Pettigrew's 
incumbency, that the Church should be used for the pur- 
poses of other religious bodies. But the infrequency 
and irregularity of the services, and the consequent 
disuse to a great extent of the devotional and practical 
system of the Church, had a sad effect here as elsewhere; 
and for years after the revival of the Church, but a very 
small proportion of her people were communicants. From 
1794 to his death in 1807, Mr. Pettigrew resided either 
in Bertie, or upon one or the other of his two plantations 
on the South side of the Sound, and his ministrations 
must have been infrequent; and after his death the parish 
>vas vacant for several years. 

The part which the Edenton Academy played in the 
history of the parish is curiously illustrated by an arrange- 
ment made with the teacher of the Academy soon after 
Mr. Pettigrew* s death. It has been shown in a previous 
paperf* that the Academy at Edenton, as well as the one 
at Newbem, was strictly a Church school, built and main- 
tained as such. And it is a most interesting fact that in 

* St. Pauls' Chowan, dates from the same year in which four other 
parishes were also organized, Currituck, Pasquotank, Perquimans, and 
Pamplico — Pamplico being the first name of the present parish of St. 
Thomas, Bath. I have, however, called St. Paul's the oldest, because it 
is the only one of the five, which was organized at once and has practi- 
cally kept up its organization continously to the present time. 

t "Colonial Parishes and Schools," by the Rev. Robert B. Drane. 



256 

both places the Academy carried the parish through its 
most critical period, and so played a most important part 
in the life of the Church in North Carolina. 

The curious arrangement referred to was in connection 
with the employment of Mr. Jonathan Otis Freeman, as 
teacher in the Academy in 1808-11. Mr. Freeman was a 

minister, though at that time there were none 

of his denomination in Edenton. The Trustees of the 
Academy and the Vestr}' of St. PauPs Church seem to 
have been to a great extent the same persons acting in the 
two capacities. The year after Mr. Pettigrew's death the 
Church being without a minister, we find the Trustees of 
the Academy paying Mr. Freeman six hundred dollars as 
teacher of the Academy, and four hundred dollars for de- 
livering lectures to the students on the Sabbath. This was 
evidently a substitute for Sunday services. Mr. Freeman 
was a man of ability and culture, and though the Vestry 
could not accept his ministrations, yet they seem to have 
been desirious of availing themselves of his services to 
keep the Lord's Day with religious worship and instruc- 
tion, so far as they could do so conscientiously. Mr. Free- 
man left in 181 1. He was the elder brother of the late 
Bishop Freeman, and the father of the late Edmund B. 
Freeman, for many years the Clerk of our Supreme Court. 

In 181 1, the Trustees of the Academy applied to the 
Rev. Frederick W. Hatch, of Maryland, to take charge of 
the Church and of the Academy at the same salary paid 
Mr. Freeman, one thousand dollars per annum. He took 
charge October ist, 181 1, and though he resigned charge 
of the Academy at the end of the school-year in 18 12, he 
continued rector of the Church until the end of the year 
181 5, when he returned to Maryland. 

Mr. Hatch had been succeeded in the Academy by Mr, 
John Avery. About the time that Mr. Hatch left the 
parish Mr. Avery began to act as lay -reader, and soon 
after seems to have turned his thoughts to the ministry. 



257 

Mr. Avery was a native of Conway, Massachusetts, being 
the son of a Congregational deacon of the same name. An 
injury in youth, which disabled him temporarily for farm 
work, confined him to books, and contrary to his parents' 
first intention, he was sent to College, first to Williams 
College, Massachusetts, and afterwards to Yale, where he 
was graduated in 1812. Very soon after his graduation he 
went to Eden ton as teacher in the Academy. It seems 
most likely that he became a Churchman after his removal 
to Edenton, as was the case with Mr. Pettigrew, who 
came to Edenton a Presbyterian, as Mr. Avery came a 
Congregationalist. When Mr. Avery became a candidate 
for Holy Orders we do not know, but he was ordered Dea- 
con by Bishop Kemp, of Maryland, October 22d, 1817, and 
ordained Priest by Bishop Moore, of Virginia, at Norfolk 
in November, 18 18. He married Miss Ann Paine, of one 
of the notable Edenton families, and continued Rector of 
St. PauPs Church until 1835, when he removed to Greens- 
boro, Alabama. He did not long survive the severance of 
his old ties. He died January 17th, 1837, before he had 
fairly begun the work to which he had set himself in his 
new field. 

Mr. Avery was a man of learning, and commanded the 
respect and confidence of all. He was faithful in the old 
exercise of Catechising the youth of his flock. One of the 
oldest of our North Carolina Clergyman, whose mother for 
a time during this period was connected with the Method- 
ist Society in Edenton, loves to recall the fact that his 
mother not only continued the constant use of her Prayer 
Book and was diligent in teaching him the Church Cate- 
chism, but also sent him regulary to the church to be 
catechised by Mr. Avery upon the appointed days. It is 
impossible to estimate how far this single influence may 
have gone in eventually bringing parents and children 
back to the Church of their fathers. The history of Mr. 
Avery's pastorate does not come within the scope of this 



258 

paper, but his accession to the Church, and his candidacy 
for Holy Orders are properly a part of the story of the 
Revival of the Church in North Carolina. 

In this connection it may be mentioned as an evidence 
of life in the parish, that the Church building, completed 
shortly before the Revolution, and now for some years 
having been in a dilapidated condition, was in 1809 by the 
liberality of one of the parishioners, Mr. Josiah Collins, 
the first of the name, handsomely restored and beautified, 
and put in a thoroughly safe and comfortable condition. 

The course of events in the history of Christ's Church, 
Newbern, runs somewhat paralled with that which we 
have just traced in Elenton. From 1785 to 1792, the 
minister of the parish was the Rev. Leonard Cutting, a 
man of piety and learning, and of high reputation in the 
Church. In 1792, Dr. Solomon Hailing, a native of 
Pennsylvania and bred a physician, but who was probably 
teaching in the Newbern Academy at this time, was 
ordered Deacon by Bishop Madison; and served the Church 
in Newbern until his removal to Wilmington in 1795. ^^• 
Hailing was a most exemplary min, and the most zealous 
Clergyman of his time in the State. It was by his earnest 
assiduity that the Convention of 1794 was gotten together. 
If the other ministers had had his enterprising and cour- 
ageous spirit we should have had another tale to tell here 
to-day. 

Among the subscribers to F. X. Martinis ^ ^Private 
Statutes of North Carolina,'^ published in 1795, I find the 
name, "Mr. Thomas Pitt Irving, A. M., Principal of 
Newbern Academy," and the next year his name is among 
those of persons ordained to the Diaconate by Bishop 
White, of Pennsylvania. He was a native of Somerset 
County, Maryland. How long he had been teaching in 
Newbern I do not know. It was during his occupancy 
that the old Academy building, erected by Mr. Reed before 
the Revolution, was burned; and he had the misfortune to 



259 

burn down also Gov. Tryon's *Talace,'' which the Gen- 
eral Assembly had allowed to be used for the purposes of 
the Academy after his first fire. So it may be said that 
Mr. Irving' s school-teaching was disastrous to the histori- 
cal monuments of Newbern. And his pastorate was by 
no means a prosperous one. He remained in charge of the 
Church from his ordination imtil about the year 1813, 
when he removed to Hagerstown, Maryland. He is said 
to have been lacking in zeal and religious fervor, and to 
have performed his duties in a cold and perfunctory man- 
ner. Some of the most prominent people of the parish 
left the Church during his time, yielding to the unfavora- 
ble influences heretofore alluded to, and attracted by the 
enthusiasm of the Methodists on the one hand, or by the 
more sober spirits of Calvinism on the other. 

After Mr. Irving left, the Rev. George Strebeck was 
Principal of the Academy and Rector of the Church for a 
short while. He employed as his assistant teacher during 
the year 1814, Mr. John Phillips, who had come from 
England originally as one of Wesley's lay-preachers, and 
whose wife was a ward of one of the two famous brothers , 
but who had adhered to the Church when the Methodists 
left it. While in Newbern Mr. Phillips became a candi- 
date for Orders, and was ordained by Bishop Moore, of 
Virginia, in August 1814. He continued to assist Mr. 
Strebeck in the school, and now also in the Church, until 
his removal to Virginia in 1815. Mr. Strebeck probably 
left about the same time. In 1816 came the Rev. Jehu 
Curtis Clay, who also combined teaching with his pastoral 
duties. This brings us to the year 1817. 

Of Wilmington we know very little during the period 
immediately following the Revolution. Adam Boyd, who 
had edited a paper, ^^The Cape Feat Mercury ^'^'^ in that 
city before the war, and who was Chaplain of the 5th 
North Carolina Regiment of the Continental Line during 
the struggle, was ordained Deacon by Bishop Seabury, 



26o 

August i8th, 1788. He was a native of Pennsylvania, but 
married in Wilmington the widow of Moses John De Rosset, 
and is thought to have officiated in St. James's Church for 
several years, probably from 1788 to 1795 or thereabouts, 
though there is no mention of him in the records of the 
parish. H^ must have been a preacher of some sort before 
his ordination by Bishop Seabury, as his appointment to 
be Chaplain of the 5th Regiment, in 1777, shows. He was 
doubtless the same **Rev. Mr. Boyd" who in May, 1775, 
presented to the Provincial Congress at Hillsboro, two 
hundred copies of ^*the Pastoral Letter of the Synod of 
Philadelphia on the subject of the war.'' This fact sug- 
gests the idea that Mr. Boyd might then have been an 
agent or representative of the Synod. But at this time he 
had been for some months publishing his paper in Wil- 
mington. He was active upon the patriot side, and was a 
member of the Wilmington Committee of Safety. The 
minutes of the Committee's proceedings show that Mr. 
Boyd was absent from just those meetings which he must 
have missed in order to attend the Congress at Hillsboro. 
His paper seems to have been the recognized organ of the 
party in Wilmington, and he probably printed the Pasto- 
ral Letter as a good party document to circulate among 
the Presbyterians of the Cape Fear; and the two hundred 
copies were probably presented by him to the Congress as 
his own individual act, and not as in any way representing 
the Philadelphia Synod. This is the more likely from 
the fact that the Congress appropriated a sum of money 
out of the public funds for his benefit. He seems to have 
been the son of a Presbyterian minister of the same name, 
whose wife was Jane Craighead, daughter of the Rev. 
Thos. Craighead, also a Presbyterian minister. As he is 
vSpoken of in 1775 ^^ ^^^ ^^Rev. Mr. Boyd," and was ap- 
pointed Chaplain of a regiment in 1777, he was probably a 
Presbyterian ^ licentiate;" I believe there is no record of 
his ordination as a Presbyterian minister. After his ordi- 



26 1 

nation by Bishop Seabury he officiated, as has been said. 
in Wilmington, but was soon forced to remove to Augusta 
on account of some asthmatic trouble. He died in 
Natchez, Mississippi, in the year t8oo, at the age of sixty- 
two. 

In 1795, the Rev. Solomon Hailing was called from 
Newbem, and continued Rector of St. James's Church 
until his removal to the Diocese of South Carolina in the 
year 1809. While in Wilmington he was principal of the 
Wilmington Academy. His character has already been 
g^ven in connection with his rectorship of Christ Church, 
Newbem. It only remains to be said that in the Diocse 
of South Carolina he continued the same course of devout 
faithfulness, and endeared himself to all his brethren in 
that new home. He died in 18 13, much honored and 
lamented by the Bishop and the Clergy of that Diocese. 

After Dr. Halling's departure the parish at Wilmington 
remained vacant until November, 181 1, when the Rev. 
Adam Empie became rector. In 1814, ill health compelled 
him to return North, and he was succeeded by the Rev. 
Bethel Judd. But in 1816, he returned to Wilmington, 
and became again rector of the parish. It will be seen as 
we go on that he played a very important part in the his- 
tory of the Church in North Carolina: no name should 
stand higher than his in our respect and affection. We 
have however no space adequately to portray his character 
here. 

Having traced the course of events in these three par- 
ishes with some particularity, it now becomes necessary to 
glance more briefly at some other parts of the State. 

In Bath,, and in the new town of Washington, as well as 
across the Pamplico river at Chocowinity, where he had 
built Trinity Church (still standing, and familiarly known 
as Parson Blount's Chapel), and in other places in Beau- 
fort County; also up the river on both sides, through the 
county of Pitt, and even in the borders of Edgecombe, 



262 

the Rev. Nathaniel Blount continued his ministrations; 
and amid the gloom of domestic bereavements darkening 
the shadows of declining years and failing powers, he 
served his scattered congregations and looked after his peo- 
ple, so far as his strength would permit; until his death in 
September, 1816. His summons came while he was like 
a faithful shepherd seeking his distant sheep. He died in 
Pitt County, and his mortal remains were conveyed down 
Tar river in a canoe, and laid with the ashes of his fathers 
in the Blount family burying ground at Chocowinity. He 
was the last survivor of our Colonial Clergy in North Car- 
olina. His death left not a single minister of the Church 
in the State. 

His . neighbor, the Rev. James Iv. Wilson, of Martin 
county, had been dead for some years. Mr. Wilson, who 
seems to have gone North from this State seeking Holy 
Orders, was ordained by Bishop White, as we learn from 
Bishop White's memoirs of the Church, in the year 1789; 
and in Mr. Pettigrew's list of the Clergy and their places, 
of 1795, we see that his field of labor was Martin and 
Edgecombe counties. His connection with the conven- 
tions at Tarborough shows that he was a most zealous and 
devoted minister, an,d highly respected and trusted by all. 
He is the only one of the Clergy who attended every one 
of the four meetings held at Tarborough. He was presi- 
dent of one of them; was more than once appointed a 
deputy to the General Convention, and was a prominent 
man in all. He continued his ministry in Martin and 
perhaps also in Edgecombe and Halifax, until his death 
early in the present century. He is known to have offici- 
ated in the last named county at a funeral as late as the 
year 1800. He must have died very soon after this date. 
He seems to have ministered to the lower congregations of 
Halifax upon occasions of emergency, and thus to have 
continued in some measure the work and influence of Par- 
son Burges, especially in the neighborhood of old Kehukee 
Church, Scotland Neck. 



263 

In lEdgecombe county the building of the town of Tar- 
>orough so for from the site of St. Mary*s, the parish 
[Church, probably had a good deal of influence in break- 
ng" up local associations and thus scattering and weaken- 
ng" the congregation. The principal inhabitants of the 
county would gradually be d.rawn towards the county 
town, and the* parish Church thus lose its position and 
influence as a center of interest and a bond of union and 
fellowship among the people. And before a Church could 
grow up there, the war came and swept all away. After 
the Revolution we hear indistinct traditions of the Rev. 
Wm. Holt, from Virginia, who for a time ofl&ciated at St. 
Mary's, probably for only a short time, and before the 
year 1789. The Parish Register was for many years kept 
at the house of Mr. Knight, about four miles from Tar- 
borough, but afther the death of the older members of the 
family, it was destroyed by their children, who did not 
realize its value. The Bible and Prayer Book, after the 
Church had come to be disused, were sold by order of the 
County Court, and the money paid over to the * Wardens 
of the Poor-*V* Some time towards the end of the century 
a Church was built in Tarborough, which was pulled down 
about 1856. Uniform tradition represented this as having 
been built for an Episcopal Church, and it is not impossi- 
ble that the Tarborough Conventions may have been held 
in it. As late as 1821, the Rev. John Phillips is described 
in an inscription upon a tomb-stone near the building as 
**Rec tor of this Church.'' But as there was no minister 

* These statements as to the Parish Register and the disposition of the 
Bible and Prayer Book belonging to St. Mary's, are made upon the 
authority of Gov. Henry T. Clark, and were accompanied by such a nar- 
ration of particular circumstances, as established their truth. The sale 
of this property of the Parish was in accordance with the provisions of 
the Act of 1777, C. VII, or rather it was probably suggested by that 
Act, which made the Wardens of the Poor answerable for debts of former 
Vestries, and so it might be thought entitled them to take abandoned 
Church property. 



264 

in Tarborough for many years after the building w^^ 
erected, it came to be used as a free Church open to all 
sorts of services and meetings; and shortly before it wa^ 
pulled down the Primitive Baptist congregation having 
erected a church in the town took the bell of the o\c^ 
church and put it into their own new structure. Bu^i^ 
there remained a number of the inhabitants of the county^ 
attached to the Church. Definite and trustworthy traditior 
connects with the old Church of St. Mary's many of the 
familiar names of the county. Besides the Haywoods, 
Johnstons, Tooles, Irvins, Fenders, Knights, Philipses, 
Suggses, and others, still largely represented in the popu- 
lation of Edgecombe, who were old St. Mary's people, we 
find a number of prominent men in Tarborough during 
this period of **Decay,'' who were active in their en- 
deavors for the Church. Dr. John I^eigh, of Tarborough, 
was eminent both as a physician and a politician. He 
frequently represented his county in the House of Com- 
mons, and was more than once Speaker of that body. 
William Clements, Secretary of three of the Tarborough 
Conventions, and deputy to the General Convention, seems 
to have been originally a Presbyterian, the first we have 
heard of in the county, but he married into a Church 
family (his wife was a daughter of Christopher Clark, of 
Bertie), and, after Dr. Leigh, he was the most prominent 
layman in those Conventions, and in the effort to organize 
the Diocese and to procure a Bishop. We find also the 
names of Mr. Robert White, a lawyer, representing Tar- 
borough in 1794, and Mr. James Adams representing 
Edgecombe. General Thomas Blount, (son of Jacob 

Blount,) whose second wife was the daughter of General 
Jethro Sumner, of Warren, was also a resident of Tar- 
borough during this period and a Churchman, as was also 
Blake Baker, Attorney General of the Slate, the Hon. 
Jas. W. Clark, and others. The bearing of these personal 
details will appear when we come to consider the Revival 
of the Church in North Carolina. 



^^ Warren and Franklin counties the Rev. Chas. Cup- 
P^^s had ministered before and during the Revolution. 
^^ is well remembered as having taken the American side 
^^ the Revolution, though himself an Englishman. How 
^^g he lived after the Revolution is not known. He was 
^^^tainly dead some years before the Tarborough Conven- 
tions, but the memory of his ministrations and of the 
^Hurch was not lost for many years among the people 
^liom he served. One of his Churches, still remembered as 
^/Ae old Poriridge ChurM^ (I spell by sound never having 
^^en the word written or printed) stood until between 
1850 and i860, in a grove near the road from Louisburg 
to Franklinton about four miles from the former 
place. He probably resided near the present town of 
Warrenton. There are not a few Churchmen in those 
counties who trace their ecclesiastical descent from the old 
Colonial Churches. The Seawells, Branches, Hills, Haw- 
kinses, Sumners, Perrys and Norwoods were members of 
tlie old churches in Bute. 

Just west of these, and taking in also part of this field 
after the death of Mr. Cupples, the Rev. George Mickle- 
john, ended his work as a minister. Having been captured 
Avith the Tories at Moore's Creek, and paroled to Perqui- 
xnans county, and not allowed to return to Hillsboro 
during the war, he seems never to have resided there after- 
Avards, but to have made his home in Granville county 
from the close of the war until his removal to Mecklen- 
burg county, Virginia, which was somewhere about the 
year 1805 or 1810. These dates are conjectural, but we 
know that before 181 7 he had made this change, though 
he was then near or quite one hundred years old, and 
never had any charge in Virginia. When the Rev. John 
Stark Ravenscroft was ordained in 1817 and took charge 
of St. James's Church, Mecklenburg county, Virginia, 
Mr. Micklejohn was a resident of the parish, and an atten- 
dant upon the ministrations of the future Bishop of North 



266 

Carolina. There is a tradition in the parish that Mr. 
Ravenscroft once in a sermon alluded to the presence of 
Mr. Micklejohn, saying that he could give a century's 
witness to the truth and power of the gospel* *W<2ze/, 
Naw^ MonP^ exclaimed Mr. Micklejohn aloud in broad 
Scotch, ** ninety acht! ninety achtP^ He died very shortly 
after this time. As long as he remained in North Caro- 
lina he ministered irregularly over a wide extent of coun- 
try, besides serving regularly the people in his neighbor- 
hood. I presume he resided near Williamsboro, and that 
he had charge of St. John's Church; but at least occasion- 
ally he visited the remote parts of Orange, his former cure, 
and by these visits, by celebrating divine service at inter- 
vals and by baptizing the children, he kept the people in 
some sort of knowledge and love of the Church as far west 
as the present county of Alamance. I have myself known 
and ministered to persons in Orange county who had been 
baptized by Mr. Micklejohn, and one of them at least was 
old enough at the time of her baptism to remember it, and 
to give me some account of it. It seems probable that he 
removed to Virginia not much before the year 1810. 

And all during this period the Rev. Robert. Johnston 
Miller, another Wesleyan lay-preacher, who had remained 
faithful to the Church when Coke had organized the Amer- 
ican Methodists into an independent body, kept his little 
congregations of Churchmen at White Haven, and in 
Iredell and Rowan, in such knowledge of the Church as he 
had himself, looking for better times to come, and, as he 
wrote to Dr. Empie in 1814, longing more for nothing 
on this side the glory of heave7i than to see the revival of 
Episcopacy in our beloved country^ though at that time he 
was a member of the Lutheran Synod. 

THE REVIVAL. 

The pleasanter part of the story can be more briefly nar- 
rated. The facts are more accessible and need not be so 
circumstantially detailed. 



267 

It is well known that the leading clergyman in North 
Carolina at the time of the organization of the Diocese was 
the Rev. Adam Empie; but I believe it is not so generally 
known that the meeting at Newbern in April 18 17, when 
that organization was accomplished, was the result of the 
efforts of Mr. Empic, begun more than three years before. 
A correspondence between Mr. Empie and Parson Miller 
has lately come to my hands, begun in November, 181 3, 
from which it appears that at that date Mr. Empie was 
endeavoring to put himself in communication with the 
remaining Clergymen of the State with a view of inducing 
them to effect an organization, and to make another effort 
for the cause. This purpose, postponed for a time by his 
temporary absence from the State, but not abandoned, 
was renewed upon Mr. Empie's return in the Autumn of 
1816. The Journals of our Conventions seem to indicate 
that Parson Miller was no ways concerned with this new 
movement in the Church until several years after its suc- 
cessful initiation. This correspondence, however, shows 
that he had been consulted about it, and had given his 
counsel and sympathy from the first; though until 182 1, 
the places of meeting were so distant from his residence 
that it was entirely impracticable for him to attend the 
Conventions. 

When in response to Mr. Empie' s efforts a meeting was 
agreed upon, the four congregations which met at New- 
bern on the 24th of April, 1817, by their representatives, 
were St. James's Church, Wilmington; Christ Church, 
Newbern; St. PauPs Church, Edenton, and St. John's 
Church, Fayetteville. Three of these, we have seen, had 
from an early period been organized parishes of the 
Province of North Carolina. The fourth, St. John's 
Church, Fayetteville, is a new name in our annals, dating 
only from the year 1817. What is the story of its birth? 

Fayetteville, formerly Campbelltown, and before that 
Cross Creek, was the centre of the Scotch Presbyterian 



268 

settlements on the Cape Fear, where perhaps still linger 
some echoes of the Gaelic tongue. These Highlanders 
were valiant Tories during the Revolution, though it must 
be owned that they had some of their Episcopal brethren 
from Orange with them on their disasterous day at Moore's 
Creek. After the Revolution, the movement of popula- 
tion, so characteristic of our American life, brought 
together in Fayetteville a number of Churchmen from diflf- 
erent parts of the country. First among the number was 
John Winslow, son of Edward Winslow who, during his 
life had served the Church faithfully as a clergyman in 
Massachusetts and Connecticut before the Revolution. 
Then there were the Stranges and Camerons, Churchmen 
from Virginia; and other names. Tillinghast, Huske, 
Wright, Mallett, Henry, some our own people, others new 
comers into the State, but having in common their attach- 
ments to the Church. In January, 1817, the Rev. Bethel 
Judd, who was at Wilmington, but was no longer rector of 
the Church there, was invited to Fayetteville by Mr. John 
Winslow. He came and held services. He continued 
these services, and on Easter Monday, April 9th, organ- 
ized St. John's Church, Fayetteville, and with John Wins- 
low, his Senior Warden, took part, two weeks later, in 
organizing the Diocese of North Carolina. St. John's was 
a new parish; the services of the Church had never been 
held in Fayetteville before 1817, but the parish was mostly 
made up of persons whose connection with the Church ran 
back and found its root in Colonial times. From its first 
organization St. John's, Fayetteville, took a zealous and 
important part in all Church work: it showed the best 
qualities of youth and none of its faults. 

Having now before us the spectacle of the Church in 
North Carolina at length aroused and preparing to begin a 
more hopeful course, I desire to set forth one aspect of 
that movement, to which attention has not heretofore been 
directed; and if I can illustrate it by brief references to some 



269 

details of local Church history, I shall feel that the subject 
of this paper has been sufficiently treated. The proposi- 
tion which I maintain is this: That the work of the first 
Conventions and the first Bishop of this Diocese was sim- 
ply to gather together and to organize the remains of the 
old Colonial Church in the several localities where it had 
been most successfully established, and that we to-day are 
the ecclesiastical and spiritual representatives in fact, and 
not merely in theory, of the Church which our Anglo- 
Saxon fathers set up here to sanctify the new continent 
w^hich they were subduing and civilizing. 

I will not enter upon the story of the early Conventions 
of our Diocese, except so far as they bear upon the propo- 
sition above set forth. But taking the records of those 
meetings, we find that after the four parishes which met 
at Newbem in April, 181.7, the following were admitted 
into union with the Convention from 181 7 to 1830, omitting 
two or three names which never were much more than 
names. 

To go over the list is almost like calling the roll of the 
Churches and Missionary Stations of the old Colonial 
preachers, who, after the Revolution continued their work 
in the State: St. Jude's, Stony Creek, Orange county; 
Trinity Church, Tarborough; St. John^s Church, Williams- 
boro; St. Mary's, Orange county ; Emmanuel Church, War- 
ren ton; Christ Church, Rowan; St. Michael* s, Iredell; St. 
Peter's, Lexington; White Haven and Smyrna, Lincoln; 
Grace Chapel, Pitt; St. Mark's, Halifax; Calvary Church, 
Wadesboro; Christ Church, Raleigh; St. Andrew's, Burke; 
St. Stephen's, Oxford; St. Matthew's, Kinston; Zion and 
Trinity, Beaufort county; St. Thomas's, Bath; St. Peter's, 
Lincoln; St. Luke's, Salisbury; St. Peter's, Washington; 
St. Matthew's, Hillsboro; St. James's, Greenville. This 
brings us to the end of Bishop Ravenscroft's administra- 
tion at the begining of the year 1830. 

Now let us analyze the foregoing list: 



1. St Jiides, Stony Creek, Orange county (now Ala- 
mance); St. Mar\''s, Orange county; Emmanuel Church, 
Warrenton; St. John's, Williamsboro; St Stephen's, 
Oxford, and St. Matthew's, Hillsboro; Class one. 

2. Grace Church, Pitt count\'; St Matthew's, Kinston; 
Zion and Trinity, Beaufort county; St Thomas's, Bath; 
St. Peter's, Washington, and St. James's, Greenville; 
Class two. 

3. St. Mark's, Halifax, to which may be added Trinity 
Church, Scotland Neck, soon after admitted; Class three. 

4. Christ Church, Rowan; St Michael's, Iredell; St. 
Peter's, Lexington; White Haven, Smyrna, and St. 
Peter's, Lincoln, and St. Luke's, Salisbur}-; Class four. 

5. Trinity (in 1833, re-admitted as Calvar}') Church, 
Tarborough; Calvar}' Church, Wadesboro, and Christ 
Church, Raleigh; Class five. 

This analysis brings out most distinctly the fact that 
the movement of 18 17-1830 was truly a revival of old 
things. It shows that the Diocese of North Carolina not 
only laid its foundations along the lines of the old Colonial 
Church, but that it traced those lines backward from the 
point to which they had been brought down by the labor- 
ers who longest continued their work after the failure of 
the Tarborough Conventions. 

Class One represents accurately the extent of the labors 
of the Rev. George Micklejohn, President of the Conven- 
tion of November, 1 790. Everyone of the parishes of this 
class is within the bounds of his first jurisdiction while 
Rector of St. Matthew's, Hillsboro, which he continued to 
visit until some years after the beginning of the present 
century; or it is part of the field which he served with 
more regular care after his settlement in Granville. If 
some hesitation should be felt at including Warrenton in 
this class, it will be removed when it is learned that dis- 
tinct memories and associations in the Norwood family 
connect Mr. Micklejohn and John Norwood, of Franklin, 



who was a most zealous Churchman and faithful lay- 
reader in the congregations formerly served by Parson 
Cupples, in Franklin and Warren counties. The relations 
in which Mr. Norwood and Parson Micklejohn stood to each 
other show clearly that the latter had the pastoral oversight 
of those congregations which the former served as lay -reader. 
After Mr. Norwood's son, the late Judge William Nor- 
wood, had removed to Hillsboro, his was one of the fami- 
lies which Parson Micklejohn regularly visited for the 
purpose of baptizing the children and otherwise minister- 
ing to them as occasion might serve. 

Though there are comparatively few instances in which 
the names of the parishioners can be traced by documen- 
tary evidence from one period to the other, yet in many 
cases there are distinct traditions all over this field show- 
ing that the parishes above named at their first organiza- 
tion were composed of the old Colonial Churchmen. St. 
Jude's, Stony Creek, was chiefly composed of the Daivises 
and Lattas, remnants of the old Colonial Church popula^ 
tion. The names of Colonial Churchmen of Granville, 
Henderson, Taylor, &c., are among the first that appear 
in the Journals of the Diocese. Bishop Ravenscroft in his 
address to the Convention of 1828, refers tq this: 

Along the northern line of the Diocese, from Bdenton westward, we 
have many friends, the descendants of Episcopal families, who would 
hail with gladness the revival of the Church, where, in former days, 
there were flourishing congregations, now scattered and peeled away; 
and where there are yet many buildings standing, some of them in decent 
repair, and the exclusive property of the Episcopal Church, but now, and 
long, silent to the responses of her Liturgy. 

In this connection it may be mentioned that the old St. 
Matthew's Church, Hillsboro, stood upon the site now 
occupied by the Presbyterian Church, and the surrounding 
grave-yard is strictly speaking still the property of the 
Episcopal Church, being secured by an ordinance of the 
Provincial Congress of 1776, along with all other Church 
property in the State. The present brick structure was 



erected somewhere about the year i8io by subscription, 
and for general use. The Presbyterians being the first to 
have a resident minister came to occupy it regularly, and 
so it gradually passed under their control ; but so far as is 
known, they have never asserted any legal ownership of 
it.* The old St. Matthew's Church had been a wooden 
structure, and fell to decay about the end of the last cen- 
tury. It was the place of meeting of the famous State 
Convention of 1788, which rejected the Federal Constitu- 
tion, though Mr. McRee in his life of Judge Iredell has 
fallen into the errror of saying that that Convention was 
held **in the Presbyterian Church.'' There was no Pres- 
byterian Church in Hillsboro at that date. 

Class Two is hadly more than a list of the places upon 
the regular circuit of the Rev. Nathaniel Blount, so far 
as we can ascertain the bounds of his work. Unvar>-ing 
tradition throughout this section ascribes the survival of 
any knowledge of the Church during this period, to his 
faithful ministrations. In speaking of his first visitation 
made to the several congregations and parishes of Beau- 
fort county, including Trinity Church, Chocowinity, 
which he calls by its popular title of **Blount's Chapel," 
Bishop Ravenscroft says: 

In the section of country through which I have just passed it glads my 
heart, brethren, to find the affections of so many of the inhabitants still 
strong towards the Church of their fathers; and ♦ * * ♦ to find such 
numbers quite at home in our Liturgy, and prepared and desirous to 
profit by those apostolic services which they had learned to revere as 
wise appointments of the great Head of the Church, &c. 

And as late as 1836 upon the application of the congre- 
gation of St. Paul's Parish, Swift Creek, Craven county, 
(which was near the residence of Jacob Blount, an eminent 
churchman and citizen of Colonial times and of his son 



♦These facts, which were familiar to the older inhabitants of Hillsboro, 
have not been generally known by tlie later generation. Besides other 
authorities, I had them from the late Jno. W. Norwood, Esq., who him- 
self remembered the whole history of the present building. 



^73 

William Blount, an eminent statesman of our Sub-Revo- 
lutionary period) the Committee to whom the application 
had been referred, say in their report: 

Prior or immediately subsequent to the Revolution in this country, 
Divine Services were regularly held there by a Clergyman of the Church 
of England, and * * the majority, if not all those residing in the 
vicinity, were then attached to the Doctrines of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church; * * upon the death of the Rev. Mr. Blount, Divine Services 
were discontinued there. 

It is interesting to note that the first movement for the 
organization of a parish in Washington and its union with 
the Convention of the Diocese, appears by our Journals to 
have been made by one of his name and family, the late 
Maj. Thomas H. Blount. 

C/ass Three is hardly a class at all, being only the sin- 
gle county of Halifax, but the Church as here revived had 
a most direct connection with the old Colonial parish of 
Edgecombe, as Halifax county by a strange arrangement, 
was denominated. St. Mark's Church in the town of 
Halifax probably represented what remained of Parson 
Burges's congregation in the town and at his neighboring 
chapel of Conocanara. But we know somewhat more of 
Trinity Church, Scotland Neck. It was organized near 
the site, and out of the remains of the old congregation of 
Kehukee Chapel, the lower chapel of Edgecombe Parish. 
When Trinity Church was organized in 1832, it was com- 
posed in part of the following persons who had been 
baptized members of the Colonial Church, some in that 
parish, others in other parts of the Province ; Dr. Simons 
J. Baker and Mrs. Baker, Mrs. Thomas B. Hill, Mrs. R. 
W. Lowrie, William R. Smith, Sr., Mrs. Sarah W. Smith, 
Miss Sallie Packer, Rebecca, a slave, and others whose 
names are not remembered. 

Class Four represents the work of Parson Miller in 
keeping alive the love of the Church in a region which 
never had the benefit of regular ministerial services until 
after 18 17, but where the people resolutely held to their 



274 

Church principles inherited from their fathers. When 
Mr. Miller attended the Convention of 1794 he came from 
a few little congregations of Church people upon the west 
bank of the Catawba, whom, by acting as lay-reader and 
chatechist, he kept together in faith that the divine 
blessing upon the Church would ensure them the means 
of enjoying its privileges, if only they should continue 
faithful. To these congregations on the Catawba he 
afterwards added Christ Church, Rowan, and St. Michael's, 
Iredell. Thirty years passed in vain expectation; and yet 
at the end of that time he stood up in the Convention at 
Salisbury with the same little congregations, faint but not 
despairing, the only congregations in North Carolina^ out- 
side the three towns of Edenton^ NewberUy and Wilming- 
ton^ which had preserved any kind of being from the time 
of the Tar borough Conventions until the successful organ- 
isation of the Diocese in 18 ij. In 1794 he and the lay 
representatives of his congregations had voted for Mr. 
Pettigrew for Bishop; in 1823 they came up again and 
voted for Bishop Ravenscroft. He himself is the only 
man who was in both these Conventions: he is the link 
between the Conventions at Tarborough and the present 
Diocese of North Carolina. 

Class Five is a miscellaneous class, embracing the con- 
gregations at Tarborough, Wadesboro, and Raleigh, and 
at first sight seems to be an exception to the rule, being in 
the fields of none of the^ Clergy who survived the Revolu- 
tion. Of the history of the Church in Wadesboro before 
the organization of the parish in 1822 I know nothing. 

When the congregation at Tarborough was organized by 
the Rev. John Phillips in 1819, as ^^Trinity Church'' (in 
1833 it was re-organized and re-admitted to the Conven- 
tion as ''Calvary Church)" it was composed largely, if 
not wholly, of persons who were either actually members 
of the Church by baptism at old St. Mary's Parish Church, 
or attached to the Church by ancestral associations and 



275 

convictions. The names of the first members of the parish, 
Toole, Irvin, Blount, Spniill, Haywood, Evans, Lloyd, 
Clark, Parker, Gotten and Hines, are of families long 
inhabitants of that section, and all, so far as I know, mem- 
bers of the Church in Colonial days. The parish in Tar- 
borough should have been called neither Trinity nor Cal- 
vary, but St. Mary's. It is not only locally the old parish 
of that name, but it sprang directly out of the Colonial 
parish, many of its first members having been members 
more or less remotely of old St. Mary's Parish, Edge- 
combe. The revival of the Church in this parish being 
so long deferred, and even after its nominal establishment 
in 1819 so many years elapsing, before the services of the 
Church were in fact regularly re-established and maintained, 
. most of the families throughout the county forgot their 
old attachment to the Church, and in most cases their 
descendants are ignorant of the fact that their ancestors 
were once Churchmen. 

In the history of the Revival of the Church in North 
Carolina the name of John Phillips deserves honorable 
mention. It has already been said that while acting as 
assistant to the Rev. Geo. Strebeck in the Newbern Acad- 
emy in the year 18 14 Mr. Phillips went on to Virginia, 
and was ordained by Bishop Moore, and that for the rest 
of the year 1814, he assisted Mr. Strebeck in the Church, 
as well as in the Academy. After the expiration of his 
year in Newbern he went to Virginia, but in 1818 he re- 
turned, and labored as a missionary in North Carolina 
until 1822. He organized the Church at Tarborough, also 
that at Warrenton, and was more or less instrumental in 
establishing or reviving the services of the Church in 
many places, from Hillsboro in one direction to Washing- 
ton in the other. In 1820, he reports having travelled 
since the preceding Convention two hundred and twenty 
miles per month in the region lying between these two 
points. Tarborough, Washington, Warrenton, and Blount's 



276 

Chapel (Trinity Church, Chocowinity,) were his regular 
charge. The principal places occasionally visited by him 
were Hillsboro, Raleigh, Williamsboro, Oxford, Scotland 
Neck and some of the country congregations in Pitt and 
Beaufort counties. He was a man of great simplicity of 
character, which would sometimes have exposed him to 
ridicule, but for a vein of pure and fervent piety, which ! 
showed itself in every action, and stopped the mouths of 
gain-sayers. His health seems to have failed about 1822, 
and thereupon he returned to Virginia, where he died in 

1831. 

The parish at Raleigh is closely connected with the 

Church in Edgecombe county. It was under the ministr)' 

of Mr. Phillips, while rector of the Church in Tarborough, 

and acting as missionary in other parts, that the first steps 

were taken to organize the parish of Christ Church, 

Raleigh, and to build a church in 1820, though the parish 

was not organized and admitted to the Convention until 

1822. When it was admitted it was represented by Chief 

Justice Taylor, the Hon. Wm. H. Haywood, Jr., and Dr. 

A. S. H. Burges. Judge Taylor was a member of the 

Church of England, but Mr. Haywood was the son of 

one of four brothers, all members of the old parish of St. 

Mary's, Edgecombe, who had removed to Raleigh when it 

became the Capital of the State; and Dr. Burges was the 

son of the Rev. Henry John Burges, rector of St. Mary's 

in 1770, but who afterwards moved to Virginia. It may 

also be mentioned that when Mrs. Blount, widow of the 

Hon. Thomas Blount, of Tarborough, and daughter ot 

General Jethro Sunmer, died at Tarborough in 1822. He 

left a large legacy to the Hon. Duncan Cameron and the 

Rev. Wm. Hooper, in trust, for the purpose of building 

an Episcopal Church, in the city of Raleigh. The value 

of this legacy was at the time estimated at from ten to 

fifteen thousand dollars. What was actually realized - 

from it, and how far it became available for the pur — 



277 

poses of the trust, I cannot say. It is mentioned here 
to show in regard to the parish at Raleigh, to what an 
extent even a new parish, during this revival, had its 
roots in the affections and convictions of people 
whose religious principles had been obtained from sources 
back of these times: and also as being a pleasant link 
between the parish in Raleigh and the Church in Edge- 
combe. The parish at Raleigh was evidently made up of 
Churchmen from other counties drawn to this new centre 
of our Commonwealth, and perpetuating there the Church 
in which they had been brought up in other places. 

This completes the task which I set myself, of tracing 
the story of the Revival of the Church in North Carolina 
from 1817 to the death of Bishop Ravenscroft it 1830, with 
reference to its bearing upon the proposition which I laid 
down, and undertook to maintain. That proposition was: 
That the work of the first Convention and the first Bishop 
of North Carolina was simply to gather together and to 
organize the remains of the old Colonial Church in the 
several localities where it had been most successfully estab- 
lished; and that we to-day are the ecclesiastical and 
and spiritual representatives in fact, and not merely in 
theory, of the Church which our Anglo-Saxon fathers set 
up here to sanctify the new Continent which they were 
subduing and civilizing. This survey has, it is believed, 
sufficiently established the truth of that proposition. That 
it has not done so more fully is due partly to the limited 
space at command, and partly to the meagreness of the 
accounts which we have of local Church matters during 
the period under review. But it has been shown beyond 
all question that the formation of the Diocese of North 
Carolina was only the organization and perpetuation of 
principles and forces which had never ceased to be opera- 
tive in the life of our people. 

Though the course of the argument in this paper has not 
allowed of much space being given to the consideration of 



278 

the characters and lives of individuals except as they were 
associated with the internal developeinent of our Diocesan 
History, yet a word must be said, before closing, of him 
who first received Episcopal authority in and over the 
State of North Carolina. The Convention of 181 7 upon 
organizing the Diocese applied to the Bishop of Vir- 
ginia and requested him to take the infant Diocese 
under his pastoral oversight. This he consented to do, 
and in performing this duty he made four visitations in 
North Carolina, in 1819, 1820, 1821, and 1822, and pre- 
sided in the Conventions of those years, signing the 
Journal as ^ ^Bishop of the two Dioceses of Virginia and 
North Carolina.'' In the depressed condition of the 
Church at that time, and in view of the popular prejudice 
against it, the value of the services of such a man cannot 
be overestimated. His attractiveness as a preacher com- 
manded popular attention, the beauty and dignity of his 
character conciliated popular favor, and the simple, yet 
unmistakable holiness of his life was the best exposition, 
both to those within and to those without, of the true 
character of a Churchman. The Diocese of North Caro- 
lina will always be proud and grateful to write first upon 
the roll of her Apostolic overseers tlic name of Richard 
CiiANNiNG MooRK, of Virginia. 



VIII. 
THE FIRST THREE BISHOPS— RAVENSCROFT, 

IVES, AND ATKINSON. 

BY THE RIGHT REVEREND ALFRED A. WATSON, D. D. 

In beginning what I have to say, you must allow me to 
premise two things: 

ist. My limited opportunities for research have almost 
absolutely prevented me from introducing original matter. 
Specially, in what I have to say of Bishop Ravenscroft I 
have been obliged to depend upon books which many of 
you have read for yourselves. To those of you who have 
done so I can bring nothing new. There are however 
presumably many present who have not had that opportu- 
nity, to whom the slight resum^ which I shall present may 
be of original interest. 

2nd. The extent of the subject assigned me is such 
that I have been left to the alternative of a very superfi- 
cial treatment of it, or a length of treatment too great for 
your time. I have endeavored to take middle ground, 
which is not hower always the safest for the Author, but 
which is the only practicable one in this case. 

I am to speak to you to-day of the first three Bishops of 
our old Diocese of North Carolina; three I say, for the 
reckoning and history would be incomplete were I to leave 
out either of them. 

First in the line of our Chief Governors, in matters 
ecclesiastical, comes the lion-hearted Ravenscroft. 

The first Master Builder in our Diocesan edifice, John 
Stark Ravenscroft, was born in 1772, of parents in easy 
circumstances, on the family estate of ^^Ravenscroft,'' said 



28o 

to have been a suburb of the present city of Petersburg, 
Virginia. By the death of his father, when he was only 
eight years of age, it' fell to the lot of his mother to mould 
the future Ruler of the Church. Providentially for him, 
and for us, the training provided by his mother was not only 
intellectual but religious. The Bible was recognized as 
teaching the will of the Supreme Ruler, for the child as 
well as for the adult. Its teachings were recognized as 
essential to any thorough school education. He himself, 
at a later period, recognized the great advantage he enjoyed 
through life in that the Bible was one of his school books. 
The substance and words of Holy Scripture stored in his 
memory at that early age, although at the time lessons of 
mere rote, and however overlaid by indifference, were yet 
so lodged intellectually with him as to become in after 
life a permanent treasury of religious knowledge. When, 
later in life, involved in that spiritual struggle, which 
resulted in his conversion, he found the great benefit of 
his early acquaintance with the text of Holy Scripture. 
*^I had not'', he says, ^^to look afar off for their doctrines. 
They were familiar to my memory, from a child I had 
known them, though now it was that their living proof 
was to be experienced.'' 

While he was yet a child, the family had removed to 
Scotland to escape the political troubles which were seen 
arising in this country. There his father died. At about 
the age of seventeen young Ravenscroft returned to look 
after what remained of his father's property in Virginia. 
Soon after his return he entered William and Mary Col- 
lege to prepare himself for the battle of life; but the 
temptations which surrounded a youth, liberally supplied 
by his guardian with money, led him aside into habits of 
dissipation and came near making a final wreck of him 
religiously. From these dissipated courses, he was provi- 
dentially rescued by his attachment to the lady who became 
his wife, and who must have been a woman of remarkable 



28 1 

qualities to have been able to influence so effectively a man 
of such strong and wayward will, and excitable and high 
temper. There must have been in her a rare mingling of 
firmness and gentleness. He testifies of her that **what 
she did not approve she would not smile on, yet she never 
gave him a cross zvord or an ill natiired look in her life^ ^ * 
and that in the twenty-three years it pleased God to spare 
her to him, though he often acted otherwise than as she 
wished, and though she was faithful in reproving him, 
there never was a quarrel or even a temporary estrange- 
ment between them. * 

Bishop Ravenscroft is described as a man of large per- 
son and commanding presence, with an impressive face 
and heavy overhanging eyebrows, which he called his 
**dormer windows^ \ with a voice finely modulated on 
ordinary occasions, but which became, when he was 
excited, ^*like the roaring of a lion.'' Though of an 
affectionate nature, yet his predominating charactistic 
seems to have been force. In his earlier life this exhibited 
itself, as in other things, so also in his pursuit of pleasure 
and amusement. As a young man, he seems to have 
taken the lead of his neighbors in all the sports (and gen- 
teeler vices, as they were considered) common among gen- 
tlemen at that day, except gambling. He is represented 
as being, at that time, very profane, and with a profanity 
that corresponded in intensity with his force of character 
in other respects. ^ It was said, by one of his lady friends 
that though accustomed to the oaths which were then in 
every gentleman's mouth, (the more shame for them) when 
Mr. Ravenscroft swore she trembled. And when after- 

* There is a touching incident recorded of him by one of his bio- 
graphers—that at his wife's funeral, as the officiating minister was about 
to read the sentence of committal, he insisted upon doing it himself, but 
that when he came to the words "Earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to 
dust*^ ' his voice became so choked and his whole frame so shaken by his 
emotion that it was feared by those present that he would fall into the 
grave. 



282 

wards the Spirit of God strove in him, he tells us that 
one of the, if not the most diflScult of his vices to over- 
come, was his profanity. Time and again he attempted 
to reform himself of this fault, but time and again the 
habit proved too strong, and he was himself defeated. 
But when at last the victory was had it was with a 
thoroughness characteristic of the man. From that moment, 
he writes of himself, ^*my besetting sin of profanity was 
overcome and has troubled me no more.''* It seems to 
have been only as life advanced into maturity that he 
began to think of his religious responsibilities. 

The story of his conversion, in consequence of having 
overheard a negro servant's prayer, is rejected by his bio- 
graphers as without any foundation. Again it was the 
silent voice of his wife's example which spoke to his heart 
and aroused his attention. He sought the secret of her 
patience and found it in her religion, and in the influence 
upon her of the Word of God. f 

With his usual independence and force of character he 
began his struggle from darkness into light, at first, very 
naturally trusting to his own force of will to correct his 
faults. It would seem to have been one of God's special 
mercies to him that he was left for a while to try by him- 
self, in his own strength, to climb the path to virtue; as it 
was another of those mercies to intervene at the last with 
grace for his assistance. This defeated will best explains 

* His native fearlessness was illustrated when, crossing the ocean at 
the age of eighteen, the ship becoming entangled in ice-bergs, was saved 
only by his venturing, hatchet in hand, with a companion, out upon the 
bowsprit and cutting a portion of it away, thereby releasing the vessel 
from its perilous situation. 

t It is written of her that "her forbearance and sweetness of temper led 
him at last to ask himself 'what can be the cause? Why does not the 
woman re\'ile me as I deserve ? This is not natural, where then does it 
come from ?' " He was too proud to ask her, but he remembered that 
her daily companion was the Bible. Thinking that there he might find 
the wonder explained, he resolved to become himself a reader of the 
Scriptures, and soon saw what a sinner he was." 



283 

the strength of his convictions in after life, with respect to 
the sinner's absolute dependence upon God's grace for 
sanctification and salvation, and his emphatic, almost 
startling death-bed rejection of all idea of merit in him- 
self, declaring to one whom he suspected of an intention 
to write a commendatory memoir of his last moments, 
that he was nothing but a wretched sinner, indebted to 
God's grace for everything. It was in the grace of God, 
and in the power of God alone, that he moved along his 
path of strong and effective life and action. But in that 
dependence upon God he found no excuse for supineness or 
inaction. He wrought, and God wrought with him. 

In the exercise of his ministry he was exceptionally 
regular. He could see no excuse for a clergyman failing 
to meet his appointments /^^;^^/w«//y, unless it was literally 
impossible to do so. He set his Diocese an example in 
this, worthy of imitation. Like S. Paul, immediately upon 
his conversion, he sought out his Master's work. Not 
being at this time acquainted with the Church, which he 
afterward so signally served, having indeed, as might 
have been expected, from his early Scotch Presbyterian 
training, a contempt for Episcopacy, he joined himself 
(still however as a mere layman) to a body of christians 
known as Republicans, or Reformed Methodists; took an 
active part in the conduct of their services, associating 
himself with a worthy minister of that body by name 
John Robinson. He even began to question himself 
whether it was not his duty to enter their ministry. But 
this was not to last. His conviction of the necessity for 
valid orders in order to valid baptism, a sacrament, the 
wilful rejection of which he regarded as a bar to the salva- 
tion of the Gospel, led him to questions concerning the 
validity of the various religious ministries around him. In 
the year 1815, when forty-three years of age, he writes of 
himself: **I began to revolve the question of orders in my 
mind, and th^ authgrity by which I should be commi^-. 



284 

sioned to perform the duties of the ministry. I became 
convinced that the awful deposit of the word, by which 
we shall all be judged, could never have been thrown out 
in the world to be scrambled for and picked up by who- 
soever pleased to take hold of it. And though this objec- 
tion might in some sort be met by the manifestation of an 
internal call, yet as that internal call could not be demons- 
trated to others^ something more was necessary, which 
could only be found in the outward delegation of authority 
from that source to which it was originally committed. 
As an instance of the necessity of this verifiable authority, 
the sacrament of Baptism presented itself. Being the only 
possible mode by which fallen creatures can become inter- 
ested in the covenant of grace, and entitled to the benefit 
of Christ's gracious undertaking for the salvation of sin- 
ners, it must be of the last importance to be assured that 
such unspeakable blessings should be authoritatively con- 
veyed, and as the authority of Christ is the very essence 
of Baptism, in the assurance of its pledges to those to 
whom it is administered, and as this assurance can only 
be such by the verification of the requisite power and 
authority to administer the rite, it appeared clear to me 
that no assumption of that power by any man or body of 
men, nor any consequent delegation of it, could by any 
possibility answer the intention and purpose of the Author 
and Finisher of our faith, in making Baptism the door of 
admission into His Church.'' I have quoted these words 
from the pen of the Bishop himself, as disclosing the 
secret of the sturdy and consistently exclusive positions 
afterward taken by him in maintaing the claims of that 
branch of the Holy Catholic Church, of which he subse- 
quently became a Chief Pastor. * 



*When challenged on one occasion to a di^ussion of the proper mode 
and proper subjects of Baptism, he readily assented, but insisted first 
upon the answer by his challenger to a preliminary question, "Where do 
you get your authority to baptize anybody or in any way?" 



285. 

The result of all this painful enquiry into the validity 
of the orders of the Religious bodies about him, and of his 
search for orders which should be valid, was that after 
pausing awhile on the Presbyterian claim to Apostolic 
succession, he found himself as he says obliged to turn his 
attention to the Protestant Episcopal Church **for that 
deposit of Apostolical succession in which alone verifiable 
power to minister in sacred things was to be found in these 
United States. ' ' 

He accordingly presented himself as a candidate for 
Holy Orders to Bishop Moore, of Virginia, and by him 
was first licensed lay-reader, February, 1816, and subse- 
quently, on the 25th day of April, 1817, in the Monumen- 
tal Church in the city of Richmond, was ordered Deacon, 
and for reasons satisfactory to the Bishop, and Standing 
Committee of the Diocese, was ordained Priest in the 
Church at Fredericksburg, on the 6th day of May, 
following. 

Of the Church to which his investigations and resulting 
convictions had drawn him, without extraneous influences, 
and contrary to his previous prejudices (and prejudices in 
such minds are very powerful abstractants, if I may so 
express it) he became a consistent minister — inflexible, 
while affectionate and humble. 

The Diocese of North Carolina, when in 1823 it chose 
its first Bishop, was guided to select this man, of strong 
but loving heart, iron will and uncompromising convic- 
tions. Its members did better than they knew, for at that 
time they knew but little of him. But when he came to 
view the work, and lay the foundations they found they 
had indeed a Master Builder. He met with much and 
bitter opposition at the first. His uncompromising main- 
tenance of truth, which is always in its very nature exclu- 
sive and intolerant of error, came into contact and conflict 
with a prevalent indifference to, and indeed rejection of all 
precise Religious doctrine. But his firm convictions and 



2S6 

his intelligent and clear apprehension of what he believed, 
and his fearless, unflattering, un-temporizing advocacy of 
that exactly which he held as true, with no timid and 
inconsistent concessions to error, enabled him to hew his 
way through all the tangled thicket of error and prejudice 
about him, and to set deep in the soil, for which he was 
responsible, the plants of absolute and eternal truth.* 

Whether or not he realized his own success, whether or 
not that success was apparent to him in his own lifetime, 
the subsequent history of the Diocese and its reputation for 
holding inflexibly its religious convictions with respect to 
Religion and the Church, bear witness to the thoroughness 
and permanency of his teaching. He was no temporizing 
teacher. It is said of him that he knew nothing of tact 
but went straight to his ends with no fencing of rapiers, 
but with the sledge-hammer blows of direct and open, 
uncompromising assault. In one of his letters he says: 
**Everything serves to convince me more and more of the 
injurious tendency of halfway measures; I will therefore 
have nothing to do with them. Ever}^ circumstance con- 
firms the propriety of being open and candid in declaring 
our principles. I see that success follows them and that 
loss and dilapidation are the result of a different system." 
To one of his Episcopal brethren who objected to what 
Bishop Ravenscroft declared that he had done or would do 
in a certain case — **My dear sir, that would not be good 

*He held inflexibly, and taught fearlessly and without compromise, 
the distinctive character of the Church. "If we hold principles which 
are indefensible" were his words "let us abandon them. But if these are 
our principles, i. e. things which we really believe — interwoven with the 
very frame of our polity, impregnable in their truth, let us not be ashamed 
of them and become parties to that miserable delusion which weakens 
us as a body, strengthens the ranks of our adversaries, weakens the 
cause of true Religion by tacitly owning one division after another until 
the great Master principle of the Church of God — its unity — is merged in 
the mass of Christian names, and swallowed up by the indifference and—- 
infidelity thus fostered." Schism he held to be destructive of the eternal—^ 
interests of man, and injurious to the Majesty of God. 



2^7 

policy,'' he replied in a* way which must have been rather 
startling — *Tolicy sir! Policy! there is no such word 
between the lids of the Bible!" But under his unyielding 
stern and bluff exterior there as a warm heart, which while 
condemning the sin or the error could make gentle allow- 
ance for the sinful or mistaken. Just before his d'eath, he 
said to one of his friends: *^I have been a rough creature" 
but, striking his breast, * *God knowns there was no rough- 
ness here."* 

It was characteristic of him that making preparation for 
his own funeral he directed that his coffin should be a 
three dollar pine one, painted black; that the show and 
expense of a hearse should be avoided and that the body of 
his own sulky being removed, his own horse should carry 
him to his grave. He yielded his soul to God, March 
5th, 1830, at the house of his friend Gavin Hogg, at 
Raleigh. 

In October, 183 1, was consecrated Bishop Ravenscroft's 
successor, Levi Silliman Ives; up to that time, rector of 
S. Luke's parish, in the city of New York, a parish which 
had been a mother of Bishops. 

Few men have ever been more popular and beloved than 
was Doctor Ives, as pastor of a congregatian, or, for the 
first years of his Episcopate, as Chief Pastor of the flock. 

In those days the Diocese was more as one great family, 
living in loving social relations. The Diocesan Conven- 
tions were social gatherings of the warmest brotherhood, 
like the annual meetings of the separated parts of a family 
tied by blood. Their deliberations were conducted as con- 
sultations of brothers, who shrank from all avoidable differ- 
ences of opinion, or expressions of difference, and found 
pleasure in prolonged association; who drew their annual 

* As a preacher he was a man of power. His sermons usually long 
were yet felt to be too short. His gestures were few and simple. It may 
interest some of our younger clergy to know that more than once he 
failed. On one occ^ion, after five minutes being obliged ignominlously 
to stop. 



288 

gatherings regretfully to their close and parted with sorrow 
and often with tears. Instead of hastening to the doors, 
immediately upon the closing benediction, the members 
were wont, when all was over for the year, to gather 
lingeringly around the chancel and bid each other loving 
adieu. The Bishop's visit to each parish was a great 
annual event, a feast-day for the congregation. From the 
broad Atlantic on the East to the majestic mountains of 
the West the Bishop's journeys were a perpetually umoll- 
ing scene of social sojournings of a father among his chil- 
dren. He was welcomed with affection and desire, enter- 
tained with the most abundant and loving hospitality, and 
sped on his way with sad regrets. His utterances in 
theology and practical religion were earnestly awaited, 
listened to and talked over, with independent thought, but 
with great respect; and generally, at least largely, with 
docile regard, adopted into the practical living of the peo- 
ple. This for many years was the history of Bishop Ives' 
Episcopate. The speaker well remembers his first meeting 
with him after coming into the Diocese as a candidate for 
Orders, when for several days he was housed with him at 
the hospitable home of the late Josiali Collins, on Lake 
Scuppernong. The Bishop's earnest sermons, his oratori- 
cal power, his forcible presentation of the Gospel, and then 
the delightful hours of private intercourse when, in th^ 
intellectual household of his host, high questions of theolog"^ 
and the practical issues of the Church at that day we^^ 
debated at the table, or around the fire-side, or in rid^ 
around the sunny shores of the solitary but beautiful Laic ^ 
The Bishop's five sermons, published about that tini, " 
viz: *^The Apostles' Doctrine and Fellowship," treatir^^ 
of Baptism, Confirmation and the Supper of the Lor:^ 
were warmly accepted by his people as embodying, 
forcible form, some of the peculiar doctrines of the Churc 
peculiar only as they differed from the more newly begc 
ten notions of a surrounding population, not over th( 



289 

oughly trained either intellectually or theologically — not 
peculiar in themselves, therefore, for they were the heri- 
tage of all the ages since the foundations of Christianity 
were laid. 

But unfortunately for the Bishop, and for his flock, 
notions which sprang up outside the staid old Diocese, 
which still stood by the teachings of Ravenscroft, began to 
infect the Protestant theology of the past, and to disturb 
our peace — an infection largely caught from our erring 
Sister Church of Rome — from whom at the Reformation 
we had definitely and conscientiously separated while 
acknowledging her as an integral part of the Holy Catholic 
Church, but believing her course of action schismatical, 
and her peculiarities heretical, and to be departures from 
the Faith once delivered to the Saints, and therefore to be 
cast out and abjured as inconsistent with the purity of the 
Gospel. One of the special and most obnoxious of these 
peculiarities, at least in the eyes of our North Carolina 
Churchmen, was the doctrine of the Confessional, as a 
system, for exceptions might easily exist. But other and 
cognate doctrines and practices associated themselves with 
this; and to the sorrow and damage of the Diocese the 
Bishop, who hitherto had been such a stalwart champion of 
the old Faith of the Church of England, felt the infection 
and began to speak with other tongues than those to 
which we had been used. His seven sermons, issued at 
this time, drew forth much adverse and severe criticism. 
For the faith of the Clergy and of the people remained 
unchanged. * 

Some time before this, he had founded, in a romantic 
valley of Watauga county, on the banks of the beautiful 
stream of that name, calling the valley after the old Eng- 
lish Abbey, Valle Crucis — Vale of the Cross- -a mission 

* Temporary and slight disturbances of belief there may have been, 
but they speedily corrected themselves; they were only the oscillations 
of the needle which, for a moment disturbed, returns to its true position. 



290 

station and school, where with much ardent and true mis- 
sionary zeal, and with much picturesqueness of manage- 
ment, were mingled strange theories snd observances. 
These new plants were not natural outgrowths of our 
Church vine, but grafts from another and alien stock 
which began to bear, in that hitherto peaceful home 
of religion, fruits of bitterness. The arrangements and 
organization of the Mountain Mission gave special 
opportunity and I may add special temptation, for the 
elaboration by the Bishop of his more recent views. Its 
Clergy, not however without exception, (notably the Rev. 
W. W. Skiles, whose praise is in the Church) sustaining 
him, for the time being, in their promulgation, he was 
led, under their influence, it was thought, and encouraged 
by their support, to publish Pastoral letters to his Diocese 
which brought to a point and converted into hostilities the 
divergences of feeling which had been gradually arising 
throughout the Diocese. The conflict which followed was 
very painful to all true lovers of the Church. Crimina- 
tions and re-criminations resulted, and finally the almost 
absolute alienation of the Diocese from its qnce honored 
and beloved Bishop. 

It is not my purpose to bring up the spectres of that sad 
night. But upon one point I may be allowed to speak. 
One effect of this disturbance was a temporary alienation 
between the Clergy and the I^aity. The people regarded 
the Clergy as, with few exceptions, accepting largely the 
position of the Bishop. On the other hand, to the 
speaker's personal knowledge, the Bishop thought the 
Clergy his enemies, neither thought was true. The great 
majority of the Clergy felt bound before God to sustain 
His, i, e. God's, Chief Officer in his official position, and, 
to pay him the respect due that official position; but 
not to accept his personal views — he sat in Moses' seat— 
and they accepted the command of the Master. They 
argued that until the Church's discipline had been canoni. 



291 

cally invoked, and had displaced him, he was their Bishop 
still, and could claim the respect due his office. Hence 
the misapprehension of their attitude by the Laity. But 
to the Bishop personally they uniformly, while respect- 
fully yet firmly and absolutely, protested against his novel- 
ties of theory, of speech and of practice, and so came to be 
in his eyes his enemies. They strove to be faithful both 
to their Bishop and to the Truth. This is the testimony 
of one who was on the inside of the whole controversy, 
and who knows whereof he affirms. 

The conflict resulted, first in a public retraction of his 
advanced (or rather retrograded) views, by the Bishop 
before the Diocesan Convention of 1851, in a scene which 
the speaker can never forget as, in his view and in that of 
many others, most mortifying. It is but justice to add 
that the committee of twelve, to whom the investigation 
of the whole subject had been referred, reported evidence 
as having been laid before them to the effect **that the 
Bishop's mind had been for several years so affected by an 
attack of fever as to impair his judgment, enfeeble his 
memory and expose him to gross misconception on the 
part of others." 

The breach seemed healed ; but it was only a hollow 
truce. He presided at the next Diocesan Convention held 
in 1852. During the summer he went abroad. His pre- 
vious impressions returned and, doubtless with entire con- 
scientiousness however lamentably in error, he submitted 
himself to the Church of Rome at Christmas 1852. His 
personal ring and cross are, or were, hung above the altar 
in the Crypt of S. Peter's as if official insignia and wit- 
nesses to the return of an erring Bishop to the true fold of 
S. Peter. 

In 1853, he was declared by the General Convention as 
having been ipso facto deposed by his renunciation of the 
Communion of this branch of the Church. 

So far as the speaker is informed, not one of his Clergy 



29a 

proper, not even of those at Valle Crucis, and but two of 
his I^aity, one of whom was his wife, followed him to 
Rome, and the other, also a lady, soon after returned to 
her earlier faith. 

I fear that by dwelling as I have done, upon the first 
two of our Bishops, I have cut myself off from the satisfac- 
tory memoir of our third, and to the most of us, best 
beloved (for he was nearest to us) if not our greatest. This 
must explain the brevity with which I am compelled to 
speak of one endeared to me as a Spiritual Father by 
many years of service under him. 

In 1853, at the Convention held in that year in Raleigh, 
we were guided by God's good Providence to the election 
as our Chief Pastor of the Reverend Thomas Atkinson. 
D. D. , at the time Rector of Grace Church, Baltimore. 

He was born August 6th, 1807, and was the great-grand- 
son of a Clergyman of the Church of England. He grad- 
uated with distinction from Hampden-Sidney College, 
Virginia, in a class, which included among its members 
such men as John S. and William Ballard Preston, the 
latter Secretary of the Navy during General Taylor's 
administration. At first he studied for the Bar, was 
licensed, and practiced, it is said, with great success; but 
before long he turned his attention to the Church, that 
grand old Kingdom of God, as the preferred sphere of his 
life. 

Here let me say — that to the speaker. Bishop Atkinson 
has repeatedly protested against the notion, more or less 
current, that he was a convert from Presbyterianism. He 
was always apparently anxious to have it understood, that 
he had never been anything but a Churchman. 

In 1836 he was ordered Deacon, and within a ye^^'t 
was ordained Priest, and entered upon his full work i ^ 
St. Paul's parish, Norfolk. He afterward moved "^^ 
Lynchburg, Virginia, aud later still was called to 
Peter's, Baltimore, to fill the place made vacant by t 



293 

election of Rev. Dr. Henshaw to the Episcopate of Rhode 
Island, where his abilities were so recognized that the 
beautiful edifice of Grace Church, Baltimore, was built 
for him, of which parish he became Rector in 1852. In 
1853, ^^ ^ have already said, he was elected Bishop of 
North Carolina and in the Fall of that year was with Rev. 
Dr. Davis (elected at the same time with himself Bishop of 
our sister Diocese of South Carolina) consecrated to his 
high office, in St. John's Chapel, New York, during the 
session of the General Convention of that vear. In his 
consecration. Bishop Spencer, of Madras, and Bishop 
Medley, of Frederickton, united with the American Epis- 
copate, Bishop Brownell, of Connecticut, presiding. It 
was a union of the two lines of succession. He received 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Trinity College, 
Hartford, and of Doctor of Laws, from the University of 
North Carolina, and from Cambridge University, England. 
He assumed the charge of the Diocese of North Carolina 
at a time and in circumstances which might with great 
reason have constituted an excuse for declining it. It was 
just after the great upheaval of opinions which preceded, 
accompanied and followed the defection of Bishop Ives. It 
was not that any serious tendency to error at least in the 
direction in which Bishop Ives had gone, prevailed, but 
rather the contrary. There was rather a recoil of the 
public mind of the Church from those errors. But the 
people were unsettled and fearful — irritated moreover. 
Bishop Ives* defection had set the Church back very 
seriously. Men whose opinions had been converging 
toward the Church, and whose feet were seeking her safe 
enclosure, had begun to halt arid hesitate. Then there 
had been engendered much hostility of feeling between the 
more active opponents of the former Bishop and those 
whose action had been more conservative. There had 
grown up a lack of confidence and a state of unrest in 
religious convictions more or less widely spread, which 



294 

caused the members of the Church to stand more apart 
than of old. Beside which, the former Bishop had per- 
sonally endeared himself to many of his flock, producing 
a feeling which resented any disrespect to his memory. It 
was therefore a disturbed and turbulent water upon which 
the new Bishop was asked to embark. Would he be able 
to sail that sea in safety and peace ? or would he find con- 
flicting currents which would make his voyage uncom- 
fortable, if not in vain ? A man of very marked and pecu- 
liar attributes was required to take the helm and guide the 
ship of the Church in safety. Providentially the qualities 
needed for the time and circumstances were found in the 
new Bishop. He was both firm and gentle, vigorous and 
cautious. His intellect was of a sort to command the 
respect of all. His power as a speaker and preacher was 
exceptional. He was both dignified and genial, devout 
and agreeable. His views were broad while definite. 
Indeed this has always seemed to the speaker one of his 
special characteristics. He was broad-minded — took no 
narrow or partial views. His judgement was sound. His 
acquaintance with the movements of the Church in her 
various fields of action was comprehensive and accurate. 
In person he was noble. In his face sweetness and nobility 
were in an unusual degree combined; and in his mental 
contact with others there was a magnetism which made 
him both respected and beloved. He was indeed the very 
man called of God to take up the broken lines of Church 
work, and re-unite them, to infuse restored confidence and 
peace in his disturbed Diocese, to remove the doubts and 
suspicions which were beginning to fester in the body 
ecclesiastic, to bring the old ship of the Church (if I may 
use such an expression of a Diocese) back to safe and 
quiet moorings. 

It pleased God to give him a fairly long Episcopate to 
accomplish all this. For nearly thirty years he ruled with 
dilligence and great success, As a preacher and debater 



295 

his powers of logic and logical analysis were conspicuous 
and not less his power of moving the heart. The speaker 
well remembers the impression made upon him on his first 
acquaintance with the Bishop in the General Convention 
of 1850, when he led the debate in the House of Deputies 
in an important question, in which the views he main- 
tained prevailed. 

His part in the restoration of union between the two 

sections of the Church which had been separated by the 
late war would have made him, even if not already so, a 
conspicuous figure in the Church. He read much and 
was sometimes found surprisingly familiar with the current 
literature of the day. It is difficult at a period so quickly 
following the many eulogies, which the admiration and 
love of his friends have pronounced, to say anything true 
which is not second hand. But it is also hard to say any- 
thing that is true of our late Bishop which is not eulogis- 
tic. He lives in the hearts and memories of his people. 

His later days were clouded by infirmity, but not for the 
most part of any very painful sort, and at last he sank to 
rest in his own house and among his own folks, on the 

4th day of January, 1881. 

There is a fact recorded of him which shows how good 

God had been to him — that with fifty-three years of mar- 
ried happiness, with sons and a daughter born to him, he 
had not in all that period to mourn the death of one of 

his immediate family. 

Brethren and friends, I am done. If I have occupied, 

or seemed to occupy, your time to an unreasonable length, 
pray consider what you have given me to do, and whether 
you would have had me omit any of the memories of your 
Chief Pastors which I have evoked. And yet, I have 
not begun to exhaust the record. God grant that these 
memories of our dead Bishops may stimulate their succes- 
sors to the imitation of all that was good in them; and 
that going on at least as well as we have begun, our 
divided Diocese instead of losing strength by its division 
may double its power and efficiency. 



I 



a:; 
1- 



1* • 






IX. 
MISSIONARY AND EDUCATIONAL ENTERPRISE. 

BY THE REV. JARVIS BUXTON, D. D. 



THE EDUCATIONAL AND MISSIONARY WORK, IN NORTH 

CAROLINA, FROM THE YEAR 1831. 

PART I. 

The above date is coincident with the election and con- 
secration of Rev. Dr. L. Silliman Ives, second Bishop of 
North Carolina, whose first Conventional address, in the 
year following, recommends the establishment of a Theol- 
ogical and Classical school under the Auspices of this 
Church. After urging the Diocese to make some provi- 
sion for the Theological education of fit persons for the 
sacred ministry, the Bishop goes on to say: ''The object 
proposed, in my view, might be accomplished in connec- 
tion with another of almost equal interest, I mean the 
establishment in some part of the Diocese, of an Episcopal 
school, something on the plan of the present excellent and 
flourishing Institution at Flushing, Long Island, under 
the Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg. These two objects, Theologi- 
cal and Classical, have thus, from the first, been combined 
in the minds of the friends of education in this Church. 
In accordance with the Bishop's proposal, so much of his 
address as related to the establishment of a Theological 
Seminary was referred to a Standing Committee of eight 
persons who should report to the next Convention a plan 
of a Seminary and School, and who were instructed to 



298 

inquire at what place in the Diocese it should be located; 
what number of teachers should be employed, and what 
houses would be necessary; what sinn would be required 
to pay the expenses and how it should be raised, and to 
collect all such information as might be useful to the Con- 
vention in the establishment of a Seminary and School. 

The persons appointed on this committee consisted of 
the leading Clergy and Laity of the Diocese. 

It may here be remarked, that although no attempt was 
made, nor could be hopefully made for such a Church 
school during the Episcopate of Bishop Ravenscroft, yet 
that Bishop, ever fearless and outspoken in his convictions, 
early perceived the necessity of such an Institution for the 
youth of the Church, and sounded an alarm in his charge of 
1825 concerning the dangers attending the education of 
youth from indifferenceon the subject of religion generally, 
as well as from carelessness as to training them up in the 
distinctive principles of the Church. He earnestly depre- 
cated the neglect of early catechetical instruction, and 
expressed himself as ''l)onnd to press this subject as of the 
last importance to the well-being of the Church." 

I. 

TIIK KPlSCOr-AL SCHOOL OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

The School Committee, appointed to carry into effect 
the resolution of the Convention of 1832, located the 
school on an eligible tract of land adjoining the city of 
Raleigh, consisting of 159^2 acres, about one mile west of 
the State Capitol. The Kxecutive Committee gave their 
individual note for ,)(^i , 600. the purchase money of the land, 
which was tlie oniiiions connnencenient of a policy cH 
incurring debt tliat contributed to the downfall of tl^^ 
school. Debts were farther incurred for erecting buildin^^ 
by bank loans. Tlic School Committee borrowed of t^^^ 
Episcopal P'nnd to the amount of '^'7,500 for the erectl ^^" 
of the Central Ihiilding, giving guarantees on the proper-*:::^)' 



299 

while the payment of the amount due for subscriptions 
and donations, worth at maturity about $12,000, and — 
uncertain, as all such subscriptions usually are, from 
unforeseen contingencies — was spread over a period of five 
years, the demands for funds meantime, continuing urgent 
and not to be postponed. There were other causes of the 
failure of the school, which had opened for the reception 
of pupils on 2nd of June, 1834, under the most flattering 
auspices. Indeed the expectations of the most eminent 
men of the State, many of whom were enlisted in the 
cause of the school, were sanguine and even extravagant. 
Gov. Iredell, Chairman of the Executive Committee, uses 
this language, during the first year of the school — '*We 
congratulate you upon having established a school which 
we believe, with such teachers as you now have, will be 
pre-eminent among the Institutions of our Country.'' 
The Committee on the State of the Church in the same 
year, confidently indulge the hope that **a little more aid 
from the liberal Churchmen of the Diocese will secure for 
them and future generations one of the best of literary and 
religious schools.'' 

But the over abounding patronage of the school in the 
first year, which had raised such hopes, contributed to over- 
whelm it. The committee ascertaining on opening the 
school, that a greater number of pupils would offer than 
could be received, contracted for the erection of another 
building, of the same dimensions, and kind of material 
with the one already erected. In vain, in order to lessen 
the number of applicants for admission, they resolved to 
restrict the age of entrance to 14 years. Patronage con- 
tinued to pour in as a flood. They felt themselves con- 
strained to give public notice that they were unable to 
receive any additional pupils, until the accommodations 
should be further enlarged. The number of pupils at that 
time, which was the second session of the first year, was 
103, of whom 83 were boarders and 20 day scholars. The 



300 

greatest number of pupils at any one time, was 135. The 
terms of the school, at that day, for board and tuition, 
were $175 for the Academic year, and for day scholars, 
$50, with six weeks vacation in the year. But the appa- 
rent prosperity of the school, in point of numbers, was, in 
reality its greatest danger. The Institute at Flushing, 
which Bishop Ives had had in view as the pattern of a 
Church School, prudently restricted the number of its 
pupils to a small select band of boys, during the first year 
of its existence. 

The object was, to introduce and firmly establish before- 
hand the discipline and drill of the school ere it should be 
tested too violently, by enlarging the number of pupils. 
After that the discipline was established, judicious and 
parental as it was, it became as easy a matter to govern 
one hundred boys, as twenty boys. The result was, the 
model Church School in the United States, out of which 
were sent forth not only christian gentlemen of the highest 
grade of character and scholarship, but a succession of the 
best Church Educators of youth in the land. But unfor- 
tunately, our School Committee, animated by the full glow 
of success, was bent upon accommodating, at the outset, an 
indefinite number of pupils, and at any venture of debt. 
But very soon the numerous scholars got the upper hand 
of the Masters, who, it must be confessed, were not mas- 
ters of the situation, and the school became unmanageable. 
As a consequence, the tide of patronage as rapidly ebbed. 
By a resolution of the Trustees in July, 1838, the exercises 
of the school were suspended. The debt, about this time, 
amounted to ^14,508 which it was proposed to pay off by 
selling a greater part of the land, reserving only some 20 
acres with all the buildings; by selling the furniture of the 
school, and then mortgaging, for the balance due, the 20 
acres of land reserved with all the school buildings. 

The debt being thus paid or provided for, it was then 
proposed to await better times for the revival of the Lite- 



3ot 

rary and Classical Department of the school. For the 
Committee well doubted whether, under its former organ- 
ization as a Literary Institution, the patronage of the 
Diocese could be sufficiently commanded. 

Some time and great caution will be necessary, they 
argued, to re-establish confidence amongst those who have 
been disappointed. Meanwhile it was thought, that the 
Theological Department which had hitherto been of 
secondary consideration might be brought to the front. In 
the experiment thus far, the education of ministers had 
been contemplated, but not undertaken; might not now 
the Theological Department be made the primary and 
leading design of the enterprise ? And if that could be 
done, might it not be possible to secure the neighboring 
Diocese of South Carolina for a partner in that enterprise, 
by placing the revived school under joint control of the 
two Dioceses, mainly as the Theological School ? But on 
making the effort, it was found that there was no inclina- 
tion on the part of that Diocese (which had recently lost 
its Bishop), to come into any such arrangement of jointly 
establishing a Theological School. 

The upshot was that the property (land and buildings) 
was sold at auction and passed out of the ownership of the 
Diocese, and The Episcopal School of North Carolina 
ceased to be, after struggling through a period of some six 
years. Its Masters successively were Dr. Cogswell, after- 
wards Librarian of the Astor Library in New York, and 
better fitted perhaps for marshalling books than boys; Dr. 
Empie, Mr. DeBemiere Hooper and Dr. Curtis. 

The shock of the failure of our first Diocesan School has 
not ceased to be felt to this day. It spread a wide and 
general distrust throughout the Diocese, as to the ability 
of this Church, in its Diocesan capacity, to manage schools. 

Without presuming to express an opinion on that point, 
we lay down two indispensable conditions of the success of 
any Diocesan Church School, as proved by all experience. 



302 

The first is, that you have the right man at the head of it. 
Given a Muhlenberg, a Kerfoot, a Coit, or an Arnold of 
Rugby, and it will not be difficult to achieve educational 
success. There is required, withal, in the Head Master, a 
tact and knowledge of human nature in general, a sympa- 
thetic touch with boyhood nature, in particular, joined to 
fearless and unflinching manhood, that alone can mould 
the plastic, wayward natures of youth into willing obedi- 
ence and cheerful submission. 

The second condition of permanent success for such a 
school, is the possession of adequate endowment. En- 
dowment will enable the Church school to tide over a 
want of patronage at any one time, from any cause afford- 
ing time to correct mistakes, means to employ the best 
instructors, and opportunity to rally its friends to its sup- 
port. There is an obvious advantage gained also, in the 
ability thereby created, to reduce board and tuition to as 
low terms as might be desirable. * ^Reason would lead us 
to believe what experience tends to confirm (observes 
Bishop Atkinson) that without endowments, that is, with- 
out some permanent provision for institutions of an educa- 
tional nature, these can scarcely have a vigorous and dura- 
ble existence. ' ' 

II. 

ST. MARY'S SCHOOL. 

The school for girls, now so widely known as St. 
Mary's School, a quasi-Diocesan School, rose upon the 
ruins of the Episcopal School of North Carolina. It was 
founded by Rev. Dr. Aldert Smedes, and opened for the 
reception of pupils in May, 1842. 

Dr. Smedes found ready for use land and buildings that 
had passed out of the ownership of the Church, but which 
were admirably adapted to the purposes of a school for 
girls, of which he availed himself and by prudence and 
tact and management, and his high personal qualities and 



303 

accomplishments built up a school which has proved of 
incalculable worth, to the Diocese, and to Church female 
education through the South. Through i)eace and war, 
thro' sunshine and the cloudy storm, the school has kept on 
the even tenour of its way, diffusing blessings through this 
land and morally and spiritually fashioning the daughters 
of the State, entrusted to its care, into the polished corners 
of the temple. Indeed the entire mental furnishment of 
St. Mary's, at the present day no less than in the life- 
time of its revered Founder, is equal to all the require- 
ments of Christian learning, and its curriculum of studies 
is abreast with the advanced modern idea of female educa- 
tion; while, in addition, it aims to secure the training of 
a complete womanhood in body, mind and sjMrit, including 
the affections, the conscience and the will. 

TRINITY SCHOOL, NEAR RALEIGH. 

Dr. Smedes, the founder of St. Mary's, in his zealous 
devotion to the cause of education, in the year 1847, estab- 
lished a new classical school for boys under the patronage 
of the Diocesan, about 7 miles from Raleigh, under the 
name of Trinity. Its aim was to combine thorough in- 
struction and the highest attainments in learning with 
strict discipline and careful training in the doctrines and 
duties of religion. Daily prayer was said in the school, 
with daily examinations in Holy Scripture; fasts and festi- 
vals were duly observed with sermons, and catecliTsing on 
Sundays. 

The Rev. Dr. Hubbard w^as the first Principal. He re- 
signed in his second year, having accepted the Professor- 
ship of I^atin, in the University of North Carolina. His 
last report in the Journal ends with the ominous remark — 
*'It is for the Diocese to say whether the school shall be 
sustained or be allowed to perish. ' ' 

He was succeed by the Rev. Mr. Babbitt, who himself 
vacated the office of Principal, the third year afterward — 



304 

and Trinity School ceased to be, after about five years of 
existence. The greatest number of pupils it had at one 
time was nineteen. A remark of Mr. Babbitt's, in one of 
his reports, explains the secret of its failure — '^Trinity 
School is in much need of the sympathy and support of 
the Diocese." 

III. 

ST. augustin's schooi.. 

Before leaving the City of Raleigh, for other fields of 
survey of Church Education in the State, we will notice 
next St. Augustin's Normal School and Collegiate Insti- 
tute, situated on a tract of land one mile east of the Capitol. 
This Institute, under the advocacy of Bishop Atkinson, 
was incorporated July, 1867, and opened January, 1868. It 
has for its peculiar province the educational interest of the 
colored people not only in this Diocese, but throughout 
other Dioceses, especially at the South. Its visitors and 
patrons are the Southern Bishops at large. The Trustees 
are eleven in number, consisting of the Bishop of the 
Diocese of North Carolina, five Clergymen and five Lay- 
men who have power to fill vacancies in the Board. The 
amount of its endowment, securely loaned, is now esti- 
mated at about $35,000. Without this aid, procured by 
the Rev. J. Brinton Smith (whose zealous labors were so 
largely instrumental in the foundation of the school) en- 
abling the charges of the board and tuition to be put 
at a very low figure, and these too reducible by manual 
labor, the success of St. Augustin, for any length of time, 
would have been impossible. 

But thus aided, it has had and still has, a remarkable 
career of prosperity. The engrafting of a special Theologi- 
cal Department upon the school in 1882 is due to Bishop 
Lyman. In the prosecution of its work, St. Augustin 
has graduated 150 of its scholars in a four years' course of 
study. Two hundred and seventy-five have been engaged 



IS teachers in public sidK^Is in diffci^ni j>*rts ^vT 
>^orth Carolina and odier Soi:them Siai^es. RJj^^twn 
Have been ordained, the nia>orit\" of whom had their cntiiv 
training and preparation in the school, academic as well as 
theological. Others of the students, in various jxArts of 
the Souths have gathered congregations and bec\Mue l^ax - 
Readers. The Principals of St, Augustin ha\x l^ceu Rcw 
Dr. J. Brinton Smith, Rev. Dr. John Smedes, who >\^s 
succeeded by Rev. Dr. R. B. Sutton, the present IViuciivd* 

rv. 

TRINITY SCHOOL, CHOCOWIXITV, EAST CAROKINA. 

Turning Eastward, in our sun-ey of education within 
the Church, our eye lights upon a modest, unpn*tondinj» 
Church School, inclined to shrink from oKservation, hut 
whose merits are of the most substantial order and deserve 
recognition. It is situated about four miles fn>in Wash- 
ington, Beaufort County, and known as Trinity School, 
founded by Rev. Dr. N. C. Hughes, a man of sciouco i\\u\ 
scholarship, well and long experienced in teachinj>; the 
young. Though not strictly a Diocesan School, yet it han 
discharged, in a great degree, the offices of such a school, 
in the Christian education of boys and young men. In 
consequence of such training a goodly number of its ptipils, 
some 15 or 20, have had their minds turned to the Holy 
Ministry, as their calling in life, and been liberally aidrd 
in their tuition, and other ways, while prosecuting tlnii 
studies in the school. 

v. 

VALLK CRT 'CIS. 

We come now to the Educational and Missionary Innti- 
tute that was founded by Bishop Ives at Valh- Cnuh in 
the West in the year 1844. It was intr-nd^-d fr^r A«:v;/ i;if/' 
Missionarv' enterprise, also, for a trainin;^ vh^yj of ^;indi- 
dates for the Holy Ministry. Th'- r.Wv/u:*] ^/}if^A 'tfu>. 



3o6 

intended only for an aid to the foundation. That this 
design, from the first and for some years afterward, com- 
mended itself to the judgment of the Diocese, is clear from 
the repeated favorable testimonies on record in the Jour- 
nals. So late as 1848, the Committee on the State of the 
Church declare their opinion — '*That the importance of 
this Institution to the Diocese is immense, as the nurser}' 
of a future ministry,'' and appeal to the Churchmen of the 
Diocese for their co-operation and support. 

Valle Crucis, therefore, was no quixotic scheme of 
Bishop Ives, but commended itself to the deliberate appro- 
val of the whole Diocese. But in the turn which events 
took in the Diocese, occasioned by Dr. Ives' erratic course, 
which it is not our part to follow, the Institution he had 
founded at Valle Crucis, was doomed to failure. Up to 
the time, however, that its original idea and purpose had 
fair play, it was a remarkably successful example of an 
Associate Mission and Training School for the ministry. 
Never was mission work more indefatigably and enthusi- 
astically pursued than it was by those men whose names 
stand out most eminent on the page of its history, from 
among these, it will not be deemed invidious to select the 
names of the Rev. Mr. Prout and Rev. Mr. Skiles, the 
first a Priest, the latter a Deacon of the Church. Of Mr. 
Skiles, a reviewer of the sketch of his life by Miss Cooper, 
declares, ^*that if Valle Crucis had done nothing other than 
give this man to the Church, it had been enough to justify 
all the cost of suffering and sorrow which were expended 
there. ' ' 

There was no mystery in his methods of working in his 
Master's service. Mr. Skiles was only a plain man, in 
deep earnest to save the souls of his fellow men around 
him. He was conscious of no special personal gifts and 
had no might save that of the Spirit. His preaching was 
plain, earnest and practical. His life was self-denying and 
given to others. He visited the sick, at any distance, if 



307 

summoned, and prayed with them and nursed them. His 
knowledge of medicine and of the diseases of the country 
that had been gained by observation, and the necessity of 
medical practice, was made useful in furthering the ends 
of his ministry. It was this close, sympathetic contact 
with the needs and cravings and sorrows of suffering 
humanity that was the secret of his power and influence 
over others. They felt that they had in him a friend and 
brother. 

His friend and fellow laborer, the Rev. Mr. Prout was a 
profound thinker, as well as a zealous and devoted Mis- 
sionary. Such metaphysical works as ManselPs Bampton 
Lectures on ''the Limits of Religious Thought,'' were his 
keen delight, yet his mind, profound as it was, was sim- 
plicity itself Though his sermons were argumentative, 
in the main, yet he made himself easily understood by his 
simple minded hearers. He, too, was fond of visiting 
and ministering to the sick and poor. With the instinct 
of a native woodsman, he followed, all alone, the tracks in 
the forest hardly noticeable by others, which led to their 
humble homes in the mountains, and retraced his steps, 
perhaps in the late evening. The Convention of 1857 
ordered the publication of his sermon on ''Gifts in the 
Treasury", moved thereby, it asserts, "to a deeper sense 
of the duty of the Church to diffuse the knowledge of the 
blessed Gospel it holds in trust, throughout the whole 
Diocese. ' ' 

One part of the idea and intent of Valle Crucis was to 
train up, in study and practice, a native ministry on the 
soil especially for the destitute regions of the Diocese. 
This was a favorite idea of Bishop Ives, in his palmy days. 
There were not many of his Episcopal Addresses in which 
he did not touch upon the subject, and with ever increas- 
ing urgency. "It is a truth", he says in 1837, "I have 
reiterated again and again, that upon a native ministry 
alone can we depend for a permanent ministry". By the 



3o8 

mysterious dispensation of Providence, when this object, 
so dear to Bishop Ives' heart seemed to be on the point of 
being realized in the success of Valle Crucis, and by great 
self-sacrifices he had planted what promised to be a niirser}' 
of future ministers, and the whole Diocese, in response to 
his appeals, was ready to rally around him, in its support, 
all the glowing expectations of man were dashed to the 
ground, by the course of the Bishop himself, owing to the 
combined effect of bodily disease and Roman malaria which 
his mental health was too weak to resist. 

Yet it is a fact that the seed sown and nurtured by 
by Bishop Ives, during his faithful days of service, were 
not lost to the Diocese; for out of Valle Crucis, though 
now in ruins, as another lona, has gone forth the sound of 
the Gospel in the Church, by one instrumentality or other, 
immediately or remotely, throughout the length and 
breadth of the mountainous region of North Carolina. 
(See further notice of the Valle Crucis Mission in Part II.) 

VI. 
RAVENSCROFT. 

The Institution at Asheville remains to be noticed, con- 
sisting of two independent departments, provided for in 
separate buildings, some distance apart, viz: the High 
School for boys, and the Training School for the ministry. 

The fact may not generally be known that the region in 
which Ravenscroft is situated, competed for the location 
of the University of the South and was favoured by Bishops 
Atkinson and Otey, but Sewanee prevailed. 

The land on which the buildings of Ravenscroft are sit- 
uated, contains 131^ acres. As far back as 1855, ^^^^ Con- 
vention resolved to establish and locate a High Scliool for 
boys in Pittsboro'. The Committee in charge afterward 
changed the location of the school to the town of Ashe- 
ville. The previous circumstances, however, which led 
to this, it is not necessary for our purpose to detail. In 



309 

[856, ^t was formally announced by the Headmaster, who 
^as also Rector of the Parish Church at Asheville, that 
;he doors of the Institution were opened for the admission 
>f pupils, and that its aim and purpose was not only to 
iimish facilities of study to older youth who might have 
:lie ministry directly in view, but also to educate the boys 
3f the Church in the method of the Prayer Book and in 
all Christian culture. These two objects, Classical and 
Theological, have been combined in idea in every educa- 
tional effort that has been put forth by this Diocese, from 
the beginning to this day. Bishop Atkinson was equally 
strenuous as his prodecessor in his sentiments on the im- 
portance of training up a native ministry. He says in his 
address of 1856, **In providing mii;iisters we must look 
principally homeward, for a supply. To raise them from 
among the people themselves, permanently and effectually, 
we must have schools at home under the care of the 
Church, parochial and diocesan schools.'' 

But the Bishop, while he was far from depreciating the 
value, and still more from denying the necessity of a 
learned class in the ministry, yet maintained that *4f the 
Church is to reach and mould the whole community, to 
carry the Gospel to the hovel on the roadside, as well as 
the stately mansion embowered among groves and lawns, 
then it is impracticable to have all the Clergy of the learned 
class, and not desirable if it were practicable. It is by 
drawing recruits to our ministry from the laboring classes, 
and never breaking off their sympathies with those classes 
that we may most reasonably hope to bring those classes 
into union with the Church.'' In confirmation of these 
sentiments we may quote the Church Review's estimate 
of the Rev. Mr. Skiles, a fair sample of the kind of char- 
acters he had in view. * ^The lesson of the life of Wil- 
liam West Skiles is, that simple earnestness and devout- 
xiess of life, talents, in a word, which the humbly endowed 
of men can, by prayer, possess — will achieve results, which 



310 

the most highly gifted^ would despair of attaining." 

The Bishop believed also, there was room and demand 
for Diocesan Theological Seminaries of a lower grade than 
our existing high Seminaries, where a native ministry 
sprung from the people might be adequately trained and 
instructed, to fill a want in the Church and to do a vast 
deal of good to the souls of men. 

At the close of the civil war, and on the restoration of 
peace, the Ravenscroft Institute was re-organized by 
Bishop Atkinson, solely into a Theological School, that is, 
a school where postulants and candidates only for the 
Holy Ministry, were received and instructed. 

As a school for boys, in general, it fell in abeyance, till 
of late years. In a printed document, without date, 
intended to interest persons in his enterprise, he again 
explains his purposes in the use of the Ravenscroft build- 
ing : **The wish and the plan of Bishop Atkinson is to 
raise up young men from among these interesting and 
much neglected people (for thus only can a sufficient sup- 
ply be obtained) and to instruct them that they may be 
able to teach others also, not aiming at a thorough Theol- 
ogical education, but yet at such a measure of knowledge, 
as, by God's grace, may make them able Ministers of the 
New Testament. ' ' 

The plan of making this school the centre of an Associ- 
ate Mission for the benefit of the moimtain country, was 
also designed and added on by Bishop Atkinson. The 
Rev. George Wilmer was the first Principal under this new 
regime; Dr. Wilmer was succeeded by Rev. F. J. Murdock 
and he, by the Rev. Dr. D. H. Buel in the Fall of 1872. 
Unfortunately for the Theological School, the Principal of 
Ravenscroft left solitary and alone, has been made to 
centre in himself, the contrariant and incompatible ofl[ices 
pertaining to an Associate Mission that covers an exten- 
sive field, with those pertaining to a training school for 
the ministry that demands a constant presence; or as the 



3^1 

case is pathetically presented by himself in his report of 
1881 — ''The Principal of Ravenscroft, feeling as he did 
the weight of the great Mission work which the Bishops 
have felt compelled to lay wholly upon him for the want 
of other laborers, and how it utterly prevented the requisite 
devotion of time and effort to the training school, has for 
several years not encouraged the many applications from 
candidates that have been coming to him. ' ' 

No other reason for the lack of full success of the 
Theological School, the great desideratum of the Diocese, 
need be assigned. 

Since the foundation of Ravenscroft, 15 persons have 
been wholly or partially trained in the Divinity School, 
and entered the Sacred Ministry. * 

In the year 1886, it was decided by the Convention to 
revive the plan of a Diocesan School for boys, (the pro- 
posed one to be located near Morganton, having miscar- 
ried) and to fit up and use for that purpose the Ravens- 
croft building. The erection of a separate building for 
the Training School for the Ministry, was postponed to a 
future day. What the final outcome of this change of 
plan might have been, in the uncertainties and mutations 
of times and human purposes, it would be difficult to fore- 
cast. But a kind Providence came to the rescue, in the 
generous aid of the late Mr. Schoenberger, a warm per- 
sonal friend of Bishop Lyman's who, at the cost of $11,000 
erected a substantial brick building, known as ''Schoen- 
berger Hall," on the grounds of Ravenscroft, for the Train- 
ing School. This school has an Endowment Fund of 
$7,086, collected by Bishop Atkinson; also, an interest in 
the Hick's Fund of $5,708, till it shall be otherwise en- 
dowed. It has a library of 1,500 volumns, valued at $3,000, 



* The Principals of Ravenscroft have been, Rev. J. Buxton, Rev. 
L/Ucian Holmes, Rev. George Wilmer, Rev. F. J. Murdock, Rev. D. H. 
Puel, now at the head of the Training School for the Ministry. 



312 

mostly bequeathed by the same Bishop. It has also one 
scholarship worth $300 per annum. 

Withili the last year (1889) ^^e original Ravenscroft 
building, used for the High School for boys, has been 
leased to Mr. McDonald, Headmaster, for a term of five 
years, free of rent. All that it needs for success under 
such a Master, is the sympathy and support of the 
Diocese. * 

PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS. 

Of Parochial Schools, we have said nothing, beyond 
referring to the judgment of Bishop Ravenscroft, 
strongly in favour of early catechetical instruction, which 
is a marked feature of them — not that we undervalue their 
usefulness or that other testimonies in the Journals, in 
their favour, could not be adduced, but for lack of time 
for their consideration. 

The last Journal of the General Convention (1889) 
reports 1 1 Parochial Schools within the limits of the Dio- 
cese of North Carolina, and 7 in the Diocese of East Caro- 
lina, with 916 pupils in both Dioceses. 

PART II. 

MISSIONARY WORK IN NOHTH CAROLINA SINCE 183I. 

The State of North Carolina is larger than New York in 
extent of territory, but it is without any large and popu- 
lous city within its borders, to whose wealth and prosperity 
all the rest of the State is tributary and from whence in 
turn, as a centre, wealth and the commanding influences 
belonging to large cities, are diffused abroad. It may be 
questioned however, whether a population dwelling, like 
our own, apart in prosperous towns with rural cultivated 
districts around them, and all interlinked by Railways, be 



* The Head IVIasters of Ravenscroft High School for boys have been 
Mr. Henry A. Prince, Mr. Haywood Parker, ]Mr. Ronald McDonald, now 
in charge. 



313 

not more favorably situated in point of purity, morality 
and religion. This State is now and always has been a 
field of Missionary labour to this Church. Though this 
labour has been prosecuted for so long a time, it is yet a 
startling fact, that there is no County in any part of the 
State but is still Missionary ground, in the rural districts 
at least, and even in whole Counties, including their 
County seats. There is this difference to be noted between 
the Eastern and Western parts of the State — that the for- 
mer was Colonial ground and was traversed once and for 
many years by the itinerant Missionaries of the Church. 
Missionary work therefore, in these parts, upon the revival 
of the Church in 1817, was largely a work of restoration. 
It was building up anew the old family mansions out of 
ruins. But such was not the case in the West, at large. 
It was new ground, virgin soil for the feet of him that 
brought glad tidings of peace, as proclaimed by this 
Church. That part of the State, in particular. West of 
the Blue Ridge, was a sort of '^Ultima Thule,'' which the 
Missionaries of the Church, for a long time made no effort 
to reach. 

The method adopted for the support and spread of Mis- 
sions, before as well as after the date of our period, was 
through ' 'a Missionary Society. ' ' This Society either em- 
ployed Missionaries more or less itinerant or made use of 
the settled Parochial Clergy, whose duty it was made to 
devote one Sunday in every three months to Missionary 
labour; but, in fact, the Parochial Clergy have ever de- 
voted much more time» to purely Missionary work. The 
funds of the Society were derived from the voluntary offer- 
ings of the Parishes, and Congregations to which the Mis- 
sionaries ministered. Subsequently, in 1847, ^^^ volun- 
tary offerings gave way to the plan of assessment for the 
support of Missions; but this, in turn, not proving satis- 
factory was abandoned. 

The present plan, adopted in 1884, of raising Mission 



3H 

funds by apportionment among the several Parishes and 
Mission stations of the Diocese (the sum of money required 
by the Missionary wants of the Diocese for the current 
year having been previously determined) is commended 
by the experience, for many years, of the great Missionary 
Societies in England, in the support of their widely ex- 
tended Mission work. 

One feature of the early Missionary Society of the Dio- 
cese, has been dropped out, with loss to us, and with no 
provision as yet to take its place. By altering its title in 
1830, so as to embrace other important objects, the Society 
was entitled — '*The Episcopal Bible, Comon Prayer^Book, 
Tract and Missionary Society." Three Depositones of 
Books and Tracts were established, one at Raleigh, another 
at Fayetteville. and the third at Edenton. 

The increasing demand for Missionary services and the 
failure of the sources by which the treasury was supplied, 
were the cause of this great loss which has been keenly 
felt ever since throughout the Diocese so that one is moved 
to ask, can nothing be devised to remedy the loss ? 

To the labours of the Society's Missionaries different 
Parishes in the State owe their organization as Parishes; 
in the West, since 1830, those of Charlotte, lyincolnton, 
Pittsboro^ Morgan ton, Lenoir, Asheville and others; in 
the East, those of Kinston, Scotland Neck, Goldsboro' and 
others. To show how largely dependent the Church in 
this Diocese was upon its Missionary Society in those days, 
we quote the following from the report of the Committee 
on the State of the Church, in 1835, when the Society was 
threatened with insolvency: *4^y its failure, we shall lose 
a Society on which the destitute portions of the State 
entirely^ and three-fourths of our organized Parishes more 
or less rely for the ministrations of our Church.'' 

The office of Evangelist or, Missionary at large, is not a 
strange one to this Church, either in its Colonial times, 
when the Missionaries of ^^tlie Society for the propagation 



3^5 

of the Gospel in foreign parts/' traversed the large Eastern 
counties of that day, or in times subsequently to our for- 
mation as a Diocese. Indeed the itinerate svstem was 
long the Church of England's method in this country, be- 
fore the Revolution, of reaching a scant and sparse popu- 
lation. But since the Revolution the office of Itinerant 
has been known to us rather in idea, than by practice. 

In the Report of the Committee on the State of the 
Church of 1852, the idea is fully developed. We quote it 
at length: /^lyct a large tract of one of our most destitute 
regions be committed to a Missionary at large. I^et him 
traverse the length and breadth of it once or twice or more 
times in a year; let him visit lonely families at whose 
doors no ministrations of religion are now offered; let him 
go to the many villages and settlements where the voice 
of our Church has never yet been heard; let him seek out 
and reclaim the baptized ones who have wandered from 
our folds or have been lost in the wilderness of the world; 
let him baptize the multitudes who are longing for that 
sacrament, and will seek what others can give if no author- 
ized minister of Christ brings its blessings to them. It 
would be no easy task to estimate in how many hearts and 
places, by public preaching, by private conversation, by 
the silent yet perpetual witness of Bibles and Prayer Books 
and tracts, such an Evangelist may awaken the hope of 
everlasting life and plant the seed of prosperous Churches." 
But whether from the want of the proper man, or of means 
of supporting him, nothing was done, beside the repeated 
endorsement of the plan. But in the year 1882, the Rev. 
Wm. P. Bynum was appointed Diocesan Evangelist at a 
salary of $1,000. Most faithfully and diligently he exe- 
cuted the trust committed to him ; but the ground attempt- 
ed to be covered was too much, and utterly precluded a 
second or third visitation, so indispensable for permanent 
results. In his own words, **I have done duty in 45 coun- 
ties, and in almost every quarter of the Diocese. I have 



3i6 

literally gone from Cherokee to Currituck." The first 
visitation through a circuit is but part of a true Evange- 
listic system, and largely in the nature of an exploration ; 
it must be followed up by other visitations, in order to se- 
cure lasting benefits. Very apt on this point, is the quo- 
tation made by the Evangelist from Bishop Wordsworth's 
Church History, in the Report of his Labours to the Con- 
vention of 1883 — ' *The following phenomena are observable 
in St. PauPs method of evangelizing the world. . (i) He 
did not attempt to take in too large a field at once in his 
Missionary Journey. (2) He proceeded slowly and care- 
fully, and made his ground good and enlarged it by de- 
grees. (3) He left persons behind him to continue and 
consolidate his work, and he visited them from time to 
time to see in what condition they were." 

The office of Diocesan Evangelist seems to have been 
discontinued, at the end of the first year, for lack of means 
for its support. 

The system of Convocations first adopted in 1868, 
seems to be admirably adapted for missionary purposes. 
By means of them the clergy within a certain district, to- 
gether with representative laymen, may be brought to- 
gether, two or more times in the year at different points in 
the country, or within some parish as yet weak in num- 
bers, and services be continued for a number of days to the 
great benefit of the people. Abundant opportunity is thus 
afforded (and with a force and effect proportioned common- 
ly to the number of attending ministers) to preach the 
Gospel, to proclaim the Church or the Kingdom of God, 
to strengthen feeble parishes as centres of work and influ- 
ence, and generally, in the course of the year, to perform 
many of the duties of the Evangelistic office. The possi- 
bilities for good of this arm of Missionary work, doubtless, 
have not yet been fully tried ; neither have the varied 
gifts of preaching the word, in the extension of Missions, 
that lie dormant in our laymen, been scarcely at all as yet 



317 

brought out into action. But the subject has begun to 
attract thoughtful attention. 

Any survey of the Missions of this Church in the West- 
em part of the State, would be incomplete without men- 
tion of the labours of Parson Miller, of Burke County, by 
which title he is best known. It is true that his race was 
well nigh run, at the date of our Period, but he yet lived 
three years (having died in 1834) within the Period allotted 
for these notices. He was a Missionary of the Pauline 
stamp, accustomed to long journeys, and perils by the way, 
in preaching the Gospel, and he was faithful to the work, 
unto the end of his life. To him is due principally the foun- 
dation of St. Luke's Parish, Salisbury, of Christ Church, 
Rowan, and other Parishes in the West. His early history 
is well known as a laborer among the Lutherans, and a co- 
laborer with them where they prevailed, even after he had 
obtained Episcopal orders. But the results of such eccle- 
siastical amalgamation with old and dear friends, were not 
satisfactory to him on looking back. In a letter addressed to 
Dr. Empie he bewails the mistake he had committed in prac- 
tically neglecting the distinctive principles of the Church, 
which he yet firmly held ; and that others, in consequence, 
had largely entered upon his labors. This religious amal- 
gamation even with so estimable a body as the Lutherans, 
it need hardly be said, met with no favour from Bishop 
Ravenscroft. The effect, in his judgment (to use his own 
words), was * 'paralyzing on the Church." 

In concluding these notices, we will extend our view of 
Missions over that region of country west of the Blue 
Ridge, where lay the scenes of the Valle Crucis and 
Ravenscroft Missions. 

In the year 1847, ^^^ school for boys at Valle Crucis was 
discontinued, and the work, henceforward, devoted to Mis- 
sions and the Divinity School. The Rev. Wm. French 
was at that time the head of the institution. Associated 
with him were the Rev. Messrs. Prout, Passmore and Skiles. 



3i8 

There were eight Divinity students. At that date there 
were three services in the Chapel every week day — morn- 
ing and evening prayers, and also a short noon-day service 
in which all took part. Great attention was paid to the 
instruction of the Divinity students in Church music, who 
devoted themselves to Sunday schools, and day schools on 
certain days of the week. The Missionaries, each one, 
had his own appointments through the surrounding region, 
not conjointly, except when sacramental occasions might 
bring them together. Their sphere of labor extended 
some thirty-five miles around, though they would answer 
appeals for help to; a much greater distance. The im- 
pression made upon the public mind by their labours 
and personal characters was most favorable to the Church; 
prejudices abated or vanished altogether. The Mission 
was a recognized power in that region, particularly as 
at that time there were few or none other religious 
ministrations. In 1852, Mr. Prout and Mr. Skiles were 
the only laborers in the Watauga country, Mr. Skiles, 
only, resident at Valle Crucis. The class of students 
was dispersed and the Divinity school broken up. 
There had been three ordinations (one Priest and two 
Deacons) performed at Valle Crucis during its existence, 
and at least eight young men prepared for the ministry. 

If it be asked, whether ^^the Order of the Holy Cross^' 
introduced by i Bishop Ives in 1847, ^^^ which survived 
two years, was useful at all toward the Mission work done 
by Valle Crucis, it may be confidently answered that the 
Order was not of the slighest use ; most of the members, 
at least, joined it out of deference to Bishop Ives, though 
without a spark of sympathy for the Romish spirit of its 
vows But the Order was rather destructive to the Mission. 
It excited suspicion and distrust, while every benefit of an 
Associate Mission, so well adapted to that kind of region, 
had been obtained without it, as had been done before at 
Nashotah. 



310 

Asheville, the seat of the Ravenscroft Institution, was 
visited once by Bishop Ravenscroft, in the year 1828. He 
also visited the Warm Springs in his journey to Tennessee. 
While at Asheville he preached in the old Court House of 
that day. An old inhabitant, who was present on that oc- 
casion, said, that the Bishop, with some heat, bade the 
congregation who were keeping their seats at the recital of 
the Apostles' Creed, ' 'to stand up and say the Creed, like 
Christians,'' which they did. 

Trinity Church, Asheville, consecrated July, 185 1, was 
the first consecrated Church building west of the Blue 
Ridge in North Carolina. With this Church, from its 
beginning, has been connected Missionary work by its 
minister, outside of the Parish, at first in a wider field, 
afterward, in Chapels built within a few miles of the 
town. 

As the result of Missionary labour from Ravenscroft, 
within the last seventeen years. Church buildings have 
been erected at the county seats of Transylvania and Hay- 
wood counties, and a chapel and school house at Mica Vale, 
near Waynesville ; also a church building at Cullowhee, 
in Jackson County. The great want of these and other 
counties is resident Missionaries and Ministers, without 
whom no aggressive work can be done nor hardly any im- 
pression made upon the minds of the people at large, 
toward the Church. 

In Macon County, farther west, two Church buildings 
have been erected under Rev. Mr. Deal, and one at 
Cashier's Valley, Jackson County. 

In the extreme Western County of the State, Cherokee 
County, it may be mentioned, as a matter of history, that 
in the Fall of 1855, the Rev. Mr. Prout visited Cherokee 
and preached at Murphy, the county seat, about four 
months, and at various stations in the county. He bought 
and fitted up a House of Worship in Murphy, which still 
belongs to the Church. He remarks, in his report — ''that 



i2o 

the itinerant plan of preaching from house to house, and 
from one neighborhood to another, would perhaps be most 
advantageously adopted. 

In surveying the vast Missionary field spread throughout 
the State, may we not profitably revive the memory of a 
passage of the sermon of Rev. Mr. Prout, * 'Gifts in the 
Treasury," preached over thirty years ago before the Con- 
vention of North Carolina, and published by its order : 
'^Should one of us consecrate his property to the founding 
and endowment of a Mission in this home territory amongst 
his home-people, would he be casting in too much into the 
Treasury of God ? Should he make it adequate as a per- 
petual endowment to carry the means of grace to those 
who are]J likely to be ever poor, would he regret it ? Or 
would you consecrate means and time to God in the way 
of charity to Brethren ? A Depository of Bibles, Prayer 
Books and other good books (with tracts) in many a se- 
cluded portion of the State, to be distributed on certain de- 
fined rules, would be a means of very great good. This is 
a noble work and greatly needed. Carried on intelli- 
gently and widely, it would do much toward the sound 
improvement of both the mind and heart of the people." 



X. 

THE WORK OF THE CHURCH IN HOSPITALS, 
HOMES, SISTERHOODS AND ORPHANAGES. 

BY THE REV. T. M. N. GEORGE. 

It is proper for me to state at the outset that the work 
of preparing this paper was assigned by the Committee to 
one* much better qualified for the task than the present 
writer. The burden which he was prevented from taking 
was laid on shoulders less broad, but not unwilling to bear 
it. For the work of the Church in Homes, Hospitals and 
Orphanages is the most blessed because the most Christ- 
like of all her work, and the self-devotion shown in Sister- 
hoods and in other associated agencies in doing the work 
of the Church is worthy of all emulation. To record what 
has been done by the Church in this State is most inspir- 
ing, and to say a word which may incite the Church to 
multiply and extend her works of love and mercy is in- 
deed a privilege. And I desire here to gratefully acknowl- 
edge my indebtedness to those connected with the various 
institutions here spoken of, and others who have furnished 
me with material for this account. 

The surest testimony that the love of Christ and spirit of 
Christ still dwell in His Church is borne by the institutions 
of mercy and benevolence which spring up wherever she 
goes — institutions which have for their object the allevia- 
tion of the physical sufferings and wants of men. 

The human body as well as the human soul claims its 
share in the redemption. 

*The Rev. Mr. Strange was appointed for tliis subject. 



1. The Son of God took the whole nature of man, spirit, 
soul and body, that He might redeem the whole. 

2. When He was on earth He manifested forth His glory 
by miracles of mercy wrought on the bodies of men. 

3. The doctrine of the resurrection of the body teaches 
the same truth. **The adoption'' will not be realized to 
the full until the body is raised in incorruption and glory. 

4. The bodies of men assume a special importance when 
we remember how closely they are allied to the indwelling 
soul, and when we remember that they are designed to be 
' 'temples of the Holy Ghost. ' ' 

The sending of Christian physicians to the heathen does 
not find its highest reason in the fact that thus prejudices 
will be removed so that the strictly missionary work may 
be done, but in the fact that this is an essential part of the 
work itself. 

The Gospel cannot be truly preached if the physical 
wants of men are ignored. All efforts to relieve the poor, 
to nurse the sick, to shelter the destitute, to reclaim the 
fallen are so many ways of revealing Christ to the world, 
and imitations of His own example. 

And as work for the suffering is in a peculiar sense a 
Christ-like work, so it must derive its highest inspiration 
from the thought that it is done as unto the Lord Himself. 
Most solemnly and clearly will the Master's own mind on 
this kind of service be proclaimed, when at the last day 
He shall say, ^'I was an hungered, and ye gave me meat; 
' I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink ; I was a stranger, 
' and ye took me in ; naked, and ye clothed me ; I was 
' sick, and ye visited me ; I was in prison, and ye came 
' unto me. Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of 
' the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto 
'me." (Matt, xxv, 35, 36, 40.) 

The commission and the command to ''Heal the sick, 
cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils," (Matt. 
X, 8) is still in force ; and the Church can do no nobler 



323 

work than that of establishing Hospitals, Homes, Orphan- 
ages, Asylums, and Houses of Mercy. 

HOSPITALS. 

The Church in North Carolina has not been unmindful 
of her calling to preach the gospel of love to the poor in 
this way. 

There are at present in the State three Hospitals under 
the auspices of the Episcopal Church. St. Peter's Home 
and Hospital, in Charlotte ; St. John's Hospital, in Ral- 
eigh ; and the Good Samaritan Hospital for Negroes, in 
Charlotte. The first two have been in active operation for 
more than ten years, and the third will soon be opened for 
the reception of patients. 

ST. PETER'S HOME AND HOSPITAL. 

The honor of founding the first of these belongs to the 
' 'Church Aid Society, ' ' of St. Peter's Church, Charlotte. 
Touched by the needs of the sick poor in their midst, these 
faithful women waited for no other argument to favour 
their undertaking. 

With a subscription list and donations amounting in all 
to only $i6o, **under discouragement and opposition, 
prophecies of failure, and plentiful showers of cold water, ' ' 
they began their work of mercy. A house with two small 
rooms was rented Jan. 20th, 1876, and the Hospital was 
opened, with one poor old Methodist woman as its sole 
inmate. 

But prayer, perseverance, and constant, steady labor and 
self denial combined to insure the success of the venture. 
The most eloquent appeal for support came from the work 
itself, as is the case with every such effort, and the blessings 
of God rested upon it. 

The rector of the Parish, Rev. B. S. Bronson, as well 
as Bishop Atkinson, took a warm interest in the establish- 
ment of the undertaking. ^'Designed to combine a Home 



324 

for helpless and destitute persons, with a Hospital for the j 
treatment of the sick, it was not intended to be purely 
local, but by providing a Home for our Church peo- 
ple and others in distress and old age, hoped to be of use 
to the Diocese and State. ' ' 

The young girls of the Parish presented a lot for the 
purposes of the Home and Hospital. 

The lot, I00X200 feet, is on the comer of Sixth and 
Poplar Streets, and cost $270. A copy of the deed, with 
the names of the young girls composing the '*Busy Bee 
Society, ' ' which gave it, now lies in the comer stone. 

Friends at the North came to the rescue, and the corner 
stone of the present convenient and substantial brick build- 
ing was laid by Bishop Atkinson June 4th, 1877, eight of 
the clergy in their vestments being present The building, 
partly completed, was occupied the next year (May 30th, 

1878). 

It was found necessary to push on the work to accom- 
modate the increasing number of patients desiring its bene- 
fits, and the builing was completed, and the addition was 
opened for use March, 1882. 

The whole building having cost ^2,150, contains eight 
large, airy rooms, and two smaller ones, six for patients, 
with wide halls, in part at least finished, and four for use of 
matron and servants, and for dining room and kitchen. 

Since this Hospital was opened, in 1876, no less than 
five hundred persons have had cause to thank God for the 
blessings, temporal and spiritual, which it has bestowed. 
Only a few of these were able to contribute to their own 
support while there. Fifty to seventy sick people find 
treatment here every year. 

Although the Home and Hospital depends for its support 
solely on small monthly subscriptions, and donations of 
money and in kind, its managers have raised for its work 
as much as $10,000 ($9,864 50 up to Jan. i, 1890), and 



325 

its annual income from the same voluntary sources is over 
$i,ooo ($1,097 98 in 1889). 

Women's Auxiliary Societies within and without the 
State help with boxes of valuable and useful articles. The 
citizens of Charlotte have very generally shown their ap- 
preciation of the good work being done by giving it their 
sympathy and help. 

PRESENT PROPERTY AND MANAGEMENT. 

The management of the Home and Hospital was, in 
July, 1880, by a charter from the Legislature, placed in 
the hands of nine women, communicants of St. Peter's 
Church, with the Rector and Wardens as an Advisory 
Committee. 

The property is in the hands of the Vestry of St. Peter, s 
to hold in trust for the use of the Home and Hospital. 

By permission of the Managers' a building, designed for 
an Industrial School, was, in 1882, erected on the hospital 
lot by a member of the Parish as a Memorial to her two chil- 
dren. This building has since been given to the Hospital 
and moved up to it, and is used as part of the Hospital 
property. 

The property now consists of the lot and buildings, and 
is valued at $3,500, and is entirely free from debt. 

The Board, as at present constituted, consists of the fol- 
lowing persons : 

Mrs. Julia Fox, President ; Mrs. John Wilkes, Secretary 
and Treasurer; Miss Hattie Moore, Mrs. H. C. Jones, Mrs. 
E. A. Osborne, Mrs. T. R. Robertson, Mrs. R. J. Brevard, 
Mrs. T. S. Clarkson, Mrs. W. R. Taliaferro. 

ST. JOHN'S HOSPITAL, RALEIGH. 

The story of St. John's Hospital, in Raleigh, shows a 
like degree of faith in its inception, and a like persever- 
ance in bringing it to its present position of usefulness and 
honor. 

This Hospital now stands at the foot of Salisbury Street, 



326 

in the City of Raleigh. The building was formerly the 
mansion home of Governor Manly. Its appearance is that 
of a retired and comfortable home. 

The St. John's Guild purchased this property in 1882, 
March, 31, to which, in 1888, they added a vacant lot ad- 
joining so that the Hospital's real-estate consists now of 
I y^ acres of land in a very desirable part of the city, and 
conveniently located. The cost of the whole was $4,450, 
and is all paid for except $1,100. 

There are for patients two wards amply large for six or 
eight beds each, one of these is for males and the other for 
females. 

In 1887, ^^^ erected by Dr. R. H. Lewis along a broad 
side piazza, the ^ ^Nellie Battle Lewis Memorial Room,'' 
for poor sick women. 

The '^Messengers of Hope" Children in all parts of the 
State have contributed $1,825 ^^ ^^^^ endowment of the 
Bishop Atkinson Memorial Cot, and with this, permanent 
provision is made for a sick child. 

Every month, ten to fifteen patients, the majority of 
whom are too poor to contribute to their own support, find 
here a home, kind attention, skilful treatment, and spirit- 
ual consolation. The sick worthy poor of Wake County 
are admitted free of all charge. 

Six hundred and eighty-two persons have been re- 
cipients of the blessings of this Hospital. 

It is an institution in which not only the citizens of 
Raleigh, 1)ut of the whole State take pride, and it is 
liberally and cheerfully sustained by members of all com- 
munions. 

Yet this work began in 1878, (preliminary steps were 
taken in i<S77) in a little house with four rooms, fitted up 
at an expense of $100, and opened its doors with only 
$67 25 in its treasury. And the first matron served for 
her home and board. 

To the Rev. E. R. Rich, then Rector of the Church of 



2>^7 

the Good Shepherd, belongs the chief credit of starting 
this beneficent enterprise, and he was the first President 
of the Guild. 

MANAGEMENT. 

The Hospital is under the control of St. John's Guild, of 
which the Rev. M. M. Marshall, D. D., is President, the 
Rev. B. Smedes, Vice President, and the Rev. Wm. M. 
Clark is Chaplain of the Hospital. Its immediate man- 
agement is in the hands of the Hospital Committee, com- 
posed of five members of the Guild, together with the 
Chaplain, Matron and head nurse, and the five attending 
physicians, of whom Dr. P. E. Hines is the senior. 

The shares which the attending physicians have contri- 
buted to the good done by these hospitals, is beyond com- 
putation. Their services have been faithfully, cheerfully, 
and gratuitously given. Without their co-operation, the 
doctors, all such institutions are doomed to failure. But 
experience has shown that their assistance may with cer- 
tainty be relied on. 

Since 1878, $14,823 31 have been raised for the Hospital 
and it now has an annual income from voluntary sources 
of 'over ^2,000 ($2,214 15 in 1889). 

In both St. John's Hospital, in Raleigh, and St. Peter's, 
in Charlotte, members of all denominations, and those of 
no creed are, without distinction, cared for, and only a 
small proportion of the inmates have been Episcopalians. 
And not only have the diseased bodies had tender and skil- 
ful treatment, but souls to whom the love of Christ has 
been thus manifested, have been reached and comforted. 
* ^Instances are thankfully recorded when the ignorant, the 
irreligious and degraded have been led to a knowledge of 
the truth as it is in Jesus, and brought to confess Him before 
men, and to show forth the fruits of the Spirit in their 
daily lives." 

Others have had their pathway to the grave made easier, 



328 

and the chamber of death transformed into the gate of 
Paradise/' 

The oflScers of St. John's Guild are : 

President, Rev. M. M. Marshall, D. D. ; Vice President, 
Rev. Bennett Smedes ; Secretary, Mr. Hugh Morson ; 
Treasurer, Mr. A. P. Bryan. The Guild has thirty mem- 
bers at present. 

The Hospital Committee having immediate charge of 
the work is as follows : 

A. P. Bryan, Chas. E. Johnson, R. H. Battle, Wm. 
Woolcott, C. G. Latta. 

Rev. W. M. Clark is Chaplain ; Miss Maggie McLester 
is Matron ; Miss Jennie Coffin, Head Nurse. 

The attending Physicians are : Drs. P. E. Hines, James 
McKee, A. W. Knox, R. H. Lewis and K. P. Battle, Jr. 

The first officers of the Guild were : Rev. E. R. Rich. 
President ; Rev. M. M. Marshall, Vice President ; Dr. A. 
W. Knox, Secretary ; Mr. A. P. Br>'au, Treasurer ; Mr. 
Sherwood Haywood, Librarian. 

There were also heads of committees, or departments, 
which were formed for carrying on the work of the Guild. 

THE OOOD SAMARITAN HOSPITAL FOR NEGROES. • 

In the City of Charlotte, which is the centre of so msLny^" 
agencies for good, there is nearing completion a comforta^ 
ble brick building known as the Good Samaritan Hospital 
for Negroes. It was hardly to be expected that in thi^ 
work of mercy the wants of the most needy part of the^ 
population would be overlooked. This Hospital is the 
result of appeals made to clinrclimen and women at the 
North, and has thus far cost about ^2,500, and when fin- 
ished will accommodate 25 patients. 

The first appeal for funds was made in 1881, The cor- 
ner stone was laid by the Charlotte Clergy, with the col- 
ored Free Masons, Dec. 18, 1888. It is hoped that suffi- 



329 

cient progress will be made in finishing the interior to ad- 
mit patients in the fall. When completed and fnmished 
it will be an inestimable blessing to the bodies and souls 
of that class to whom sickness so often means death, for 
lack of ordinary attention to common sanitary precau- 
tions. 

May it prove indeed a Good Samaritan to all who seek 
its shelter, and may God's blessing rest upon every such 
effort for the relief of the sick and needy. 

$2,500 is needed to complete the plan. 

MANAGEMENT. 

The management is vested in a board of women, com- 
municants of St. Peter's Church, with the Rector and War- 
dens as Advisory Committee. The names of the present 
Managers are as follows : 

Mrs. John Wilkes, Mrs. Annie L. Lardner, Mrs. Wm. E. 
Holt, Mrs. Simons Clarkson, Mrs. Richard L. Jones, Mrs. 
Julia Fox. 

ORPHANAGES. 

THE THOMPSON ORPHANGE AND INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE. 

In the suburbs of Charlotte is beautifully situated what 
has been called the noblest charity of the Church in the 
Diocese of North Car<|lina. 

On a farm of seventy acres is a group of buildings 
of various sizes and material. And as you move in and 
out in your tour of investigation the bright faces of happy 
children greet you at every turn. Some are busy helping 
the farmer, some engaged in the laundry, and some in the 
kitchen. Others are found in the school room, others 
still on the play-ground. All are contented and happy. 
They are of all ages and sizes, and of both sexes, and they 
number thirty-nine. 

This- is the Thompson Orphanage and Industrial Insti- 
tute. 



330 

Within the past three years these children have been 
gathered together. From poor-houses, from poverty-strick- 
en homes, from neglect ; some of them from unwilling, or 
careless, or even from cruel protectors, these little waifs 
have been taken. They have been rescued in some in- 
stances from dens of infamy and vice. 

Now, cleanliness, kindness, gentleness, and above all, 
the pure atmosphere of Christ's religion and the light of 
God's love surround them, and Lo ! what a change ! in 
body, soul and spirit. 

When, on Easter Day last, ten of these children rever- 
ently knelt to receive their first communion, wonder and 
gratitude filled the hearts of the beholders. 

The Rev. Mr. Bronson, while Rector of St. Peter's 
Church, received from the widow and daughter of the 
late Lewis Thompson, Esq. , of Bertie county, the property 
now occupied by the Orphanage, and hence the name of 
Thompson Orphanage. This was added to by the people 
of Charlotte and persons at the North. 

The Rev. Mr. Bronson offered this property upon cer- 
tain conditions to the Diocesan Convention of 1886, '^tobe 
held by the church as an Orphanage and Industrial Insti- 
tution." His proposition was accepted by the Convention 
and a vote of thanks was extended him. 

The Rev. E. A. Osborne was, on August loth, the same 
year, elected Superintendent of the Orphanage. He im- 
mediately took measures to enlist the support and sympa- 
thy of the Church in the whole State, and especially in 
the Diocese of North Carolina. And before the assem- 
bling of the Convention in 1887 the Orphanage was openec3 
with a most competent lady as matron, with six children i 
charge. 

From the very first the Church has recognized in th 
Superintendent the rare combination of the many goocr^ 
qualities which are desirable in the head of such an insti- 
tution. His earnest and capable efforts have met with ^ 



331 

united and hearty response fiom the Diocese and State. 
Guilds, societies, associate managers went to work in va- 
rious parishes and systematic offerings were begun. 

The women of the Diocese, and branches of the Wo- 
man's Auxiliary elsewhere, have kept the institution sup- 
plied with all needful articles and clothing. The supplies 
in kind from all sources for one year alone were estimated 
at $i,ooo. 

For the first twenty months $4,212.92 were contributed 
for this work. In the twelve months following $5,001.63. 
(Journals 1888 and 1889.) 

A comfortable Superintendent's residence was built. 
Farming operations were organized and equipped, and the 
farm has proved profitable both financially and as a train- 
ing school for the children. 

There are now two departments, one for larger children 
called Thompson Hall and one for smaller called Bronson 
Hall. A matron has charge of each. A teacher for the 
older children, and a foreman for the farm, complete the 
corps of workers under the Superintendent. 

The property is valued at $10,000, and the expenses for 
the year just closed were $3,325.02, which were all met, 
and a balance of $700 is now in the treasury. 

Who can estimate the value of such a noble work ? To 
the Church people in the State it has been of great benefit 
in drawing them closer together in kindly phristian en- 
deavour for the destitute orphans of the State. To the 
orphans themselves it has been as * 4ife from the dead. ' ' 
Each child will moreover become a centre of continual 
good and a leaven be thus formed to leaven the whole 
lump of the class from which he came, and the good work 
will thus be indefinitely extended. 

The Thompson Orphanage is in the hands of a Board of 
Managers, of which the Bishop of North Carolina is ex 
officio chairman, elected by the Convention in accordance 
with th^ provisions of the deed of Rev. Mr. Bronson, Be- 



332 

sides the Bishop the board consists of three clergyinen and 
three laymen. (Journal N. C. 1886, p. 51.) The first 
meeting of the Board was held in Charlotte August 10th, 
1886, (Journal 1887, p. 34) when measures were taken to 
begin the work and the Rev. E. A. Osborne was elected 
Superintendent. The Board of Managers is at present 
composed of the following persons: 

The Rt. Rev. Theodore B. Lyman, D. D., ex officio 
member and president of the Board. 

The Rev. William R. Wetmore, Rev. Edwin A. Os- 
borne, Rev. Jos. Blount Cheshire, Jr., Mr. Baxter H. 
Moore, Mr. Wm. A. Smith, Mr. Wm. Alex. Hoke. 

ST. JAMES' HOME, WILMINGTON. 

I have reserved, for the last, the fnention of the work of 
St. James' Home, Wilmington, because the agency em- 
ployed in that work is sui generis^ in this State, and be- 
cause the wonderful success which, under God, has blessed 
the work, teaches lessons which ought not to be overlooked 
at this time. 

In 1867 a large dwelling house, the only building on 
one of the city squares was, together with the entire square, 
presented by Dr. A. J. DeRosset to St. James' Church, to 
be used for charitable and religious purposes. A day 
school and Sunday school were here successfully taught,, 
for ten years, by ladies of the parish. 

In 1878, with the consent and co-operation of Bishop At- 
kinson, workers from the Sisterhood of the Good Shepherd 
were sent by the Bishop of New York, who organized this 
Sisterhood in 1869, ^^^ object being '^to minister to the 
poor, the sick, the homeless, and the outcast, and to care 
for little children. ' ' 

A lady who had been for some time in the work at ther 
school was made a ' Trobationer' ' of the Sisterhood and ii»- 
1878 she, with a full Sister, were sent to the work in Wil- 
mington. 



333 

Under the Sisterhood the school flourished and grew. 
To accommodate the work, additions were made to the 
bnilding, first a large room and school room, to which was 
added, in 1882, another school room. 

In 1880, as many as four members of the Sisterhood were 
engaged in the Home, in which year a lady of North Car- 
olina was received by Bishop Atkinson, in St. James' 
Church, a full Sister, (Feb. 22,) and she is the present head 
of the Home. Dr. Watson, then rector of St. James' 
Parish, says in one of his annual reports: **The work of 
St. James' Home Mission has gone on as usual, but we 
think with increased success, three members of the Sister- 
hood of the Good Shepherd having charge of it. Since 
their coming we have had perpetual reason to be thankful 
that in God's Providence this arrangement was made pos- 
sible." 

At one time the day school numbered 135, and the Sun- 
day school 193 pupils, all of the poorest class. The chil- 
dren of the poor have thus been taken into the arms of the 
*'Home," and **trained for their work on earth and their 
home in heaven." 

**Its instruction has been entirely free. It has not aimed 
at teaching the higher branches or accomplishments, 
but only the plainer and more necessary parts of a sound 
English education." Since its beginning nearly a thousand 
children have received their entire education from the 
^^Home." 

Along with its intellectual has gone its moral and re- 
ligious training, inculcating the principles of religion as un- 
derstood by our Church. 

It has in addition done, and is still doing, the great work 
of an associate lay mission. The poor, the sick, and the 
penitent have been visited in their homes. 

This house to house visiting is a most important part of 
the work. In one month alone, when there was an un- 
usual amount of sickness, 235 visits were made. 



334 

Cottage readings are held at the houses of the poor. 

In addition to this outer missionary work, industrial 
training is given in the *'Home'' itself. A large sewing 
class has been successfully taught, and many girls not only 
made capable of doing their own sewing, but of filling 
places where skilled needlework was demanded. A cook- 
ing school, together with training for the dining room and 
for general house work has been a source of great benefit 
Night schools have been taught. 

Nor have the boys been neglected. More than forty 
have been given lessons in wood-carving by the Sisters— 
whose own multifarious accomplishments seem marvelous 
— and who have been rewarded by seeing many of the boys 
attain proficiency and skill in carving wood. 

The full work of a '^Home,'' strictly speaking, has not 
yet been entered upon, but much has been done from time 
to time. For one winter and spring a day nursery was 
opened by the Sisters, where the working mothers could 
leave their little ones in tender and careful keeping, and 
go about their work of gaining a livelihood. The '*Home" 
has also been a refuge for the aged, the sick, the dying, 
for penitents and orphans. The rescue of the fallen, and 
of those anxious to escape lives of temptation, has been a 
blessed part of the Sisters' efforts. 

No little hospital work has been done at the **Home. '' The 
late Dr. W. G. Thomas who was chairman of the Home 
Committee will be greatly missed in this, as in all other 
work of the institution. 

The spiritual fruits are gratifying and abundant. 

Within the last five years io6 children and adults have 
been baptized and 56 confirmed, and it is safe to assume 
that in the twelve years of its existence 250 to 300 have 
been admitted into the ark of Christ's Church, and 150 
to 200 confirmed. . During the year following Dr. Wat- 
son's consecration to the Episcopate, when there was only 
a rector pro tem,^ the work increased, and at the end of the 



335 

year 40 were baptized and 21 presented for confirmation. 
In that part of the city, where the ''Home'' is located, the 
whole moral tone has been raised and even the appearance 
noticeably improved. 

MANAGEMENT. 

This ''Home" is a part of the work of the parish of St. 
James, from which it draws its entire support. The rector 
is its head, the Bishop's consent to the employment of the 
Sisters being requisite, and this has always been cheerfully 
given. A sister and visitor at present reside in the ' 'Home, ' ' 
and with them is associated a teacher from the parish. 

The cost of maintaining the work is a little under $1,000 
per annum. The property is valued at $6,000. 

Bishop Watson, in more than one of his Episcopal ad- 
dresses pays a just tribute to this work, noticing especially 
its strict 'subordination "to the rector in his parish and to 
the Bishop in his Diocese," and its freedom from "wilful 
peculiarities which so often mar work undertaken by simi- 
lar organizations." He says, "If the parish of St. James 
were not a part of itself, the Diocese might almost envy 
that parish its possession of such an agency." 

We may well pause to ask ourselves whether it is not 
possible, in our State, to extend the services of women, spe- 
cially separated unto God from the ordinary life, to do the 
work of the Church. 

It goes without saying, that a devoted woman is gifted 
by God for a work among the sick, the degraded, the or- 
phans, which she alone can do. It is hers, also, to mani- 
fest in a peculiar manner the compassionate side of our 
L/ORd's character. To use the forcible expression of the 
late Bishop Lightfoot, the Church that neg;lects her devo- 
voted service is ''^maimed in one of her hands.'*'* The 
General Convention has since 1871, "recognized the tested 
value of organizations of Christian women in prosecuting 
the work of the Church." Notably, in the last General 



336 

Convention, the primitive and scriptural order of Deaconess 
was given special recognition. If men consecrate them- 
selves wholly to the ministry, why should it surprise any 
one when a woman consecrates herself wholly to that work 
which she alone is fitted to do ? 

The great army of women in the Church who are called 
by Providence to what should always be considered the 
paramount duties, of wives and mothers, daughters and 
sisters, or whose spheres of work are otherwise pointed out 
by circumstances, are, in addition to these duties, accom- 
plishing a vast amount of work for the bodies and souls of 
men. Not to supersede their work, but to render it a 
hundred fold more effective, we need women, who, freed 
from the calls of society and the cares of the family, can 
give themselves wholly to the work, women specially 
trained, technically and spiritually. Women who can go 
and live as poor among the poor. 

And behind them, they need the prestige and the power, 
which come from a recognized office. Their separation, 
like the office of a clergyman, tells directly upon their 
work, giving it a distinctly religious character. 

All of these advantages are obtainable both in Sister- 
hoods and in the office of Deaconess. 

It cannot be denied that special advantages, both to the 
work and the worker, are found in the associated life. As- 
sociated and organized work, such as that of Sisterhoods or 
Associations of Deaconesses, has ' 'the strength of a trades- 
union with the perpetuity of a company." 

New workers are here trained and the work continued. 
^'Unsystematic, isolated efforts can never succeed like or- 



ganization. 



> ) 



Again from association come mutual sympathy and 
help to support and guide the worker. And together with 
united labor goes the strength of united prayer. 

When such oro:anizations of women are in strict subor- 



337 

dination to the Bishop, and the rector of the parish where 
they work, they are capable of untold good. 

ASSOCIATK MISSIONS. 

Whatever we may think of the strange ideas and prac- 
tices which Bishop Ives engrafted on to the associate work 
which he established at Valle Crncis, his conception that 
this was the most practical and efficient way to reach the 
scattered popnlations of the mountains w^as fully justified 
in the results, which remain ev^en to this day. 

It was Bishop Atkinson's purpose to establish a work at 
Ravenscroft on this same principle of associate life and work. 
And it is hoped that his design will one day be fully car- 
ried out. 

The weak missions of the Kast call aloud for some such 
agency to strengthen and supplement the faithful and scat- 
tered labors of the devoted missionaries now working in 
that field. 

CONCLUSION. 

To the work of God both in city and in country the first 
need is self-sacrifice and self-devotion on the part both of 
men and women. We need women, set apart, trained, 
devoted, call them Sisters or Deaconesses, or matrons, or 
nurses, or simply church-workers, working singly if need 
be or in organized life, who will be ready at the call of 
Bishop or Pastor to preach Christ by deeds of mercy and 
love. Crowds of illiterate children, both black and white, 
call for their work in schools and in Homes. The or- 
phans of the poor need their motherly attention. The 
sick silently plead for their tender ministries in humble 
homes and in hospitals, which ought to be established in 
all the larger towns of North Carolina. The prisoners 
wait to be visited. 

Dens of vice cry aloud for houses of mercy where the 
penitent can find a refuge from temptation. 



338 

And all such works claim liberal support and endowment 
from those whom God has blessed with means. **Blessed 
be the man that provideth for the sick and needy.'' 

On the mountains and in the level country the hungry 
and scattered sheep await the care of shepherds, who can 
go with little else besides their staff in their hand, and shod 
with the preparation of the Gospel of pe^ce, to preach to 
the poor and the unknown. 

Work on this forbidding material will not be in vain. 
We may well apply to all effort for the helpless and de- 
graded, the illustration which Cannon Farrar recently used 
with reference to the degraded and neglected parts of Eng- 
lish cities. In moving in the lower House of the Convo- 
cation of Canterbury the adoption of a resolution, '*That 
in the opinion of the House the time has come when the 
Church can with advantage avail herself of the voluntary 
self-devotion of brotherhoods, both clerical and lay, the 
members of which are willing to labor in the service of the 
Church without appealing for funds to any form of public 
support, '' he closed his speech with these words: '*Let us 
learn the parable from nature which a great living writer 
has pointed for us. Take the blackest mire of the city 
streets, of what is it composed ? Of clay and sand and 
soot, all mingled in dire confusion and degradation. But 
under better conditions the degradation can be repaired, 
and the clay becomes, first^ porcelam and then a sapphire; 
and the sand be transformed into an opal^ and the water 
into a drop of dczv^ or a star of snozv^ or a translucent 
crystal^ and the soot into a diamond such as 

On the forehead of a queen, 
Trembles with dewy light. 

And let us not despair that a transformation yet more 
glorious may be wrought on human souls now thwarted 
and blackened by the fraud and malice of the devil, when 
through the agency of those whom faith inspires, they are 



339 

subjected to the divine alchemy of the Holy Spirit of 
God/' 

Many souls in North Carolina, like the costly stones and 
precious metals hidden beneath her soil wait to be gathered 
and to be purified and polished and brought to adorn the 
bride the Church of God at the marriage supper of the 
Lamb. 

Who is willing to consecrate himself to this work ? 



XI. 
THE CHURCH IN NORTH CAROLINA: ITS PRES- 
ENT CONDITION AND PROSPECTS. 

BY THE REV. MATTHIAS M. MARSHALL, D. D. 

It was Virginia's Revolutionary patriot and orator — 
Patrick Henry — I believe, who said that **he had no way 
of judging the future except by the past;'' and in so say- 
ing he gave expression to a very profound principle of 
philosophy and of history. And this principle applies gen- 
erally. Even in the matter before us, it is impossible to 
form anything like a just estimate of the present **condi- 
tion and prospects" of the Church in this State without 
some reference to certain data in the past which may serve 
to indicate its growth up to this time and its outlook for 
the future. 

Just a hundred years ago (June 5th, 1790,) and in this 
hospitable old borough, ^^the first Convention of Church- 
men ever held in North Carolina," was composed of only 
two Clerg>'men and two Laymen. 

Four years later, (May 28th, 1794), and in this same old 
town, five Clergymen and eight Laymen constituting, with 
the Bishop elect, the Convention then and there assem- 
bled, signed the testimonials of the Rev. Charles Petti- 
grew. Mr. Pettigrew was never consecrated, and the Dio- 
cese of North Carolina was not actually organized till 23 
years later; its organization having been actually effected 
by the Convention of 1817, which was held in Newbern on 
the 24tli of April of that year. 

The records up to this time are very scant, but, from 



342 

such statistics as we have, it appears that during this period 
of more than a quarter of a century, as in the Province of 
North Carolina in colonial days and after the Revolution, 
the Church not only made no progress but actually lost 
ground. For whereas Mr. Pettigrew's testimonials were 
signed (in 1794) by five Clergymen and eight Laymen, at 
this Convention of 181 7 — twenty-three years later — the 
Constitution of the Diocese then ^^unanimously adopted 
and signed, ' ' to quote the words of the minutes, had ap- 
pended to it the names of only three Clergymen and five 
Lay delegates. But at this Convention (of 1817), when the 
Diocese was organized, Bishop Richard Channing Moore, 
6f Virginia, was * invited to visit and perform the Episco- 
pal offices in this State.'' This he did for several years; 
and from this time on to the present, the annual journals 
of the Convention are uninterrupted and the growth of the 
Church is seen to have been steady and sure. 

When Bishop Ravenscroft in 1823 (six years later) took 
charge of the Diocese there were reported 480 communi- 
cants, seven clergy and 200 baptisms (for that year) in the 
State. His salary — it may be of interest to note — was 
^^fixed at $750, to be paid semi-annually" and exclusive 
of what he might receive as the rector of Christ's Church, 
Raleigh. 

Bishop Ravenscroft died on the 5th of March, r83o, and 
was succeeded by Bishop Ives in 1831, who found in the 
Diocese fifteen clergy and eight hundred and nine com- 
municants. 

During the 21 years of Bishop Ives' Episcopate, not- 
withstanding the troubles of the last few years of this time, 
incident to his vacillating course and subsequent defection, 
(Dec. 22d, 1852), the number of clergy increased from 15 
to 40 and the communicants from 809 to over 2,000. 

Bishop Atkinson was consecrated on the i8th of October, 
1853, and began his work as Bishop of the Diocese the 
following month. 



343 

Twenty years later (May 30th, 1873), the Bishop's health 
having become impaired and the care of so extensive a 
Diocese being manifestly too much for any one man, how- 
ever vigorous, as he often said, Bishop Ivyman was chosen 
Assistant Bishop of the Diocese, and shared with his senior 
the enerous duties of the Episcopate till 1881, when on the 
death of Bishop Atkinson (Jan. 4) he became the Bishop 
of the Diocese. 

During the 20 years of Bishop Atkinson's sole Episco- 
pate, notwithstanding the disastrous effects of four years of 
civil war, the clergy had increased to 50 and the commu- 
nicants to 3,742 while the reported contributions for this 
year (1873) were over $55,000, ($55>38i.58.) 

In the next decade 1873-1883, or from the consecration 
of Bishop Lyman to the division of the Diocese, during 
eight of which ten years the State had the services of two 
Bishops, the number of the clergy increased from 50 to 76, 
the communicants from 3,742 to 5,889 and the annual con- 
tributions from $55,381.58 to $61,817.69. 

And in the last seven years, or from the division of the 
Diocese to this time, the whole number of the clergy in 
the State has gone up from 76 to 85 and the communicants 
from 5,889 to 7,500 (about 4,400 in the Diocese of North 
Carolina and 3, 100 in East Carolina). 

It is impossible, owing to the varied character of the re- 
ports of the Committees on the State of the Church and 
the irregularities of the parochial reports, to calculate with 
even approximate accuracy the average ratio of Church 
growth year by year; but during the Conventional year 
which has just closed there lacked only 93 of being as 
many confirmations in the present Diocese of North Caro- 
lina alone as there were in the whole State in 1883. That 
year there were reported in the undivided Diocese 513, this 
year in both Dioceses 639, (420 in North Carolina and 219 
in East Carolina). In 1883 only three Churches were con- 
secrated in the State; this year there have been eleven (6 



344 

in North Carolina and 5 in East Carolina), while in East 
Carolina alone not less than 42 lay readers have been li- 
censed. 

In 1883 there were only 108 parishes and mission sta- 
tions in the whole State; now there are 165, (100 in North 
Carolina and 65 in East Carolina) an increase of over 52 per 
cent since the Diocese was divided. 

If these and other like statistics that might be added, 
carefully compiled from onr Journals, and from other sources 
that have been accessible only in the last day or two, do 
not conclusivelv show that much more has been accom- 
plished in this large State under two Bishops than under 
one, and do not triumphantly vindicate the policy of di- 
vision inaugurated seven years ago, then Mathematics has 
ceased to be an exact science and figures mean nothing. 
And this testimony is made much more emphatic when W2 
reflect that, in a State almost wholly agricultural, we have 
had, in immediate succession, four most disastrous crop 
years. And yet in the Diocese of North Carolina our effi- 
cient Treasurer, to whose indefatigable efforts and faith- 
fuhicss, I am ])crsuadcd, we are largely indebted for such' 
a satisfactory state of tilings, reports very considerable bal- 
ances to tlie credit of every fund in account with the 
Diocese; in a year, too, when we have had less than half the 
usual income from the Marv Smith leracv for Diocesan 
Missions, when the expenses of the Deputies to the Gen- 
eral Convention were paid, and when our faithful Mission- 
aries have received increased stipends; while in East Caro- 
lina, where the crop failures have been even more generally 
and seriously felt, the same state of things exists, though in 
somewhat less ])roportion. 

'I'he Committee on the vState of the Church of this 
Diocese (East Carolina) has just said to its Council: ^^Most 
clieerinj^ evidences of the zeal of the laitv in extendintr the 
Kini^doni of FIea\'en are found in the amount and nature 
of the contributions as compared with those reported a vear 



345 
^gQ * * * /jAjjg aggregate amount given for Diocesan 
purposes being an increase of $670. 52 over last year. Your 
Committee note with peculiar pleasure the unprecedented 
amount contributed for Missions in our own Diocese, which 
aggregates from all sources $1,970.03, an increase of 
$1,041.58.'' 

**On the whole your Committee believe that the signs 
for growth along all the lines of the Church's work call for 
gratitude for the tokens of Divine favor in the past, and 
encourage us to *go forward' in the name of the Lord." 

The same committee — that on the State of the Church 
— of this Diocese of North Carolina have also just reported 
''that having reviewed the parochial reports and other pa- 
pers placed in their hands they find ample ground for 
thankfulness and encouragement in the evident indications 
of the Divine blessing on the work of the Diocese every 
where prevailing." 

And there are other things to be considered, in estima- 
ting the present condition of the Church in the State, whose 
importance, I believe, is often underestimated. 

We have at Asheville, in Charlotte, at Raleigh, in Wil- 
mington, at Chocowinity and elsewhere in the State, 
Schools, Institutes, Missions, Homes, Hospitals, Guilds, 
Brotherhoods and other churchly and charitable institu- 
tions on good foundations and of high character; of quiet 
and sure growth and of constantly increasing usefulness 
whose good work no statistics can adequately measure or 
forecast. So that while we are still weak, as compared 
with many of the populous and wealthy Dioceses in the 
North and West, yet the growth of the Church, especially 
of late years, and its present condition in the State, is full 
of encouragement. The character of the people among 
whom we live and labor, than whom none are more indus- 
trious, law-abiding, generous and kind, should encourage 
us; and the condition and manifest future of the State 
should especially encourage us. No more genial, health- 



346 

fill and delightful climate is to be found on this continent 
than North Carolina has the year round. Everything— 
it is scarcely too much to say — combines to invite immi- 
gration of the highest character, and capital. Not one of 
the original thirteen States has a more honorable record. 
No where else in the same area of territory can there be 
found such varied resources and possibilities whether for 
agriculture, or manufacturing, or mining, or what not, as 
North Carolina abounds in. As has been often said, no 
other of the 42 States fills up the census blanks as North 
Carolina does. Already, as the secular papers daily re- 
mind us, the old Old North State is waking up as never 
before. Her many attractions and advantages are becom- 
ing year by year better known ; and the census to be taken 
next month will probably show her population to be little 
less than a million and a half. Manufactories and other 
industries are springing up in every quarter, not a few of 
them with invested capital of such proportion as to promise 
pennanency, large profits and regular employment to in- 
dustrious multitudes. To take but a single illustration — 
in 1883 there were but sixty cotton factories in the State. 
In the last seven years these figures have been doubled. 
To-day there are one hundred and twenty. There are 
very few towns and villages in the State that do not show 
unmistakable evidences of marked growth and improve- 
ment, especially in the last ten or fifteen years. Railroads 
are being built and extended in every direction, and every- 
where evidences abound of our increasing prosperity as a 
people. These things mean encouragement certainly, in 
our work for Christ and His Church, but they also remind 
us of increased and increasing opportunities for good, and 
consequent responsibilities. Then besides these attrac- 
tions of this peculiarly highly favored region as a State so 
well calculated to bring to us co-laborers, there is a feature 
of the Church in our two Dioceses that is even more invit- 
ing. I mean the entire absence of any thing like party 



347 

spirit. No Diocese in the country can boast of greater 
harmony or of more sincere, cordial and even affectionate 
relations and co-operation than that which has always 
characterized the clergy and people of the Church in North 
Carolina. We want more clergy, more laborers in a field 
so full of promise and ripe to the harvest, but to this end, 
I respectfully submit, we need still another organized cen- 
tre of Diocesan life and influence and work. God forbid 
that I should utter a discordant syllable to disturb, by how- 
ever little, the harmony of this centennial celebration, but 
I stand before you not of my free choice, nor was I con- 
sulted about the topic assigned me for discussion, and I 
shall not be false to my convictions. The time is perhaps 
not yet, but if the issue were presented — the necessary con- 
sent of the Bishop having been obtained — I should esteem 
it a privilege to vote to-morrow to divide the present Dio- 
cese of North Carolina, making three in the State of about 
equal territorial extent. The hope and belief that this 
would be done some day, I need scarcely remind many of 
you, was the chief consideration that reconciled the friends 
of division, seven years ago, to the present line that so un- 
equally apportions the area of the State between East and 
North Carolina. The Church will never be at all ade- 
quately equipped for the great work that lies before it, 
clamoring to be done — if I may so say — in this magnifi- 
cent and extensive Commonwealth, till we have the See and 
Bishop of Asheville, of Raleigh and of Wilmington, three 
Dioceses, constituting — according to primitive principle and 
practice— the Province of North Carolina. 

Any one who has looked in on the proceedings of our 
General Convention during either of its last three or four 
sessions can scarcely fail to have observed this more and 
more marked trend of thought, not to say of growing con- 
viction, towards the Provincial system as a necessity for the 
Church in this country. 

Aside from its being confessedly Catholic and primitive. 



348 

our rapidly increasing population as a nation and our 
growth as a Church seem absolutely to demand its 
adoption. 

In a country with a population already numbering over 
fifty millions and rapidly increasing, and in a Church with 
more than 4,000 clergy and about a half million commu- 
nicants, is it any wonder that our General Convention is 
becoming at every session more and more unwieldly as 
Dioceses multiply, (we have already 64 Dioceses and Mis- 
sionary jurisdictions) and that thorough discussion and leg- 
islation upon any matter brought before it, however im- 
portant, should be, session after session, more and more 
difficult ?'' 

To adopt the Provincial system would be to solve many 
practical difficulties in our Church polity and legislation, 
that are now only increasing with our growth. If to the 
Provincial Synod were relegated much of the legislation 
that now goes to General Convention, and is there necessa- 
rily less advisedly considered (as being of local nature) 
than it would be in a smaller body nearer home, then the 
General Convention need meet less frequently, and could 
accomplish much more when it did meet, being relieved 
of unnecessary burdens, and so too might the number of 
its deputies be reduced, making the Province the unit of 
representation, without infringing upon the rights of the 
Dioceses constituting the Province. 

The demand for ])roportionate representation in our 
General Convention is heard at every triennial session with 
augmented force and earnestness, and it will continue to 
be heard; and I believe that the smaller and weaker Dio- 
ceses at the South, and elsewhere, are in danger of being 
dominated l)y the larger and more populous Dioceses of 
the North and West, unless some such relief,as the Provin- 
cial system would afford, is secured. Nor is this proposed 
remedy, for these and such like practical and increasing 
difficulties that the Church must needs encounter, as it 



349 

grows in a vast country like this, anything new or untried. 
Several of our Dioceses — notably that of Central New 
York — are moving in the matter. One of the standing 
Joint Committees of the General Convention, composed of 
the Presiding Bishop and fourteen other of our most learned 
Bishops, Priests and Laymen, is a Committee on the Pro- 
vincial System distinctively. Our Canons already author- 
ize the formation of a Federate Council of the Dioceses 
within any State, which is a long step in the right direc- 
tion, and Illinois with its three Dioceses has already be- 
come a Province, name and thing, with its Provincial 
Synod and Court of Appeal. And this is another cry that 
becomes louder year by year in the Church, this righteous 
demand for a Court of Appeal, a right and privilege that 
every citizen in this broad land enjoys, except a Clergyman 
of this Church — as a clergyman. The Provincial Synod, 
constituting such a court, is confessedly the best solution 
of this vexed question also. 

But granting the importance of all these things, admit- 
ting the greatly increased efficiency (which I suppose 
hardly any one would question) that would be given to the 
work and growth of the Church in this State by the setting 
off from the present Diocese of North Carolina of still an- 
other Diocese in the West, and surely all that magnificent 
and rapidly developing mountain region^ for miles and 
miles around, of which Asheville is the centre, is as much 
as any one Bishop however active or vigorous could pos- 
sibly oversee: admitting, I say, the force of these and many 
other like considerations and advantages, there will be 
heard of course the usual objection that is ever ready to be 
thrown in the way of all proposed progress and growth in 
Church or State, in things material as well as in things 
spiritual — Where is the money coming from? 

It is the same old cry that we have heard from the first 
and will hear to the end. 

In the very first history that we have of the Christian 



350 

Church, in the Book of the Acts, we read of a certain 
Ananias with Sapphira his wife ** who sold a possession 
and kept back part of the price, ' ' and their covetousness 
was unmasked. They were neither able to deceive God, 
nor excuse themselves by pleading their exclusive right of 
ownership to what they held onl}- in trust. And so there 
have been such obstacles in the way of every good work 
ever since. Counterparts of these two covetous, whom the 
lyord abhorreth, alas! are to be found the world over and 
in every age and enterprise. 

But thank God, they may stop neither the progress of 
the world nor of the Church of God. 

If all the fourteen Southern States were consolidated 
into one Diocese, with but one Bishop to support, does any 
body think for an instant that the people of the various 
parishes in those States would give any more to the sup- 
port of their respective ministers or for Missions, or for 
any other Church or charitable object than they do now? 
Would exemption from the necessity of supporting in each 
separate State or Diocese their own Bishop, make them 
either more able or willing to give to other things? Have 
we not reason to believe that directly the contrary would 
be the result. What costs us nothing, we value accord- 
ingly. It is an axiom that within reasonable limits, the 
more you require of men the more they will do; and the 
less that is required tlie less will be done. 

I have attended (with only two exceptions I think) every 
Convention of the Diocese of North Carolina for the last 
29 years, and on every such occasion — I think I may safely 
say — I have never failed to hear something, generally a 
good deal, about the general pecuniary pressure, hard 
times, and the impossibility of doing this, that or the other 
necessary thin^: for want of the money. 

But some how or other, many of those necessary things 
as they seemed to us were done just the same, and the 
Church has gone on and grown and prospered, and God 



35^ 

has taken care of His own and zvill^ we may be sure, to 
the end. He will be no man^s debtor. Nor can we im- 
prove on his methods — a truth that we, in our self- 
sufficiency, seem slow to learn. 

We want especially for the Church in this State, it is 
true. Missionaries and Missions, and Missionary activity 
and zeal and they and theirs must be fed and clothed. 

But what is God's plan? Who were the first Mission- 
aries ? Were they not the Apostles themselves ? Were 
they not first sent forth as the leaders and pioneers to make 
disciples of all nations ? Were they required to hold them- 
selves in reserve till a company large or small of elders 
and deacons were gathered about them ? Were they not 
themselves sent forth to seek such out and ordain them 
and set things in order ? Still less did they wait for en- 
dowments or certain guarantees of assured support. On 
the contrary the command was: ^Trovide neither purse 
nor scrip" — *'the laborer is worthy of his hire," and from 
that day to this that promise has never failed, and it never 
will — for it is of God. 

It were nothing less than a libel on our Bishops to say 
that they are unwilling to n^ake the same sacrifices, to nin 
the same risks — as the world would say — but in reality to 
trust to God's providence and promises to take care of his 
own, in the same way that they expect their Clergy to do. 

A more active, laborious and self-denying body of men 
does not exist than the Bishops of the American Church, 
and they were never in labors more abundant than now. 

Never in this State in any year has there been reported 
such a measure of service on the part of our Bishops — so 
many sermons and addresses and visitations, or so many 
confirmations, ordinations and consecrations of Churches as 
has just been reported to the two Conventions just risen. 

Our Bishops as a class are ever ready to spend and be 
spent and no Diocese however small or poor, has ever 
failed to find some one to share its trials and labors and 



352 

joys as its Bishop and leader in the work for Christ and 
His Church. 

This plea of poverty will not hold, at least till we show 
more signs of self-denial in our luxuries and apparel and 
amusements, etc. 

We make much less of it in our other relations. 

We do not wait for endowments nor an accumulation of 
capital for the purpose when we want to improve the city 
or town in which we live with water works, a sewer sys- 
tem, gas or electricity, paved streets and street cars. We 
are satisfied to bear regularly and continously our share of 
the burden of necessary taxation, and good and growth 
and prosperity follow, and we are wise and content. 

But in spite of this far too common and unworthy plea 
of poverty heard the world over, and in every age when 
the self-denying precepts of Christianity are urged, the 
Church even in our midst has felt the impetus of the gen- 
eral revival of late years. 

Time was — and not long since — when our Churches 
were closed from Sunday to Sunday and many of them 
from month to month: when the Holy Communion was 
administered but three or four times a year and week-day 
services were almost unknown: when our Bishops were 
hauled about over the State in lumbering coaches and 
looked upon chiefly as distinguished Dignitaries of im- 
posing presence and appearance in their robes of office and 
interesting to see and hear at long intervals, but with little 
appreciation of their true mission as their chief pastors, 
guides and spiritual fathers of the people of their charge. 

But what a change has the last quarter or half century 
witnessed ! The dust and cobwebs have been removed. 
Church buildings unused from Sunday to Sunday or from 
month to month resound with the prayers and praises of 
frequent week-day services. Vested choirs and choristers, 
bright and airy buildings, churchly and cheery music, 
beautiful altars adorned and redolent with the sweet fra- 



353 

grance of flowers, these and other like improved appoint- 
ments for a more hearty, devout and enjoyable worship 
have very generally taken the place of the dreary drone 
and perfunctory services that were too common in other 
days. 

Above all, it is a matter of gratification and thanks- 
giving that free and open seats in God's House of Prayer 
''for all people" are so generally taking the place of rented 
or owned pews. According to last year's report of the 
''Free and Open Church Association'' more than 75 per 
cent, of all our Churches in this country are now free: and 
this percentage is increasing every year. 

In the Diocese of North Carolina, all are repoited free 
but one: In East Carolina all but nine, while in Fond du 
Lac and Florida all are free. 

The time is not far distant — as I verily believe — when 
no Christian man anywhere will dare claim any right of 
personal property in God'vS House of Prayer for all people. 
For — as it is expressed in the report just referred to — "The 
entire practice of reserved rights in the house of God is 
utterly foreign to the letter and spirit of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ. It is based upon selfishness and the desire 
for one's comfort and convenience. It is not suflScient 
that the pew-holder be courteous and allow the stranger to 
sit in his pew. If it be a Church and not a Club House, 
it is the latter' s pew as much as his, and he asks not for 
courtesy, but his right. 

The Gospel of Jesus Christ cannot be truly preached 
until the rich man be made to realize that in the Church of 
God he has no more right than the man without a dollar, 
or until the poor man realizes as he treads the floor of 
God's temple that there, as having a soul for which 
Christ died, he is the peer of the richest of his brethren." 

But not only is the Church of to-day and in our midst 
discarding the buckram and starch that in years gone by 
so hampered and restrained her growth ; not only is she no 



354 

longer content to be chiefly respectable and cultured, dig- 
nified and dull, but the signs of the times seem to point to 
her especially as the chief conservative stay and hope of 
this country. Her distinctive principles and polity are 
attracting attention now as never before; and the reason is 
obvious. 

When men substitute for the Apostles' Creed, Confes- 
sions of faith elaborately drawn out in dogma and doctrine 
— the work of men's minds — they will continue to find 
from time to time that these statements of doctrine need 
to be changed to conform to the progressive Christian 
enlightenment of the age. How different the way of the 
Church in setting forth the faith once for all "delivered 
unto the Saints," in requiring belief only in the Apostles' 
Creed in its time-honored simplicity and beauty, and 
mainly a recitation of facts about which all Christians are 
agreed. Is it any wonder that a Church of such manifest 
Catholicity — numbering among her clergy such men as 
Morgan Dix and Phillips Brooks, the Bishop of Springfield 
and the Bishop of Virginia, should offer to Christians of 
this land confessedly the most reasonable and probable 
basis of organic Church unity; and that the religious 
world should be looking to her with an earnestness, and 
anxiety and hopefulness never before known in her history ? 
What means the application for orders in the Church of 
such men as Dr. Childs, the distinguished Presbyterian 
Minister of Washington City, a few weeks ago, or of the 
scarcely less distinguished and learned Dr. Quinn, of 
Helena, Montana, who made a similar application to 
Bishop Brewer only last week ? And such cases, we know 
are constantly occurring. Indeed ploding along in our 
busy way, and occupied with our own Diocesan duties, we 
have little conception of the marvellous growth of the 
Church in this country in the last half or three-quarters of 
a Century. 

Take as an illustration these few facts from the March 



355 

number of the Spirit of Missions, as given recently by the 
Rev. William Wilkinson, of Minneapolis, to a Church 
meeting in Boston : 

''The lessons of history have for us been written in vain 
if they do not produce profound gratitude on the one hand 
for the wonderful past, and on the other incite us to noble 
resolve that by grace the future shall be yet more glorious. 
In the year 1820 there were only 321 clergymen in our 
Church in the whole United States and Territories of 
America. To-day there are 4,060, an increase of 1,266 per 
cent, in sixty-nine years. In the year 1830 the population 
was nearly 13,000,000 souls, and the Church had less than 
40,000 communicants. To-day, in the State of New York 
alone, with 5,000,000 people, the Church has 114,500 com- 
municants; while twenty-two states have been added to the 
Union, the Church has created sixty-four Dioceses and 
Missionary jurisdictions; and in the time in which the 
population has increased fivefold the membership of the 
Church has increased twelvefold. About seventy years 
ago our proportion was one in 416 of the population. To- 
day we are one in 151. The boy knows his Cr^ed who, if 
the ratio of increase is kept up which has existed since 
1820, will see in our Church 50,700 clergymen, with 
5,000,000 comminiicants. This takes no note of all the 
institutions of philanthropy, the colleges, theological sem- 
inaries and other means of blessing men; but it calls upon 
lis to prepare for the future by endowing schools and 
churches. The people come like a flood, and if true to 
our Master there is a future for the Church in this land 
more blessed than the most optimistic among us can antici- 
pate. ' ' 

And what is here said ''for the Church in this land,'' as 
a whole, is true also in its measure for the Church in this 
State. 

lyCt us thank God and take courage. As with this 
joint celebration, we enter upon the second century of our 



356 

recognized existence as a Church in this highly favored 
region of such vast possibilities and promise of prosperity, 
let us seek with renewed activity to put ourselves more in 
line with the progressive spirit of the age. 

Let us seek to realize and appreciate the more our 
special and increasing opportunities, privileges and respon- 
sibilities. 

This far too common over-anxiety about the morrow— 
**what we shall eat, or what we shall drink, or where- 
withal we shall be clothed,'' is unworthy of us and of our 
heritage and prospects as a Church and as a people in this 
grand old Commonwealth. 

To endeavor earnestly to do the duty that lies next 
before us — trusting implicitly in God's methods and God's 
promises — this it is ours to do, and to bear and suffer, if 
need be. Results and consequences are with God. 

And as in the past, so for the future we may with con- 
fident assurance trust Him and love Him and 'Upraise Him 
for His goodness and declare the wonders that He doeth 
for the children of men." 

"CiOD'vS time with patient faith expect, 
jf * ^ * ^ * Jq thou thy part 

And leave to Him the rest." 



XII. 
THE DUTY OF THE CHURCH WITH REFER- 
ENCE TO UNITY AMONG CHRISTIANS.* 

BY THE REV. FRANCIS J. MURDOCH, L. L. D. 

In trying to handle the subject assigned to me, I will 
first, at some length, discuss the peculiarities both of the 
situation and nature of our Church, and then briefly point 
out the conclusions, which are so obvious, that they do not 
need to be drawn^ but come of their own accord. 

Peculiar responsibility lies on our Church, first, because 
she is a Church of the Anglo Saxon people. It is said 
that in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the population of 
England numbered five million, now the English speaking 
people number more than a hundred million. Then the 
Anglo Saxon race was confined to a single island, now it 
possesses the choicest parts of the Globe. In Europe, it 
possesses the British Islands; in Africa, all South Africa 
and Egypt, the most important part of the continent; in 
North America, the whole continent except Mexico and 
Central America. In South America English population 
is flowing to the most flourishing republics, and will soon 
prevail over weaker people. In Asia, our race owns India, 
the most populous or next to the most populous 
empire in the world; while the whole continent of Austra- 
lia and thousands of the islands of the sea are ours. The 
possession of Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus and Egypt, with 
the Suez Canal, has converted the Mediterranean Sea into 



*As Mr. Murdoch used neither manuscript nor notes, only the sub- 
stance of his address can be given. 



358 

an English lake. Ouxs are Aden, the Cape of Grood Hope, 
the strait of Mallacca, Hong Kong, the passes of the 
Himalaya, in fact every strategic point in the world, 
necessary to the predominance of our race, except Con- 
stantinople and the Panama Canal if finished; and it is 
already settled, that whenever it is necessary, our race will 
contend for the possession even of these, if any one has the 
heart to contend with us. 

But it is not only by the possession of territory that we 
are influencing the world. Every State on the continent 
of Europe has during this century reformed its legislative 
body after the model of the English Parliament, or tlie 
American Congress, except Russia and Turkey, and even 
these would follow our lead if they could. The republics 
of Mexico, Central and South America, and others, have 
all copied the form of our government. Our juries, our 
methods of administering justice, our laws and customs 
are penetrating every where. Look at the strange specta- 
cle of British India. At the last census how many Anglo 
Saxons were there in that Empire of two hundred and 
forty million ? Just one to every thousand. Just one 
English man, woman or child to every thousand natives. 
Does it not seem that God is offering to our race the 
primacy of the world, as three hundred years ago it was 
offered to the Spanish race ? The opportunity was lost by 
the Spaniard, on account of his determination to reign as 
King, to enslave, to cnish, to exercise every cruelty ac- 
cording to his own will. We hope it will not be lost by 
ours, because we go not to enslave, but to set free, not to 
depress, but to elevate, to make men know and share our 
blessings political and social. Because we belong to this 
race, because our Church is a Church of the Anglo Saxon 
people, there belongs to us a greater responsibility than 
falls to the lot of many others. 

But there is a second reason for our greater responsi- 
bility. 



359 

In the reign of Henry the Seventh, the Church of Eng- 
land is acknowledged by all to have been a true branch of 
the Catholic Church, and the sole Church of the English 
people. No other Church or denomination or sect divided 
their allegiance, it was the Church of the whole people. 
And what it was then it had been for a thousand years, 
the sole Church of the English speaking people. Now the 
nature of that Church was that which is described in the 
Latin maxim ^^Ecclesiaest in Episcopo^^^ t, e, ^^the Church 
is in the Bishop.'' lam not undertaking to prove that 
this was right or according to the word of God. I am 
speaking of tlie fact, as a matter of fact, that was then, and 
always had been the nature of the English Church. Now 
what does this mean? The Church was composed of her 
laymen and Bishops, Priests and Deacons. Now if she 
were deprived of her Bishops, Pr'ests and Deacons, her 
life would be limited to the life of a single generation, be- 
cause there would be none in her authorized to preach and 
baptize, none commissioned to admit new members by 
baptism, nor to govern those admitted. If her Bishops 
and Priests were taken away and her Deacons left, her 
life would be prolonged another generation, because as 
long as her Deacons lived they could baptize. But the 
Deacons could not make other Deacons, nor authorize 
other persons to baptize, and so when the Deacons died, 
baptism would cease, and when the generation of baptized 
died her life would come to an end. 

If her Bishops ware taken away and her Priests left, 
they could not make her life longer than the Deacons 
could, though they could administer the Blessed Sacra- 
ment of the Body and Blood of Christ, and exercise all 
that government, which admission to or rejection from 
that sacrament implies. But if her Bishops were left, her 
life could be prolonged from generation to generation, be- 
cause thev could do what the other ministers could hot 
do. They could ordain, and that not only Deacons and 



360 

Priests, to help them to baptize and govern christians, but 
other Bishops to succeed themselves. Thus wherever 
there were Bishops, both other Bishops and Priests and 
Deacons could be ordained, and all things could be admin- 
istered, but without Bishops all ministry and sacraments 
would cease in a generation or two. So the Church was 
in the Bishops, her life bound up with the continuance of 
that order. This being the Constitution of that Church of 
England as it was in the reign of Henry Seventh, and had 
been from the beginning; where is that Church to-day ? 
Now as a matter of fact every one of the two hundred Bishops 
of our own Church, which is sometimes called the Angli- 
can Communion, has received his ordination by succession 
from Henry Seventh's Bishops. The name of every man 
ordained by Henry Seventh's Bishops, or by those ag#in, 
and so on from that day to this, is known, it is as well 
known as the succeSvSion of English Kings or of American 
Presidents, and every Bishop in our Church to a man has 
had his office from them. That is the positive side, but 
there is a negative. Tliere is not another Bishop alive 
tliat lias liis orders from the same Bisliops of the Church, 
in the rei<^n of Henry Seventh, wliom I have so often men- 
tioned. Not even in the Church of Rome is there one 
sucli Bishop. When the Reformation came on about 180 
out of 9,000 cler<i^y refused to accept tlie changes, that is 
about one out of fifty. Among these 180 were several 
Bishops. Those Bishops who approved the Reformation 
ordained others and continued the succession. Most of 
those who would not accept the change resided quietly in 
England, and died without attempting to ordain others. 
I>nt two escaped to the Continent and sat in the Council of 
Trent. Why did not these ordain others and perpetuate a 
line of l)isliops that might claim to be the successors of 
those of the Church of Eni^-land in Henry Seventh's time? 
Here Rome's vaulting ambition overreached herself. In 
order that there might be no Bishops deriving their office 



36i 

elsewhere than from Rome, she suffered these to die with- 
out ordaining others. So no Bishop has his office from 
the Henry Seventh Bishops but those of our Church. 
Wherever Roman Catholic Bishops minister to English 
speaking people their orders are fresh and hot from Rome. 
Now the Constitution of the Church of England being 
such that the Church is in the Bishop, and that succes- 
sion of Bishops being continued in our Church, and in ours 
alone, it follows that our Church and ours alone i3 the 
Historic Church of the Anglo Saxon race. 

So responsibility lies on us, firstly, because we* are a 
Church of the great Anglo Saxon race^ and secondly, be- 
cause we are the Historic Church of that race. A third 
particular of our responsibility will be found in our pecu- 
liar relation to other denominations of Christians of our 
own race. Here for sake of brevity I must confine my re- 
marks to a few of these denominations, and for reasons 
which will appear, I shall take the Presbyterians, the 
Methodists, and the Lutherans, all our brethren beloved in 
the lyord. 

There was one form of Presbyterianism that prevailed 
in Switzerland, another form (or modification of it, if you 
please) in Holland, another in Scotland, and another was 
framed by the Westminster Assembly. Now that form of 
Presbyterianism which has grown and spread so wonder- 
fully has not been Swiss, nor Dutch, nor Scotch Presby- 
terianism, but Westminster Presbyterianism. This form 
when brought into intimate connection with any other form 
always supersedes it, its superiority is so apparent. Had 
it been otherwise, had any other form prevailed, then there 
had been five times as many points of difference between 
the Presbyterians and the Church as there are now. West- 
minster Presbyterianism is much nearer to us. There is 
a reason for it. Many thorough Churchmen were appointed 
to sit in the Westminster Assembly. Some refused to 
come, others were expelled for not taking the Solemn 



362 

League and Covenant, and Dr. Featley was expelled for 
corresponding with Arch-Bishop Ussher. The Assembly 
after this drew with much care and labor and patience the 
Westminster formularies. But even of this body a very large 
part had been bred in the Church of England, and had 
b^eri ordained by her Bishops. Of these, several conformed 
to the Church after the Restoration, and one, Reynolds, 
became one of her Bishops. No wonder that in the West- 
m:ifaster formularies there are so many points of agree- 
ment "with the teachings of the Church. Surely if Meth- 
odists and Baptists may truly claim to be brethren to the 
Pi^esbyterians, who hold the Westminster formularies, our 
Church may claim a nearer tie, to that great and glorious 
communion, a relationship not less than that of mother. 

Here, if you will pardon me for making a digression, I 
will make a remark concerning that most interest interest- 
ing movement going on among some of our Presbyterian 
brethren concerning a revision of the Westminster Confes- 
sion of Faith, so as to exclude certain parts that are no 
longer generally believed. If this revision is carried out, 
the Confession will be still nearer to our own formularies. 
But another consequence will follow: what remains will be 
closely examined, and compared with Scripture, and many 
who hold but loosely its high sacramental doctrines, will be 
brought to accept them clearly and to hold firmly to the 
literal meaning of the language in which they are ex- 
pressed. Those who do this will not be far from the 
teachings of our Church. 

The Presbyterians then may claim the Church as their 
mother; the Methodists do claim it, their forms of baptism, 
of marriage, and burial of the dead, their offices for cele- 
brating the Holy Communion, and for ordination, are taken 
word for word, with certain omissions and a few changes, 
from the Prayer-Book of the Church of England. 

Whatever the feeling may be about the matter, when it 
comes to a question of fact, the relationship both of Meth- 



363 

odism and of Presbyterianism is nearer to us than to each 
other. They may be brethren^ but the Church is their 
mother. So I might in turn point out the nearness of the 
Church to the various other denominations belonging to 
the Anglo Saxon race, but time compels me to forbear. 
But the rule will hold with regard to all; near as they may 
be to each other, the Church is nearer to each of theim still. 
There is one denomination not originally belonging tb 
our race, but brought among us by immigrants, to which 
our relation is marvelous. I mean the Lutherans, who 
number more than a million of communicants in the 
United States. Very early in the Reformation of our 
Church, many in authority, and especially Cranmer, were 
anxious to adopt some confession of doctrine which could 
be approved both by English and German Reformers, and 
thus serve as a bond of Union. The Augsburg Confes- 
sion of 1530 would have contented the Gennan Reformers, 
but many of its extreme (as it seems to us) expres- 
sions could not be approved by the English Bishops. 
Many conferences were held in England between some 
English Bishops and delegates from those professing the 
Augsburg Confession, which resulted in drawing up that 
document which is known as the 13 Articles, from which 
all our subsequent Articles of Religion have been drawn. 
Now these 13 Articles were designed to approach as nearly 
as possible to the language and substance of the Augsburg 
Confession, so that our Articles of to-day come closer to the 
Augsburg Confession than any other symbolical document 
in Christendom, and where there is a material variation it 
is generally such as was agreed on by the English Bishops 
and German Orators in these Conferences which resulted 
in the 13 Articles that were designed to be a basis of unity. 
Where then is there a body of Christians among the Anglo 
Saxon people that comes so near in its doctrines to our 
brethren who hold to the Augsburg Confession, as we do ? 
Thus on examination it will be found that our Church is 



364 

next of kin to every body of Christians of our race that 
has an orthodox faith, and so by Providence is designed to 
be a centre of unity to them all. 

Such then being the facts, there lies on our Church a re- 
sponsibility with regard to unity that she cannot get rid 
of. We cannot say to our Presbyterian brethren: '*we do 
not want to be the leaders in this matter of unity, and 
therefore we ask you to be the Historic Church of the race, 
and take that responsibility which belongs to such a 
Church." We cannot say to our Methodist brethren: "we 
do not want to be the mother, but prefer to be the daugh- 
ter, and invite you to be the parent, and to have all the 
parent's responsibility.'' No, the responsibility is on us 
and we cannot get rid of it. Providence is offering to make 
us the centre of Christian unity in this great Anglo Saxon 
race of ours, and then to the ends of the earth. But the oflFer 
brings duty, and if the duty is not performed we will lose 
the reward. We may fail as the Spanish Church failed 
three centuries ago to accept the destiny that God offered 
it. We may look round us and say that in all Christen- 
dom there is none that can be the centre of unity but our- 
selves — but God who is able to raise up children to Abra- 
ham from the stones of Jordan, can work out his designs 
without our Church or our race either; and He will do it 
unless we do our duty. 

What then is this duty ? 

First I would say, we are in duty bound to recognize, to 
the fullest extent that truth will warrant, the Christianity 
of our Protestant brethren of our own race, and the rela- 
tionship that our Church bears to them. There are points 
of difference that we are bound to see, there are principles 
about which there must be no cowardly compromise, but 
then there is a tie that binds us all together ten-fold 
stronger than all that separates. We know that millions 
among them do, with all their hearts, desire to do the will 
pf our Heavenly Father, and so are to Jesus Christ as his 



365 

brother, and his sister, and his mother, and should be no 
less dear to us. 

Now it seems to me that there is a practical way for us 
to realize ourselves the love we ought to bear to them, and 
to make them realize it. In our own State there are 
thousands who are not, and make no profession that they 
are, servants of Christ. In my own field of labor, for 
example, out of a population of 90,000, there is about one- 
third of the white population, as well as I can estimate it, 
which is not included in any denomination of Christians. 
Now when these unconverted, unsaved men are living at 
our very door, if we make it our main end to bring Chris- 
tians of other denominations into the Church, is not that 
saying to them: *'we consider you to be as far from Salva- 
tion as these heathenish men and publicans. ' ' No, let us 
show by our works, that we think that there is a world of 
difference between an humble follower of Christ, who is a 
member of some of these communions, and an unconverted 
sinner who knows not God. Let us turn our whole eflfort 
to reach those who are ignorant and out of the way. If 
our brethren of other denominations do so too, so much 
the better, so much the sooner the Gospel will be preached to 
those who now obey it not; and if our fellow Christians 
and we labor side by side in rescuing the perishing, no 
doubt some great blessing will come on us. Heartsick 
ourselves with the sores of division, while we obey the 
command to carry the Gospel to every creature, the bless- 
ing will over- take us — a blessing like that of old — '*And 
as they went they were healed. ' ' 

Again, there is, and has for a long time been, any amount 
of carping criticism of the Church and her ways. We are 
spoken against as evil doers. How is this to be answered? 
Not by Apostolic blows and knocks; not by learned contro- 
versies to enlighten those who do not want to be enlight- 
ened. The Apostle long ago prescribed how to silence 
these men; and that is by good works. Good works is the 



366 

only effective answer to evil speaking: ' 'Having your con- 
versation honest among the Gentiles, that whereas they 
speak against you as evil doers, they may by your good 
works which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of 
visitation. * * * For so is the will of God that with well do- 
ing you may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men." 

Would you see an instance of this, then go to Charlotte, 
where they have the Thompson Orphanage, and Church 
Hospitals, both for white and colored folks, good works 
that every one knows of Now stop a stranger in the street, 
and tell him: * 'Henry the Eighth founded the Episcopal 
Church, "and see if he does not reply, while he points to those 
works of charity: 'Well, if he did, he founded a Church 
that is fuller of grace and mercy to the poor and sick and 
the orphans than any other that I know.'' Go to Rowan 
county and tell a stranger: "Henry the Eighth founded the 
Episcopal Church," and see if he does not point to her Mis- 
sion Chapels among the poorest of the people, and tell you 
"Well, if he did, he founded a Church that is more like 
the Master in preaching the Gospel to the poor, than any 
that had a better founder." Let the light of good works 
shine, and the darkness of lies and slander and bitterness 
will flee away. 

Again in these days when the Church is enlarging the 
place of her habitation, and reaching out after multitudes of 
men, the Prophet Isaiah gives us a rule for our conduct. 
"Ivcngthen thy cords, strengthen thy stakes." As the 
cord that held up a small tent is not long enough to hold 
a large one, so the stake that was strong enough for the 
little one will not do for the great one. In days when but 
few people were brought into the Church a weaker appre- 
hension of Church principles would suffice than in these 
days when numbers are added to the Church. If we are 
really to hold and teach these, "the stakes must be 
strengthened," there must be a clearer and firmer grasp of 
Church principles than ever before. Our laymen must 



3^7 

study to **know the certainty of the things in which they 
have been instrncted. ' ' Our own people must be taught, 
and those who are willing to understand must be instructed, 
about what we hold to be the truth. 

The old days of controversy have I hope departed for- 
ever. The end they had in view, i, e, to teach men who 
were determined not to know, is no longer before us. 
Truth cannot be beaten into men's brains. Men were be- 
guiled into error, and must be beguiled out of it. If any 
man will be ignorant, let him be ignorant. Their method 
too of sharpness and bitterness has I hope come to an end. 
But men of those days had one merit, they spoke **the 
truth," if they did not speak it in love. Our danger is 
that because we love we will conceal the truth which we 
fear may grieve our brethren. As our fathers did not 
shrink from proclaiming the truth when it would provoke 
the anger and scorn and enmity of those around them, 
let us not shrink from declaring the whole truth though it 
may wound the feelings: ^^Faithful are the wounds of a 
friend. ' ' 

Such then are our responsilities and such our duties. 

As the late Bishop of Durham showed, in his famous 

sermon, before the Church Congress, the Lord has promised 

in the latter days to set up some Church as a centre ot 

unity. *'He shall set up an ensign for the nations." The 

vision is not of such unity as Rome dreamed of, with Rome 

itself as the mother and mistress of all Churches, but a 
unity of equals, a union of brethren; it is a standard around 
which all may cluster, and through which all the nations 
of the earth may be blessed. 

Such is the crown offered by God to our own beloved 
Church — but on condition that we prove worthy of it. 
But to gain it we need united effort — to gain it there is 
need of many cool heads and warm hearts and of a zeal 
that counts not the cost. 



Note by the Publisher:— Page j<7, Mr. Murdoch's title should read 
**S, T. /?.** P^g^ 359* J2th line from top, a new sentence should begin 
with — ^^As a matter of fact y^ &c. 



XIII. 

WHITE HAVEN CHURCH 

— AND— 

THE REV. ROBERT JOHNSTON MILLER. 

BY THE REV. JOS. BLOUNT CHESHIRE, JR. 



I. 
WHITE HAVEN. 

White Haven Church stood on the east side of the old 
plank road from Charlotte to Lincolnton, about sixteen 
miles from Charlotte, and one mile south of the present 
village of Lowesville. Lowesville is in Lincoln county, 
but the site of the old church is now within the county of 
Gaston. An old grave-yard, surrounded by a dry stone 
wall, identifies the locality, and back of the grave-yard a 
few scattered trunks, dead and fast decaying, of what were 
once noble chestnuts, mark the spot where the humble log 
church stood beneath their shade. A Presbyterian church, 
called Castania, stands on the other side of the road, a hun- 
dred or two yards nearer to Lowesville. A few of the 
older inhabitants of the country, on both sides of the 
Catawba, remember when the old church was standing^ 
and a few old men still recall the fact that they were 
baptized by Parson Miller; but, even its immediate neigh- 
borhood, many of the people are ignorant of the sacred 
associations of the spot. 

On the loth of August, 1885, by the kindness of a friend, 
Mr. Frank Blythe, I was taken to this interesting spot. 



370 

My companion had been baptized in infiuicy by Parson 
Miller, and as a boy had been sent by his mother, who had 
been brought up in that church, to take part with other 
neighbors in the annual cleaning up of the grave-yard. 
But for his personal knowledge of the locality, I should 
have been unable to identify the site of the church, as 
none of the neighbors could give me any certain informa- 
tion in regard to it Some who knew that a church had 
once stood there, were not sure of its having been the orig- 
inal White Haven, since another church of that name had 
once stood about two miles north of Lowesville. 

The grave-yard is still used, as some new-made graves 
and fresh grave-stones bore witness. None of the stones 
were of an early date. I was told that the oldest graves 
were just north of the present enclosure, outside the stone 
wall* . The earliest da^te discovered was 1804; and the next 
oldest 1827. None were of any special interest The 
earliest was the most curious, and the following inscrip- 
tion on it may possibly have been an efiusion of Parson 
Miller's muse: •^ r ; 

HERE UES THE BODY OF 

« 

BURCHATT KIMBEIylyE, 

WHO WAS BORN MARCH 20th, 1 782, 

AND DIED 

t 

OCTOBER 17th, A. D., 1804. 

Early, not sudden^ was her fate. 

Soon, not surprising, Death his visit paid. 

Her thought went forth to meet him on his way; 

Nor gaiety forgot it was to die. 

Does youth, does beauty read the line ? 

Does sympathetic fear their breast alarm ? 

Speak, dead Burchatt ! breathe a strain divine; 

Even from the grave thou shalt have power to charm. 

Bid them give each day the merit and renoMm 

Of dying well, though doomed but once to die. 



'V 



371 

The young lady whose mortal remains lie buried beneath 
this stone, was much admired and beloved, and her death 
caused wide-spread grief. Persons now living can repall 
the feeling of general sorrow at her death, which lingered 
long in the community^ and which confirmed the testimo- 
ny of this epitaph to her personal charms and the graces 
of her character. 

We were especially interested in two other stones — sim- 
ple, undressed pieces of rough granite — at the head of two 
graves side by side, with only the inscription *'C. N., 
June, 1831," and *'M. N.'' These my friend was able to 
identify by the initials, the date, and the later head-stones 
near by, as marking the graves of his grand-father and 
grand-mother, Clement Nantz, and Martha his wife. 

The following account of this old church is derived 
from various sources, printed documents, MSS, and oral 
tradition. 

The Rev. Robert Johnston Miller, a Scotchman by birth, 
and a Methodist preacher on the Tar River Circuit in 
1785 — having withdrg^n from the Conference, because he 
found that the Methodists were departing from the Church, 
settled on the west bank of the Catawba River in 1786.; At 
the request of the people of ' White Haven and the lower 
and upper Smyrna" he began to act as lay-reader, keeping 
up the public services on Sunday and catechising the 
children. His congregations were chiefly settled along 
the west bank of the Catawba River in the county of Lin- 
coln, though much of that region is now included within 
the later county of Gaston. '^They were chiefly emigrants 
from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia," ^^a mixed 
people, Germans, English, Irish, and some Scotch, origi- 
nally, but at that time very destitute of any regular re- 
ligious instructions. ' ' ' *The most of them and their fore- 
fathers were, and had been, members of the Episcopal 
Church." 

A congregation was organized, a vestry elected, and 



372 

application was made to the General Assembly for an Act 
of Incorporation. Prayer Books could not be obtained 
They had a few of the English books, and Mr. Miller pro- 
cured two copies of the first edition of the American Book 
published in Philadelphia. He also had printed at Salis- 
bury the Church Catechism, to which he added some ex- 
planations of Church principles and usages. 

The most numerous religious denomination with which 
he was brought in contact seems to have been the Luth- 
erans, and their system of worship and doctrine made them 
more congenial to him as a Churchman than the Presby- 
terians, his only other neighbors. They were very greatly 
in need of ministers, and they urged Mr. Miller to accept 
ordination at the?' hands, and to co-operate with them. 
His own congregations recommended the same course, and 
the Lutherans alleged that the Rev. Mr. Pilmour of Phil- 
adelphia, a very eminent divine in the Episcopal Church, 
had taken this course during the Revolutionary war. Mr. 
Miller yielded, though he confesses that he was never 
quite able to satisfy himself that he had acted agreeably to 
his principles in so doing. But it was distinctly under- 
stood on all hands that Mr. Miller remained an Episcopa- 
lian, and this understanding was endorsed upon the Letter 
of Orders given him by the Lutheran ministers. This 
matter, however, will be more properly considered in con- 
nection with Mr. Miller's personal history; we are now 
more particularly concerned with the affairs of White 
Haven Parish. 

It was soon after Mr. Miller took charge of White 
Haven, and before his Lutheran ordination, that the few 
remaining clergy in the East began the effort to organize 
a Diocese in the State of North Carolina. Though officiat- 
ing only as Lay-reader, he seems to have been elected a 
clerical member of the Standing Committee by the Con- 
vention of November 21st, 1793; and immediately after 
his ordination he attended the meeting of May 28th, 1794, 



373 

and voted as one of the Clergy in the election of the Rev. 
Charles Pettigrew as Bishop. His name will be found 
among the names of the Clergy in the signatures appended 
to the Certificate of that election. 

Although Mr. Pettigrew was never consecrated, he ex- 
erted himself to revive the interests of the Church 
throughout the State, and carried on an extensive cor- 
respondence to this end. Among other letters preserved 
by him is one from Mr. Miller, the most material parts ot 
which are as follows : 

White Haven, 6th of May, 1795. 
Rev, and Dear Sir: 

^r ^r 'H ^ ^ T* H* H* T^ 

I have reason to hope that your pious wishes and charitable supposi- 
tions will be verified in the Rev. Mr. Dent, altl-ough I have not had an 
opportunity of a personal acquaintance with him as yet; but those who 
have, assure me that he is generally esteemed as a man of piety and 
learning, which to us, in our present situation, is, I hope, no small 
acquisition.* 

The situation of the Lutheran Clergy in this quarter, in my opinion, 
demands immediate attention. They Tiave, since my last to you, lost 
their senior member, the Rev. Mr. A. Nussman, a truly worthy, learned, 
and Godly man, although bred a Franciscan. Some of them have ex- 
pressed a desire of sending forward a number of their body to our Con- 
vention, in order to form some bonds of coalescing, and I have reason to 
believe that, should such a circumstance take place, and the end accom- 
plished with propriety, it would be beneficial to both parties; but of this 
you would be a much better judge, were you to visit this quarter in your 
official character; and you will permit me to hope that the period is not 

far distant. 

♦ -* ♦ ♦ * * ♦ ♦ * 

As for myself and fiock, I have abundant reason to be thankful to Gob 
for health of body and peace of mind, although my progress in the 
knowledge, love, and service of Him is far too torpid; but with some of 
my charge, at least, I hope it is otherwise, and may God of His mercy 
grant that it may soon be generally so. 

The returns from the Register of Baptisms, from Easter ninety-four 
to Easter ninety-five, is eighty-five infants and nine adults; and the deaths 
arc three venerable and Godly old men, from eighty-seven to ninety-five 
years of age, one woman * * * and her infant, * * * and a man 
about foity-six. * * * * 

We suffer much for a sufficient supply of Prayer Books here, and it is 

♦For Rev. Hatch Dent: See Note at the end of this Article. 



374 

a great bar tp nnifiimiity in our public aaaembtiesin the outward mode of 
worship; and I dncerely wish that some effectual means could be devised 
to remedy this evil. 

I am, my dear and Reverend Sir, 

Torn: Son and afiectionate Friend in the Goapel, 
* • - : / R. J. Mn,UR. 

:*C^ctRrv«(Hr. Pettigrew, BK^<^>-elefst''of North CaxpUna. • < 

After this letter we have no further knowledge of White 
Haven for many yean^ Mn Miller had extended his 
labors: ' over sEH large' ti^tory, and in 1806 he removed to 
Bttrke county, where he had a plantation' about two nriles 
from the present town of Lenoir, now in Caldwell county. 
He Cbntiilued'^to Visit his old congregation at intervals; 
but of the particulars of its history we know nothing. 

His age and incfeasing infirmities together with the dis- 
tance, soon forced him to give up the charge of White 
Haven, which was about sevent;^-five miles from Mfuy-s 
Grove; his residence in Burke county. He therefore 
recoinmended to his people a young Lutheran licentiate, 
David Henckel. Though organized as au Episcopal 
church, twenty years without Episcopal ministrations, and 
under the pastorate of a minister in Lutheran orders, had 
left very little knowledge of the Church, or her principles 
among the members of White Haven. They therefore ac- 
cepted the services of David Henckel, and he continued to 
minister to them for several years. From time to time 
Mr. Miller would visit his old flock and conduct the pub- 
lic services of the Church for them. Upon one of these 
visits some misunderstanding arose between the two about 
the use of the church, both having made appointments for 
the same day. This resulted in the building of another 
church by Henckel and his adherents a mile or two north 
of where Lowesville now stands, which was also called 
White Haven Church. 

David Henckel made a great figure in the history of 
Southern Lutheranism. He became the leader of a Con- 
servative, or more properly a re-actioriary, party among 



375 

the Lutherans, who at this time had drifted very far from 
their standard of doctrine and worship. He was an asser- 
ter and maintainer of the conservative and sacramental 
system held by the old Lutherans and set forth in the 
Augsburg Confession; and he set himself manfully to 
oppose the tendency of his brethren towards the baldness 
and emptiness of Zwinglianism. This gave great offense 
to all persons outside the Lutheran Communion, and cre- 
ated the greatest division of opinion and the fiercest con- 
tention also among themselves. David Henckel was 
looked upon by Methodists and other Protestant dissenters, 
as no better than a Romanist, and the most extravagant 
accounts were given of his teaching in regard to confession 
and the power of absolution. The controversy among the 
Lutherans themselves led to a schism which is not entirely 
healed even now. A large number of Lutherans, m<^tly 
in Tennessee, but also many congregations in North Car- 
olina, organized the Tennessee Synod, under the influence 
of this new zeal for their old doctrines, and were known 
as **Henckelites." So bitter was the controversy between 
the two factions that there was some times danger of 
bloodshed when the parties met. Upon one occasion, at 
least, the congregation of St. John's Church, Cabarrus 
county, went to the Sunday service armed with their rifles, 
and prepared to use them in resisting an expected attempt 
of the * 'Henckelites" to get possession of the building.* 
This however is a digression: White Haven Church had' 
no connection with these matters. 

The story of the old parish is almost ended. It never 
enjoyed the benefits of regular ministerial services, and it 
is only strange that it survived as long as it did. Any 
vigorous or aggressive life was, under the circumstances, 
impossible. The stubborn loyalty of Parson Miller's 
Scotch blood, supported chiefly by the sympathy and 

* Genl. Rufus Barringer is my authority for this. He remembers the 
fact himself. 



376 

co-operation of the Abernathys — of the same Scotch Epis- 
copal stock — made this gallant fight for their mother 
Church.* They had brought with them into the new 
country the love of their old Church, and they did all 
that they could to perpetuate it, but their children not 
unnaturally fell away to other religious bodies. Some 
families of intelligence and culture, and also some of the 
plainer but substantial inhabitants of the neighborhood, 
adhered in feeling to the Church long after they had 
ceased to enjoy its ministrations. The names of Forney, 
Abemathey, Shipp, Nantz, Hager, Robinson, Burton, 
Fite, are still associated with the memory of the old 
parish, and indicate both its original Scotch and English 
elements, and also its curious connection with the Ger- 
man Lutherans. 

The revival of the Church in North Carolina under 
Bishop Ravenscroft and Bishop Ives, came too late for 
White Haven. After the organization of the Diocese, the 
Church was too weak and too ill- furnished with ministers 
to look properly after this distant and scattered flock. 
The parish of White Haven was indeed admitted to the 
Convention of the Diocese under the nominal rectorship 
of Parson Miller in 1822: in 1828 Dr. Wm. Johnson (who 
however was not a member of the Church,) was appointed 
by the Convention to solicit among the parishioners funds 
in aid of the Diocesan Missionary Society; and in 1824 
Robert H. Burton and Daniel M. Forney were appointed 
Lay-readers. Bishop Ravenscroft made two visitations to 
the Church in 1824, and confirmed sixteen persons, proba- 
bly the old communicants who had never before had an 
opportunity of receiving the Laying on of Hands. But 

* Mrs. Nancy Johnson (nee Forney) was brought up in this congrega- 
tion, and she remembered very distinctly that the Abernatheys were 
Parson Miller's chief supporters; and she connected the final and utter 
failure of the Church at White Haven with the removal of the principal 
part of the Abernathey family to Missouri. 



377 

Bishop Ravenscroft saw clearly, as he intimates in his 
address to the Convention of 1826, that there was little 
hope of the continuance of the congregation. Some of the 
original Church people had been for so long practically 
identified with the Lutherans, that they had unconsciously 
become estranged from the Church, of which they had 
never had an opportunity of knowing much, and in whose 
practical system of doctrine and worship they had not been 
trained. Add to this the fact that this was the period of 
the great exodus from North Carolina to the West and the 
South-West, many members of this congregation about 
this time and shortly afterwards having joined the great 
tide of emigration, and the decay and extinction of the old 
parish is readily accounted for. 

Mr. Miller continued for some years to make occasional 
mention of White Haven in his annual reports; but in 
1833 when Bishop Ives made his first visitation to this 
part of the Diocese, he could find but three or four persons 
who still adhered to the Church, though he says he made 
' ^diligent inquiry. ' ' 

The Rev. Edward M. Forbes began his work in Lin- 
coln county in 1841; but in his report he makes no men- 
tion of any parish or congregation as then existing in the 
county. About 1842 he seems to have begun services at 
White Haven; and his successor in the Mission field, the 
Rev. A. F. Olmstead, reports a visitation of the Bishop, 
made July 26th and 27th, 1843, ^^^ seven confirmations: 
also fourteen communicants. The Bishop in his address 
to the Convention speaks of this Church as '*St. Mary's 
Chapel, White Haven.*' but the name is not known to 
have been used in any other instance. July 19th, 1844, 
the Bishop made another visitation to White Haven, and 
July 15th, 1845, ^ third and last. In 1846, Mr. Olmstead 
left Lincoln county, and with him the history of White 
Haven Church closes. The Rev. Joseph C. Huske had 
charge of St. Luke's Church, Lincolnton, and Grace 



378 

Church, Morgan ton, from 1847 ^^ ^851, and April 25th, 
1849, ^^ 1*^'^ ^ service at White Haven, baptized an infant^ 
and preached from the text: * 'Notwithstanding, be ye sure 
of this, that the Kingdom of God is come nigh unto you.^' 
The ancient services of the Church were heard no more 
in White Haven Church. It fell rapidly to decay after 
this. Persons whose memory goes back for thirty years or 
more, remember the site only as it is at present — a culti- 
vated field. But doubtless there is a spiritual conserva- 
tion of force, as well as a material, and the work done for 
God in those old walls has gone to add to the power of 
His truth and kingdom in some other place. 

II. 

THE REV. ROBERT JOHNSTON MILLER. 

There is no more interesting character in the annals of 
the Church in North Carolina than the man whose name 
is written above. In the course of a long life he had 
strange ecclesiastical experiences. He himself tells us that 
in the perplexities of his situation he did not always suc- 
ceed in making a correct application of his principles to 
the facts before him; he sometimes felt that he had made 
very serious mistakes. Yet no one can study his history 
without feeling that even in his mistakes of judgment he 
displayed noble qualities of heart. The following sketch 
of his life is meager, and yet perhaps sufficient to set forth 
the man as he was, and to preserve the incidents of 'his 
life so far as they have a general interest or an important 
connection with the history of the Church in North Caro- 
lina. The principle sources of information are his letter 
to Dr. Hawks, dated *'Mary^s Grove, Burke county, N. 
C, April 15th, 1830,'' (which appeared first in the Church 
Reviezv^ and was reprinted in the Church Messenger of 
October 15th, 1879), and Dr. Bernlieim^s ''History of the 
German Settlements and Lutheran Churches in Carolina." 



379 

Dr. Bernheim's information was derived from Parson Mil- 
ler's son, the late Elisha P. Miller, of Caldwell county, 
whom Dr. Bemheim visited during the year 1862. We 
owe to this diligent Lutheran histoiian most of our know- 
ledge of the particulars of Mr. Miller's life. 

Robert Johnston Miller, the third son of George and 
Margaret Miller, was born in Baldovia, Angusshire^ Scot- 
land, July nth, 1758. His parents are said to have in- 
tended him for the ministry, and with this view to have sent 
him to a classical school at Dundee. He was bred up in 
'*the Catholic remainder" of the ancient Church of Scot- 
land, under the pastoral care of the venerable Bishop 
Raile* so long as he remained in his native country; but 
when he was fifteen years old his elder brother, then a 
prosperous merchant in Charlestown, Massachusetts, in- 
vited him to make his home with him, and he therefore 
came to America in 1774. During the Revolutionary war* 
he was in the American Army, and took part in the bat- 
tles of Long Island, Brandywine and White Plains, in 
the first of which he received a flesh wound in the face. 
He was with the army during the memorable winter at 
Valley Forge. He came South towards the close of the 
war, probably when Washington made his famous move 
upon Cornwallis, which resulted in the Surrender at York- 
town; and was in Virginia when he was mustered out of 
the service. He seems not to have returned to New Eng- 
land, but to have remained in Virginia, in what business 
or occupation is not known. 

At this period of his life he became identified with the 
Methodists, who were gaining great influence through 
Virginia and some parts of North Carolina, and who did 
much during that critical period to arrest the tide of popu- 



* "Bishop Raile:" the name is so given in the very distinct and consis- 
tent family tradition preserved by Dr. Bernheim. It is probable how- 
ever, that the eame was Rait, "James Rait," Bishop of Brechin from 
1742 to 1777- 



38o 

lar irreligioii and dissoluteness, especially among the lower 
orders of the people. The Methodists up to this time had 
earnestly repudiated the charge that they intended any 
separation from the Church. Both in England and in 
America Clergymen of the Church were their acknowledged 
leaders; and even though they admitted the public preach- 
ing of unordained men, they made a distinction between 
th^se * ^preachers'' and **regular*' ministers — these latter 
being such as had received Episcopal Ordination. The 
Prayer Book was still looked upon as the standard of pub- 
lic worship on the Lord^s Day, though want of books and 
the ignorance of the ]:)eople might make its general use 
temporarily impracticable. When in 1784 Wesley printed 
an edition of the Praver Book for the use of the American 
Methodist Societies, and sent it over to this country-, he 
gave explicit directions that it should be used for Lord's 
Day services by all of their preachers, though upon week 
days they were permitted to have extemporized prayers. 

Of this Methodist Society Mr. Miller became a member 
in Virginia shortly after the close of the war. Having 
left Scotland at so early an age, and having been thereby 
deprived of pr()i)cr instruction in church principles, it is 
probable that he luid not very clear and intelligent views 
upon the sul)jcct, tliongh his convictions appear to have 
been firm at all times. He was very strongly drawn 
towards the Methodists by the stress which they laid upon 
the importance of personal religious experience, and by 
the enthusiasm and christian zeal which characterized the 
movement. He soon became a local preacher among 
them. In 1785 he accompanied Dr. Coke from Virginia 
when he came into North Carolina to hold the first Con- 
ference ever held in this State. It met at Green HilPs, in 
P'ranklin count}-, April 19th, 1785. Mr. Miller in his let- 
ter to Dr. Hawks sa\ s that this was in the Autumn of the 
year 1784. Mr. Miller wrote from memory after the 
lapse of nearl\- iift\- xears, and he has made a mistake in 



38i 

the time. Coke came to America in November, 1784, and 
did not reach North Carolina until some months later. He 
travelled for several weeks in company with Coke. Their 
conversation was chiefly concerning Coke\s plan for organ- 
izing the Methodist Society into '^a church.^' For the 
first time the Methodist preachers had begun to claim 
ministerial functions. Coke at the General Conference 
just held in Baltimore had '^ordained'' Asbury to be joint 
Superintendent with him, and together they had proceeded 
to ordain a number of their preachers. Mr. Miller says 
that he found himself unable to give his assent to this 
scheme, since it had early been impressed upon his mind 
that to constitute a true and authoritative branch of the 
Church, there must be an Apostolic Commissioti duly 
transmitted through the Episcopal order. Though Mr. 
Miller acted as a Methodist preacher for several years, we 
may be sure that he never as such professed to administer 
the Sacraments. Very few even of their most extreme 
men had up to this time ventured upon this step; and an 
attempt made by some of those in Virginia to administer 
the Sacraments and to ordain ministers, had produced 
great dissentions among them. In the early part of this 
same year in which Asbury was ordained by Coke, the 
Rev. Devereux Jarratt tells us that at the Conference held 
at Ellis's, in Virginia, he was present, and Mr. Asbury him- 
self was in attendance, ^^still striving to render an attach- 
ment to the Church yet more firm and permanent. For 
this end he had brought Mr. Wesley's Tivclve Reasons 
against a separation from the Church," the first of which 
reasons was **because it would be a contradiction to the 
solemn and repeated declarations, which we have made in 
all manner of ways." 

Mr. Miller must have joined the Conference at the 
meeting at Green HilPs; and he says he preached upon 
the Tar River Circuit, which is also in Franklin county, 
during the year 1785; but at the end of his year he with- 



382 

drew from the Conference. His intercourse with Coke, 
and the rapid progress of events at this period opened his 
eyes to the full significance of the new position taken by 
the Methodists; and he found himself unwilling toco- 
operate with them in open and avowed separation from the 
Church. He testifies to the brotherly affection which had 
marked his intercourse with the members of the Confer- 
ence, and he says that on their part they declared publicly 
that they had nothing against him, but that he had volun- 
tarily withdrawn on account of his * ^disapprobation of their 
conduct and rules. ' ' 

His health having begun to fail him in the low country, 
Mr. Miller in 1786 settled in Lincoln county upon the 
west bank of the Catawba river, and at the request of the 
inhabitants, who were very destitute of religious instruc- 
tion, he began to act as lay-reader and catechist, as has 
already been narrated in the account of White Haven. 
His ministrations proved very acceptable to the people, 
and he was soon greatly respected and loved by all the 
people of the community, and became the religious 
instructor and trusted pastor de facto, so to say, of many of 
the inhabitants who had been attached to the Church in 
the countries from which they had emigrated. 

Mr. Miller now found himself in a very distressing situ- 
ation. There were no ministers of the Church within 
hundreds of miles of him. He could not baptize nor ad- 
minister any holy ordinance. His people had to resort to 
the Luthern or the Presbyterian ministers to have their 
children baptized, or to let them grow up unbaptized. He 
does not seem to have felt any disposition to seek a closer 
union with the Presbyterians, though his relations with 
them were most cordial. His feelings as a Scotch Episco- 
palian probably made him averse to such a connection, 
and he knew that their doctrines, as well as their whole 
method of worship, and their religious traditions, were too 
much opposed to his own, to allow such an association to 



383 

be a comfortable one. On the contrary, there was much 
in the old Lutheran teaching in regard to the Sacraments, 
as well as upon other points, which approximated to his 
position as a Churchman; and there was no inherited 
antagonism between his own people and their Lutheran 
neighbors. It is quite possible that he was aware that 
many of the Lutheran Churches in Europe had retained 
the Episcopal form of government, and that the Scandina- 
vian Lutherans are generally believed to have preserved 
the ancient Apostolic Episcopate. Their liturgical wor- 
ship, with its familiar Creed, Versicles, Litany, Collects, 
Epistles and Gospels, and their observance of the holy 
seasons of the christian year, — all these must have had no 
little influence in inclining him to a closer union with his 
Lutheran neighbors who formed a large, and a most esti- 
mable portion of the population of Lincoln, Rowan, and 
Mecklenburg counties. 

The Lutherans at this time were in a sad state of desti- 
tution themselves on account of the lack of proper minis- 
ters. They had only about half a dozen ordained ministers 
in all this part of the country where the German Lutheran 
inhabitants were numbered by tens of thousands. They 
earnestly pressed upon Mr. Miller the advantages to be 
derived from a friendly union with them in the work of 
the Gospel. They did not desire that he should become a 
Lutheran, but urged that he might still remain an Episco- 
palian, and lead his people in their old ways, and they 
promised him their hearty co-operation in advancing the 
cause of the Episcopal Church among the English popula- 
tion, in return for his co-operation with them in their work 
among their own German settlers. 

Mr. Miller's congregations seem to have been equally 
anxious to have their minister clothed with the additional 
respect and popular authority which would come from his 
ordination by the Lutheran ministers, who were men of 
some considerable force of character, as well as of literary 



384 

acquirements. And it no doubt occurred to his mind that 
' if he should yield to this double pressure, his people would 
at least be in no worse case than they were in already. 
And when we consider the little prospect at that time of 
ever seeing the Church in the integrity of its organiza- 
tion and ministrations in this remote comer of the world, 
we can hardly wonder at his course. In the letter to Dr. 
Hawks before referred to, he gives this account of the 
matter : 

^^Their congregations (the Lutherans) were at that time 
in a very declining state, and overrun by imposters assu- 
ming the ministerial office without any regular authority 
whatsoever. To remedy these evils, they pressed me with 
the plea of necessity, to accept ordination from their 
hands, and mentioned that the Rev. Dr. Pilmour, of Phil- 
adelphia, had done so in the time of the Revolutionary 
war. There is now and was then a considerable number 
of Presbyterian clergy in this section, and the most of them 
with whom I had any intimacy recommended the same 
course, and the congregation earnestly requested me to 
accept of it, and (said) that they would be perfectly satis- 
fied with my ministrations. In short, as I thought then, 
and do think now, contrary to my own better sentiments, 
I consented to receive the ordination from them, not as a 
Lutheran minister, but as an Episcopalian. ' ' 

Thus, feeling that he might be making a mistake, he 
yielded to the importunity of his friends; and in St. John's 
Church, Cabarrus county. May 20th, 1794, at the first 
Lutheran Synodical meeting ever held in North Carolina, 
Robert Johnston Miller, an avowed Episcopalian, was or- 
dained by the Lutheran Mmisterinm^ the first ordination 
by Lutherans in this State. 

In taking this extraordinary step, Mr. Miller was care- 
ful to guard against any misunderstanding of his position. 
A letter of orders was drawn up and signed by all the min- 
isters who took part in this ordination, and was carefully 



385 

preserved by Mr. Miller, and by his children after him, 
until it was destroyed in the burning of Mr. Elisha P. 
Miller's house near Lenoir about the close of the war. 
Fortunately Dr. Bernheim took a copy of it at the time of 
his visit before referred to, and gives it in his history of 
the Lutherans in Carolina. It is as follows : 

To all whom il may concern, greeling: 

"Whereas, .A great number of Christian people in Lincoln County 
**have formed themselves into a Society by the name of White Haven 
"Church, and also having formed a vestry; We, the subscribers, having 
"been urged by the pressing call from the said Church to ordain a minis- 
"ter for the good of their children, and for the enjoyment of ye Gospel 
"ordidances among them, from us the ministers of the Lutheran Church 
"in North Carolina" (here much of the Certificate is torn away and lost) 
"according to ye infallible word of God, administer ye sacraments, and 
"to have ye care" [^sic: qii — cure?) "of souls: he always being obliged to 
"obey ye rules, ordinances and customs of 3'e Christian Society called ye 
"Protestant Episcopal Church in America. Given under our hands and 
"seals, North Carolina, Cabarrus County, May 20th, 1794. Signed by 
"Adolphus Nussmann, Sr., Johan Gottfriedt Arendt, Arnold Roschen, 
"Christopher Bernhardt, and Charles Storch." 

Dr. Bernhiem says that ^*on the reverse side of this 
certificate the Lutheran ministers gave their reasons why 
they had ordained a man who was attached to the Episco- 
pal Church as a minister of that denomination, '^ but with 
a reserve which is characteristic of his dealing with deli- 
cate questions, he is careful not to give tlie least intima- 
tion of what those reasons were. 

A most interesting episode in Mr. Miller's history 
occurred immediately after his ordination by the Lutherans. 
His attachment to the Church, and his zeal and activity 
in keeping up its influence and its services, were widely 
known, and it seems to have been taken for granted that 
he was a minister. At the Convention held in Tarbo- 
rough, November 21st, 1793, he was elected a member of 
the Standing Committee, and was notified to attend the 
meeting of the Convention called to assemble at the same 
place May 28th, 1794, for the purpose of perfecting the 



386 

diocesan organization and electing a Bishop. He must 
have gone immediately from his ordination to the Tarbo- 
rough Convention, for he appeared and took his seat the 
first day of the Session, May 28th, and at that time it 
could hardly have taken less than a week to make the 
journey from Cabarrus county to Tarborough. 

In this Convention Mr. Milller took his place as one of 
the Clergy, reading the morning service on the second 
day. He voted with the Clergy for a Bishop, and was 
chosen a Clerical member of the Standing Committee. 
His name is signed as one of the Clergy to the testimonial 
of Mr. Pettigrew's election which was transmitted to the 
General Convention, as may be seen by a reference to 
Bishop White's memoirs of the Church, as well as to the 
proceedings of the Convention. He says in a letter to the 
Rev. Dr. Empie, written in 181 4 : **I was also acknowl- 
edged and received as such'' {i, ^. as a minister) by the 
Convention of the Episcopal Clergy of this State, while it 
had any being. ' ' There is nothing in the proceedings or 
the records of those Conventions to indicate that he had 
not been duly and regularly ordained. But in a list of the 
^^Names and Places of the Clerg>%" among the papers of 
Mr. Pettigrew, the Bishop-elect, though his nanie and his 
parish of White Haven, head the list, there is a note added 
at the bottom : ''F. S.— The Rev. Robert Johnston Mil- 
ler, White Haven Parish, Lincoln county, a Lutheran 
minister." In one of Mr. Pettigrew's letters to Bishop 
White, he says of him : ^^At our Convention there was a 
gentleman who had been ordained in the Lutheran Church, 
and wished his ordination could be recognized in our 
Church, and, indeed, signified that if it should be consid- 
ered invalid, he would submit to a re-ordination. He 
appears to be a decent man. He has since our Convention 
wrote me that he thinks the Society would wish (of which 
there are a number of respectable clergy) a coalition with 
our Church." 



387 

It appears, everywhere that the subject is referred to, 
that Mr. Miller was always extremely doubtful of the pro- 
priety of his ordination, and uniformly excused his action 
upon the ground of an apparent necessity. He quotes the 
case of Dr. Pilmour, of Philadelphia, in his letter to Dr. 
Hawks, and also in his letter to Dr. Empie. Dr. Joseph 
Pilmour was one of the most eminent of Wesley's lay- 
preachers, and after the Revolution he took orders, being 
ordained Deacon by Bishop Seabury, November 27th, 1785. 
I can find no mention of his having received Lutheran 
ordination — and if he had done so, it would not be a case 
in point, as he never professed to be a minister of the Epis- 
copal Church by virtue of such ordination. 

From this Convention Mr. Miller returned to his parish 
of White Haven, and entered upon his work with renewed 
ardor. He had been accompanied to the Convention at 
Tarborough by Mr. Joseph Perkins, probably his brother- 
in-law, who sat in the Convention as a lay-delegate from 
Lincoln county, and signed Mr. Pettigrew's testimonial 
along with the other laymen present. Mr. Miller enter- 
tained great hopes for the prosperity of the Church from 
Mr. Pettigrew's labors when he should have been conse- 
crated as Bishop of North Carolina. He exerted himself 
to incline the few Lutheran ministers to a plan for the 
union of the two bodies into one, and hoped that the in- 
fluence of Mr. Pettigrew's gentleness and christian humility 
might enable him to bring about this result to the mutual 
advantage of all parties. These hopes are indicated in his 
letter to Mr. Pettigrew of May 6th, 1795, already given. 
But unfortunate circumstances prevented Mr. Pettigrew' s 
consecration to the holy office, upon which so much seemed 
to depend, and Mr. Miller was left powerless to do any- 
thing for the effectual upbuilding of the Church. It was 
many long years before he again saw the face of one of 
her ministers. 

It may be well at this point to mention briefly one or 



388 

two important events in Mr. Miller's domestic life. He 
was married March 12th, 1787, to Mary Perkins, daughter 
of John Perkins, Esq., of Lincoln county, by whom he 
became the father of ten children, seven sons and three 
daughters. His father-in-law gave him a plantation in 
Burke county, in that part of it now the county of Cald- 
well, near the site of the present town of Lenoir. This 
plantation was called ^'Mary's Grove,'' probably after the 
name of his wife. To this place he removed soon after his 
marriage, but finding the people of that new country rough 
and disagreeable neighbors, he soon returned to Lincoln 
coriity, living at one time at Poplar Springs, near Island 
Ford on the Catawba river, and another while at Willow 
Hill, near White Haven Church. In 1806 he returned to 
his place, Mary's (irove, in Burke county, which continued 
to be his residence for the rest of his life. 

As the prospect of the revival seemed more and more 
distant and hopeless, Mr. Miller became the more earnestly 
engaged in co-operating with his Lutheran brethren, and 
being entirely alone as a Churchman, the work fell more 
and more completely into Lutheran lines. He was so 
faithful and zealous a man that he could not remain 
inactive, and he soon became one of the most influential 
of the members of their body. He was Secretary of their 
Synod, and a most laborious and untiring missionary, not 
only in this vState, but in Virginia, Tennessee and South 
Carolina. Perhaps no man of that period did more for the 
practical extension and upbuilding of the denomination 
than he. As a member of the most important committees 
he appears also as exerting no small influence upon the 
inner spirit of the ecclesiastical administration. He tells 
ns that he drew up the Constitution adopted by the Synod 
in 1H03 upon the lines of the Constitution which had been 
adopted l)y the Cxeneral Convention, and that it was 
intended to form a basis of union between the Lutherans 
and Episcopalians, as long as the latter should remain in 



389 

their then unorganized condition. In a letter to the Rev. 
Dr. Empie, of Wihnington, dated Mary^s Grove, February 
17th, 1814, already quoted, he says : *^In the year 1803, 
through the exertions of myself and four other Lutheran 
Clergymen, a Convention was formed in Salisbury, called 
at first the Convention of the Lutheran and Episcopal 
Churches in this State; but since for some years past it has 
been called simply the Synod of the Lutheran Church in 
N. C' He says further, in his letter to Dr. Hawks, that 
when he first entered their ministry he reserved to himself 
and his people perfect liberty *^to return and unite in full, 
and without any impediment, with the bosom of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, whenever it should please 
God to revive her in this State,'' and that *'by the spirit, 
terms and obligation of our union, they (the Lutherans) 
were bound to forward this object to the utmost of their 
ability.'* Mr. Miller says that this union was effected, 
and the Constitution drawn up at Salisbury. Dr. Beru- 
heim mentions the meeting at Salisbury, May 2d, 1803, 
but says that the Constitution was not adopted until the 
second session of the Synod, held at Lincolnton, October 
17th, of the same year. He does not give any account 
whatever of the several articles of the Constitution, and in- 
deed it looks as if the whole question were treated with 
studied reserve. In a MS. note upon the margin of the 
pamphlet published upon this subject, which I sent him a 
few years ago, with a request for his remarks and criticisms 
— he says : '^There is nothing in that Constitution, which 
is in the German language, that leans towards the Episcopal 
form of government. " As Mr. Miller had not said that 
there was anything in that Constitution which leaned 
towards the Episcopal form of government. Dr. Bernheim's 
note is very little to the purpose. It would be interesting to 
know whether that Constitution contains anv trace of the 
curious alliance at that time existing between Mr. Miller, 
with his White Haven and other congregations, and the 



39> 

Lnihenuis. Mr. Miller was certainly a leading spirit in 
the Synod at this time: Dr. Bemheim mentions that he 
was Secretary of the Synod in 1803 and 1804, and such 
extracts from their proceeding as he gives exhibit him as 
one of their most trusted and usejfhl members. 

Lutheranism in North Caiolinai as in other parts of the 
world, has confined its work chiefly, if not entirely, to 
those Germanic and Scandinavian peoples who at the 
period of the Reformation came nnder the infloence of the 
great movement begun by Luther. It has not usually 
sought to 'extend itself beyond its race lines. So in the 
Carolinas its work was chiefly ^confined to the German set- 
tlers of our middle and western sections. But all through 
the country west of Greensboro', and in the neighboring 
parts of Virginia, Tennessee, and South Carolina, are very 
many of these German settlers and their descendants. 
Among these Mr. Miller's Lutheran brethren exercised 
their ministry, and his association with them probably 
brought them nearer to the English speaking inhabitants 
in interest and sympathy. Being so few in number, these 
Lutheran ministers could reach the people of their faith 
and language only by extensive journeys, and Mr. Miller 
took part with them in this itinerant preaching. He made 
great circuits through the territory covering those parts of 
the four States in which the Lutheran population were 
seated, and was indefatigable in preaching to the people, 
instructing the children, and organizing congregations. 

His especial charge during this period continued to be 
the congregations in which the English and Scotch Epis- 
copalians predominated, though with a considerable mix- 
ture of Lutherans. Besides White Haven, he had two 
other congregations in Lincoln county. Smyrna and St. 
Peter's, one across the Catawba river in Iredell county 
called St. MichaePs, composed partly of Lutherans and 
partly of Episcopalians from Maryland, and one, I think, 
near his home in Burke county, called Trinity. He also 



391 

seems to have ministered in Salisbury ; and in the country 
he was concerned in organizing the present parish of Christ 
Church, Rowan. 

The first of those extensive missionary journeys which 
have been spoken of, was made in the year 1811. October 
22d, 1810, the Lutheran Synod had appointed him * ^travel- 
ling missionary for the Synod, with power to organize new 
congregations, and to take up collections for this object. ' ' 
He set out from home June i8th following, travelled 
through Wilkes, Surry, and Stokes counties, and then 
entered Virginia. Up to this point he found only one 
house of worship, a small Methodist Chapel, and heard of 
no settled minister among the people, who came in large 
numbers to attend his preaching. He found only three 
families whose parents had been Lutherans. In Virginia 
he found some Lutheran ministers and congregations. One 
minister who attended six congregations, had not been or- 
dained; '*yet he ministered all the sacraments. I warned 
him and his flock against such conduct.^' He spent the 
month of July and the greater part of August in travelling 
and preaching in south-west Virginia; thence going by 
way of Abingdon into Sullivan county, Tennessee, where 
he found a number of Lutheran congregations imder the 
Rev. Mr. Smith. From Tennessee he returned home, 
having been absent three months. 

The 4th of November following, he set out upon the 
second part of his journey, going by way of Rutherfordton 
into South Carolina. % He traversed the greater part of the 
upper settlement of this State quite across to the Savan- 
nah river, found a number of Lutheran congregations and 
ministers, but a low state of religion among the great mass 
of the people. He seems to have returned home some 
time about the middle of December. *^On my whole 
tour,'' he says : **I have baptized this year two adults and 
sixty children, preached sixty-seven times, travelled three 



392 

thousand miles and received $70.44 for my support, with- 
out asking for a cent in any way.'' 

Mr. Miller made another missionary tour of the same 
kind in 18 13, the Journal of which he begins in these 
words : '^Saturday, May ist, 1813. I^eft home in the name 
of the Triune (ioD, on a second missionary tour.'' He 
took very much the same course as in June, 181 1, preach- 
ing all along the way. He stopped at Salem and was 
much pleased with the religious. services of the Moravians, 
and the excellence of the female school. He preached in 
the Moravian Church, and being-joined here by his brother 
Lutheran the Rev. Mr. Scherer, thev went on tos:ether 
upon their mission to Virginia. Mr. Miller's Journal 
gives an interesting account of this expedition, but it is 
too long to insert here. He preached often in English, 
and Mr. Scherer in (xerman, to the mixed congregations 
which gathered to hear them. He gives a bad account of 
the religious condition of the country generally. At 
Franklin he speaks of *'a Mr. Todd, an Episcopal minis- 
ter, who teaches a school, and preaches in this place, but 
has formed no congregation." June 4tli, Mr. Scherer 
parted from him to lake another part of the circuit, and he 
continued on alone. He mentions visiting New Market, 
Woodstock (where was an Episcopal Church all in ruins), 
Strasburg, Middletown, Newton, Winchester; and then 
turned homeward by a somewhat different route, taking in 
Front Royal, Madison Court House, and Orange Court 
House. The following entry is interesting, under date of 
Wednesday, July 30th : ''Rode ten miles to a Mr. Gor- 
don's, a noted stand at the cross-roads. Here I saw a Mr. 
Waddel], a sensil^le and pious man, and son to a venerable 
old man that is now dead, wlio was useful in his day, the 
Rev. Mr. Waddell, a Presl)yterian minister." Also the 
following : ''I could not l)ut o])serve tlie general neglect, 
or rather total disregard, oi all religious institutions, in pass- 
ing through this quarter: I mean the counties of Orange, 



Albemarle, and Nelson. In tlie first resides the i)resent 
President of the I'nited States, and in the seeond tlie kite 
President. Near to tlie former is a lar<>e brick church in 
a state of ruin. *=;->** jj^ iji^ view an encmv to 

the religion of Jesus Christ is the worst enemy of his coun- 
try, whatever his profession may be; and the higher lie is 
in station the more fatal his influence.'' Speakinj^ of New 
Glasgow, he sa\s : * 'There is also, as I understood, a 
Rev. Mr. Crawford, an Episcopalian, near; but preaches 
very little.'' Thence he went on to Lynchburg, and then 
he pushed on for North Carolina, crossing the Vadkiu at 
the Shallow Ford, before sunrise Sunday, July iJth, and 
going to the house of his brother-in-law, Thomas Snoddy, 
Esq., in Iredell county. He adds : "This day I finished 
my 55th year in this world. 

Ajjjain another fleeting year 

Of tny short Ufe is ])ast; 
1 cannot long continue here, 

And this may be my last. 

Much of my dubious life is gone, 

Nor will return again; 
And swift my passing moments run. 

The few that yet remain. 

I guide me down the steep of ige, 

And kee]) my passions cool ; 
Teach me to scan the sacred page, 

And i)ractice every rule. 

My flying years time urges on, 

What's human must decay ; 
My friends, my young companions gone, 

Can I ex])ect to stay ? " 

Monday, July I2tli : "Rode home, about 36 miles, where, 
through the Divine mercy, I found my family in health 
and peace — Glory be to God for this, and all His un- 
merited goodness to me, a poor sinful creature. On this 
tour I have rode one thousand and eighty-two miles; spent 
two months and twelve days; paid, in expenses, twenty- 



394 

three dollars and sixty-nine cents, and received from the 
people amongst whom I labored, seventy dollars; have 
preached forty -eight sermons; helped to administer the sac- 
rament of the holy supper, and baptized twenty-seven 
children/' (He had also organized quite a number of new 
congregations in Virginia.) "I have to observe as to the 
twelve counties on this side of the Blue Ridge, in Vir- 
ginia, through which I passed, that is, Culpepper, Madi- 
son, Orange, Albemarle, Nelson, Amherst, Campbell, Bed- 
ford, Franklin, Henry, Patrick, and Pittsylvania, that 
their religious situation is by no means either promising 
or favorable.'' He goes on to specify that the people are 
not only irreligious and immoral, but that no means are 
taken for bringing up the children in religious nurture. 
Most of the few preachers among them were Baptists or 
Methodists, and they did not pay much attention to the 
instruction of the young. 

It appears from the * above journal that Mr. Miller fol- 
lowed the usual custom of Lutherans and confirmed the 
children and young persons preparatory to admitting them 
to the Lord's Supper. He not only practiced this among 
the Lutherans, but also among his little congregations of 
Church people. There is an old record in Christ Church, 
Rowan county, showing that he administered Confirma- 
tion in that Church a number of times, once to as many as 
twenty-four persons in a single class. It is probable that, 
being cut off from the ministrations of the Church, he 
adopted the whole Lutheran system as he found it prac- 
ticed by his brother ministers. 

In November, 1813, Mr. Miller received a letter from 
the Rev. Adam Empie, Rector of St. James' Church, 
Wilniinc^ton, inquiring about the Church in the upper 
})art of the State, and also asking information in regard to 
Mr. ^Miller's ecclesiastical status. Mr. Miller's reply is 
dated "Mary's Grove, Burke county, February 17th, 1814." 
He gives in brief the account of his ordination already 



395 

detailed in the preceding pages, and asserts that he has 
always considered himself an Episcopalian. He declares 
that ''nothing this side the glory of heaven'' would give 
him more satisfaction than the revival of Episcopacy in his 
beloved country. In speaking of his missionary tours he 
says that he ''found many very respectable families still 
strongly attached to her communion, although they had 
but little prospect of ever enjoying it, as there was but 
one or two Episcopal Clergy in all that extent through 
which I passed, and they appeared to be sleeping upon 
their oars.'' "As to the number of Episcopal congrega- 
tions in this quarter there are but three that have had any 
regular form. " These three were probably White Haven, 
St. Peter's and Smyrna, in Lincoln county. He speaks 
of one called "Trinity," of which I remember no other 
mention. He had a congregation a few miles from the 
present town of Lenoir on the road to Hickory, but that 
was St. Andrew's. He says that many Church people 
were scattered about through the country mingled with 
the Presbyterians; and he still holds out the idea that if 
the Church could be revived in North Carolina the whole 
body of Lutherans would unite with it. This letter shows 
that dtfring the interval between Mr. Miller's Lutheran 
ordination and the revival of the Church his principles had 
not changed. Nothing practical came of this correspon- 
dence. * 



* A number of letters passed between Parson Miller and Dr. Empie 
between 1813 and 1825. Those of the latter are still preserved by the 
descendants of Parson Miller, but only one of Mr. Miller's is known to 
be in existence — that dated February 17th, 18 14, quoted above. If Dr. 
Empie's papers have been preserved it is likely that Parson Miller's let- 
ters to him would prove to be of very great interest, for it appears from 
Dr. Empie's letters that Parson Miller devoted several of his to an ac- 
count of the condition of the Church in North Carolina during the days 
succeeding the Revolution. In his letter to Dr. Hawks he goes over the 
same ground, but these letters written so much earlier would probably be 
more interesting and valuable. 



396 

In 1815 Mr. Miller organized a new congregation in Ire- 
dell connty, called ^^New Pearth/' which after a few years 
came to be called St. MichaePs. The land was donated 
by Daniel Walcher, and was given to Lntherans and Epis- 
copalians jointly for use in common. The congregation 
was composed of descendants of the Cxerman families of 
Rowan and Cabarrus, together with a number of Episco- 
palians from Maryland, part of the same colony which had 
come into Rowan as early as 1793 or 4. This congrega- 
tion has been mentioned before, but it was not organized 
until 1 815. 

The year 18 17 was almost as mucli of an epoch to the 
Lutherans of North Carolina, as it was to the Churchmen, 
though an epoch of a very different character. In the 
Synod which met in October, 181 7, the latitudinarians 
carried the day in regard to the licensing of unordained 
men to administer the sacraments. This, with other 
things, apparently carried through the influence of Gotlieb 
Shober, the Moravian, laid the foundation of the schism, 
in which the reactionary part>- under the leadership of 
Henckel, organized the Tennessee vSynod, as has been 
already mentioned. Mr. Miller was the only member 
present in the Synod who opposed this action to the very 
end; and he seems to have taken part in only one subse- 
quent meeting, that of 18 19. The organization of the 
Diocese of North Carolina in 18 17, and the visitation of 
Bishop Moore in 1819, and again in 1820, encouraged him 
to hope that the long desired revival of P^piscopacv in 
North Carolina had come. In 182 1 the Convention of the 
Diocese met in Raleigh, April 28tli. Mr. Miller attended 
with his letter of Lutheran Orders. It is said that when 
Bishop Moore read it, he said to Mr. !\Iilk*r : 'AVhv, you 
belong to us." We have seen that l\Ir. ^liller had all 
along looked upon his Lutheran ordination as an expedient 
under the necessities of his situation; and that within a 
week of that ordination he had declared to Mr. Pettio-rew 



397 

his readiness to 1)c re-ordained. We are therefore not snr- 
prised to find that he availed himself of this opportnnity 
to receive the ministerial commission by the imposition 
of Apostolic hands: and that Bishop Moore, in the case of 
a man so approved by a long conrse of faithfnl and frnitfnl 
labors, passed by all ordinary preliminaries, and ordered 
Robert Johnston Miller, Deacon May ist, in the fore-noon, 
and in the evening of the same day ordained him to the 
Priesthood. Both services took place in the Methodist 
Church at Raleigh. 

Of Mr. Miller's history after this we must speak but 
briefly. Having thus in the end of his life, for he was now 
about sixty-three years old, received Episcopal ordination 
he earnestly desired to build up the Church in those 
regions where he had labored so long as a Lutheran min- 
ister. He still hoped to bring the Lutherans into some 
kind of union with the Church: his efforts in this direc- 
tion will be narrated in a separate section to follow. His 
labors as a pastor among his people after this time were 
not so successful as he could have wished; and he did not 
feel that he enjoyed that sympathy and co-operation from 
his Lutheran brethren, w^hich by the terms no less than 
the spirit of his original agreement and union with them, 
he had a right to expect. For nearly thirty years he had 
given himself unreservedly to their work no less than to 
his own. Indeed his labors for them were greater than for 
his own communion. In all of his congregations he min- 
istered as a Lutheran to the Lutheran members, and out- 
side the few congregations in Lincoln and Rowan, in 
which his labors may be said to have been equally divided 
between the two, the whole of his ministry was to build 
up and to extend Lutheranism. The question of the reason- 
ableness of such a mixed work is not now under considera- 
tion. The fact of his very great services during all the 
best years of his life to the cause of Lutheranism in the 
two Carolinas, Virginia, and Tennessee, is not disputed. 



398 

Dr. Bernheim says of him : **He organized several'' (he 
might have said many) **Chiirches in our midst, and accom- 
plished much good as an active energetic minister, and 
our Church owes a debt of gratitude to his memory which 
cannot easily be cancelled or forgotten.'' Yet it does not 
appear that in his efforts to build up the Church and to 
recover for it those individuals and congregations which 
under his pastoral care had been associated with the 
Lutherans, "he received any encouragement oi assistance 
whatever. The lesson which. he draws from his experience 
in this matter is that it is vain, if not absurd, to suppose 
**that the successful attempt of amalgamating the diflFerent 
sects, creeds, order and worship of all those who call them- 
selves Christians, will, or can, produce that unity of faith 
and practice enjoined by the pure Word of God." **And 
it furnishes us with an experimental demonstration, how 
impossible it is to attempt, in any degree, a compromise 
with error, schism, or heresy, without injury to the 
truth." He seems to have found it impossible to recover 
for the Church those congregations which in consequence 
of his action had so long been identified with Lutheranism : 
and he sadly reflects that **neither sorrow nor lamentation 
will recover the ground that has been lost to the Episco- 
pal cause in this section of the country in consequence of 
that fatal error of mine. ' ' 

After his return from the Convention at Raleigh, Mr. 
Miller renewed the energy and enterprise of his youth. 
White Haven, and Smyrna, in Lincoln county were ad- 
mitted into the Convention in 1822: Christ Church, Rowan, 
had been admitted in 182 1: St. Peter's Lincoln, and St. 
Andrew's, Burke county, were admitted in 1823; ^^ ^^^ 
St. Peter's Church, Lexington. All these were under Mr. 
Miller's charge. The Missionary Society of the Diocese 
assigned to him as assistants in this extensive field the 
Rev. Thomas Wright, ordained Deacon in 1820, and the 
Rev. Robert Davis, of Orange, ordained Deacan in 1821, 



399 

thougli most of Mr. Wright's time was given to Wades- 
boro\ St. Luke's Church, Salisbury, was also under the 
same pastoral charge. In 1823 Mr. Davis left the Dio- 
cese, and Mr. Wright confined himself to his work in 
Wadesboro', with an occasional visit to St. Luke's and 
Christ Church, for the purpose of administering the Holy 
Communion. Mr. Miller, for some years, was the only 
pastor for the whole section from Davidson county to 
Burke. In 1824, he reports that most of the Lutheran 
members of St. Michael's in Iredell county, have with- 
drawn, and after 1825 the name of St. Michael's disap- 
pears from the Journals of the Convention. The portion 
of the congregation remaining under his care was chiefly 
composed of members of the Mills family and their con- 
nections — Mr. Charles Mills, being the head of the family 
at that time. For some years the congregation was re- 
ported to the Convention in the name of that family — 
^^MilPs^ Iredell County. '^^ It is now the parish of St. 
James. 

The little that remains to be told of Mr. Miller's minis- 
terial labors can be gathered from the Journals of our Con- 
vention, and therefore need not to be narrated here. St. 
Luke's, Salisbury, Christ Church, Rowan, St. James', 
Iredell, upon our present parochial list, may fairly be 
claimed as parishes which he founded. St. Andrew's, 
Burke, was the beginning of the present parish of St. 
James, Lenoir. He also preached in a log church on 
John's river, which may have been the Trinity^ referred to 
on a former page, but there was no regular congregation 
there. White Haven, has long ago crumbled to decay, of 
St. Peter's and Smyrna, not even the location is known. 

In 1827, ^^- Miller had the misfortune to lose his wife 
after a union of nearly fifty years. His large family all 
occupied positions of credit in the community. Many 
worthy descendants of his still represent the Church of 
his affections in the country where most of his mature 



\r:irs were- s])cnl. Out- of liis dan^^litcrs married the Rev. 
(rodtivv Drclier, a Lnthcran niinister of Lexington district, 
Sor til Carolina. ( )tlKTS married into the most distinjj^uished 
and respectable families of Burke county. The names 
Miller, Scott, Kent, and others, are borne ])y his descen- 
dants at the j)resent day. 

Mr. Miller attended noConvention after that of 1829. He 
is mentioned from time to time in the addre.s.ses of Hi.slio|) 
kavenscroft and Hisliop Ives, and always with the greatest 
alFection and respect. His bodily strenj^th gradually de- 
cayed with increasinj^ years until May 13th, 1834, when he 
fell asleep in the I/>rd, after an earthly pil^iniage of sev- 
ent\-fi\e years, ten months and two days. His mortal 
remains were interred in the family j^rave-yard at *'Mary\s 
( iro\e," near the present town of I^enoir, which continued 
for many years afterwards t(^ be the residence of his son 
I^lisha P. Miller. The funeral service was read and an 
a])]>ropriate sermon j)reached by the Rev. John Morgan, 
Rt-etorof St. Luke's Church, Salisbury, and Christ Churcli, 
Rowan. In his addre.ss to the Convention of 1835, Bishop 
Iw's ^a\s : ''In reeordin<^ the chan<>es wdiich, during the 
])ast \ ear, have occured among us, I notice with unfeigned 
sorrow tile death of the Reverend Robert J. Miller, of 
Burke count), a clerj^x man of whom we may emphaticallv 
^'i\ , //-»;- ///w /t) //rv Ti'as Christ; and to die is grainy 

III. 

FR.v'ri':KNAI. RKLATIOXS. 

//// Dioit'stifi CdfivrfitiifH and the Lutlioan Syniod. 

it is .1 laet not ,i^enerall\- rememl)ered that delegations 
fit .111 the Lutlieran vSynod oiuv sat in the Conventions of 
'lu ni.KHsr of Xortli Carolina, and that our delej^ates also 
li.ul lioiioiarx i)laces in the Lutheran vSynod. The names 
ot Mic R(\. (fottlieb Shober, the Rev. Daniel Scherer, 



Gen. Paul Barringer, and Col. Henry Ratz, are fonnd in 
the list of the members of the Convention of 1823; ^^^^ 
during this period tlie minntes of the vSynod record tlie 
presence of the Rev. Adam Kmpie, the Rev. Cr. T. Bedell, 
and the Hon. Dnncan Cameron, of onr Conventioh. 

These mntnal conrtesies were dne directly to the infln- 
ence of the Rev. Robert Johnston Miller, and they consti- 
tute a pleasing after-piece to the cnrions and anomalons 
position occnpied by Mr. Miller and the congregations of 
Bpiscopalians nnder his charge dnring their twenty-seven 
years connection with the Lntheran Synod. A brief con- 
sideration of the relations formerly existing between the 
Lutherans and the Churchmen of North Carolina will not 
unfitly conclude this imperfect account of old White 
Haven Church and its Pastor. 

Concerning this episode in our diocesan history, there is 
very little to be recorded, and that little is mostly con- 
tained in the Journals of our Conventions. Complete sets 
of these are now become so rare that few persons are 
acquainted with their contents, w^hich is the excuse offered 
far transcribing a few of these particulars of our recorded 
history. 

Rut although the story of the interchange of these formal 
greetings between the two ecclesiastical bodies is but brief, 
and concerning them there is nothing new to relate, yet 
there is this to be observed, which has hitherto escaped 
attention — that the friendship between the Lutherans and 
the Churchmen of North Carolina did not result from the 
action or the influence of Mr. Miller. On the contrary it 
is morallv certain that Mr. Miller's rfcticm in this connec- 
tion was to a verv «Teat extent influenced bv the state of 
feeling between these two bodies, the mutual sympathy 
and friendship which had begun long before Mr. Miller 
came into this part of the county. He only perpetuated 
and rendered more close and intimate a friendly alliance 
which he found existing in 1786. 



404 • ^ 

It has already been remarked that there was much in 
the doctrines and worship of the old Lutheraxis to attract 
the favorable regard of Churchmen. liadeed, it iswdl 
known that Luther and Melancthon, and other Protestant 
divines, 'exercised no small influence upon the course and 
character of the English Reformation. The further fiurt 
that the Hanoverian Kings of England were originally 
Lutherans, and so far as they displayed any religious fed- . 
ing at all, remained Lutherans, until the accession of 
George III, must have tended to promote a friendly feeling 
between members of the two communions in the Colonies. 
In the reign of Queen Anne, overtures were made by the 
Iting of Prussia looking to the adoption by the Lutherans 
of Prussia of the Articles and Liturgy of the English 
Church ; and the proposition that the English Bishops 
should consecrate Bishops for Prussia, and so convey to 
that Kingdom the Apostolic succession, was so favorably 
received that the most sanguine hopes were. entertained of 
the result But for dela3rs and complications caused by 
the desire to included Hanover in this arrangement, it seems 
more than likely that these two great barriers against 
Roman tyranny, the Church of England and the Lutherans 
of Germany, might have been happily united. As further 
illustrating the friendly relations which have thus for cen- 
turies been preserved, it may be mentioned in passing that 
for a number of years during this present century, the 
British and Prussian governments maintained a Bishop at 
Jerusalem, selected alternately from England and Grermany, 
and consecrated by English Bishops. 

Considering all these things, it is not surprising that 
Lutherans and Churchmen, finding themselves in a con- 
dition of common poverty and spiritual destitution in the 
wilds of the new world, should have drawn close together 
in Christian feeling; and we are prepared to find evidences 
of this kindly regard among the German and English set- 
tlers upon the banks of the Yadkin and the Catawba. 



403 

The presence of a vigorous and aggressive population of 
Scotch-Irish Calvinists would also tend to lead them into 
this friendly alliance. 

The records of those early days are too meager to afford 
us detailed accounts of such matters as these, but the 
evidence, though scanty, is conclusive. In Dr. Rumple's 
account of the establishment of the **oldest Lutheran con- 
gregation organized in the Province of North Carolina,'' 
given in his History of Rowan county, he says : **In the 
year 1768, John Lewis Beard, a wealthy citizen of Salis- 
bury, and a member of the Lutheran Church, was bereaved 
by the death of a daughter, and her body was interred in a 
lot of ground owned by her father. To prevent her re- 
mains from being disturbed by the march of civilization, 
Mr. Beard executed a deed for the lot, containing 144 
square poles, to a body of trustees of the Evangelical 
Lutheran congregation of the Township of Salisbury, 
allowing ministers of the High (sic) Church of England to 
occupy it, when not used by the Lutherans. ' ' The build- 
ing afterwards erected upon this lot was used in accordance 
with the provisions of this deed down to the year 1825. 
This is the first evidence of the friendship between Luth- 
erans and Churchmen in this section. 

The Rev. Thodorus Swaim Drage, having been * licensed 
for the Plantations" by the Bishop of London, May 29th, 
1769, was by Gov. Tryon recommended to the Vestry of 
St. Luke's Parish, Rowan county, by letter dated Novem- 
ber 12th of the same year. July 9th, 1770, the Governor 
sent him a letter of induction. He seems to have gone to 
Salisbury at the end of 1769, or the beginning of 1770, 
and to have entered zealously upon the task of putting 
into eflFect the Colonial statute for the organization of the 
parish and the support of the Church. In this he was 
strenuously opposed by the Presbyterians, and a long strug- 
gled followed, from which Mr. Drage seems to have retired 
after a year or two, despairing of success. This is alluded 



404 

to merely to show, in connection with this bitter strt^jk 
with the Presbyteriails, the fact that the kindliest feclii^ 
existed between the Churchmen and th^ Lutherans during 
the whole of this exciting period. Mr. Drage says the tiro 
lived together in much harmony : a second example of the 
disposition of Lutherans toward Churchmen. 

Dr. Bemheim in his History says that *4n the year 177a, 
Christopher Rintelmann, from Organ Chiirjch, in Rowan 
county, and Christopher Layrle, from St John*s Church, 
in Mecklenburg county, were sent as a del^^tion to 
Europe, * * * ♦ for a supply of ministers and school- 
teachers, for the various Lutheran congregations, then or- 
ganized in North Carolina,^' and adds that * 'these com- 
missioners travelled first to London." In this Dr. Bem- 
heim mistakes the date and overstates the facts. Rintel- 
mann and Layrle went upon their mission to Europe early 
in the year 1771, and they did not go **for a supply of 
ministers and school-teachers for the various Lutheran 
congregations then organized in North Carolina;" nor 
were they, the one from the Organ Church, and the other 
from St. John's. It appears from their own record book, 
lately discovered in Salisbury by the Rev. Francis J. Mur- 
doch, and by him presented to St. Luke's Church, Salis- 
bury, that these men represented the only Lutheran con- 
gregation at that time organized in this section, and they 
went to obtain help to support a minister and school- 
teacher for that congregation. No name is given to this 
organization, but it is said to be composed of **sixty Ger- 
man Lutheran Protestant families,'' forming a settlement 
on Second Creek, in Rowan county. They were sent ex- 
pressly to England and made their first appeal for assist- 
ance to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and 
the Bishops of the English Church. Before setting out 
from home, Mr. Drage gave them a letter of commendation 
to Gov. Tryon, and one to the Secretary of the Society. 
They say that' Gov. Tryon '^according to hik known 



405 

humanity has countenanced their petition under the great 
seal of the Province, and referred the case to the Honora- 
ble Society, * * * which Societ>- has likewise piously 
countenanced under tlieir seal this undertaking;/' Gov. 
Tryon, his sister, the Honorable Miss Tryon, the Arch- 
Bishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, and the . 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel headed the sub- 
scription for this pious object, and at the request of the 
commissioners, the Treasurer of the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel, consented to act as Treasurer of the 
fund. • It may be noted in passing that the Rev. Mr. 
Drage speaks of these German Lutherans as his parish-. 
loners, and everything shows that there was the kindest 
and most cordial relations existing between them. The 
fact that so uncompromising a champion of the Church 
should have spoken and acted in this wa\' in regard to this 
effort of the Lutherans" to obtain a minister and teacher for 
their struggling congregation puts it beyond all doubt that 
a warm and earnest feeling of mutual sympathy and affec- 
tion prevailed at this time. This is also confirmed by 
other parts of Mr. Drage' s correspondence. These docu- 
ments have never been in print, and therefore the light 
which they throw upon the relations of the Lutherans with 
the Churchman of Rowan comes in to supplement the evi- 
dence of the same thing from other sources. 

When Mr. Miller settled on the Catawba river in 1786, 
the only Lutheran ministers in the whole of the German 
settlement were the Rev. A. Nussman, and the Rev. J. (r. 
Arndt, w^io liad been sent froui (xermany in 1773 in re- 
sponse to the appeal ot the commissioners before men- 
tioned. Mr. Arndt had come out as a school-teacher, but 
had since become a minister. These men owed their posi- 
tion and power for usefulness among their people, very 
largely to the assistance rendered by Churchmen in the 
first effort to put the Lutherans of Rowan upon their feet. 
It was therefore but natural that thev should receive Mr. 



4o6 

Miller cordially, and that they should desire, and that he 
should reciprocate the desire, to preserve and to perpetuate 
this brotherly feeling among their people. The steps by 
which they were led to attempt a closer and more organic 
union have already been narrated. 

With the first rise of Church life in North Carolina, the 
idea of organic union was found to be impracticable. It 
had so far been all give by the Churchmen, and all take 
by the Lutherans. Naturally the stronger body did not 
relish the idea of reversing the process. But there were 
deeper causes than any mere selfishness or sectarian feel- 
ing, which stood in the way of union between the two 
bodies. 

Lutheranism, during Mr. Miller's connection with the 
Synod, had been gradually drifting away from its old 
standard of doctrine and of worship, and becoming more and 
more assimilated to the various bodies of English Dissen- 
ters by which it was surrounded. This is no place for an 
examination of the question, but it is a fact disclosed by 
their own records that in 1821 when Mr. Miller was or- 
dained by Bishop Moore, the Lutherans had almost wholly 
abandoned those devotional practices and those sacramen- 
tal doctrines, which had both in Europe and America been 
such a bond of union between them and us.* But there 
remained a sentiinent springing from the memory of past 
association, and Mr. Miller sought anxiously to perpetuate 
the fraternal relations in which he had lived with his 
Lutheran brethren for more than a quarter of a century. 

His first appearance in our Convention was as a delegate 
from the Lutheran Synod. On page 4, Journal of 1821, is the 
following entry : ''It being ascertained that the Rev. RoB- 

■^^ In a MS. note to a copy of a former pamphlet containing this state- 
ment which I sent to Dr. Bernheim, he says : "All this, tho' true for 
that time, is j^reatly changed now. The Lutherans are rapidly returning 
to the true and original f-iith as set forth in the unaltered Augsburg Con- 
fession, and other symbolical writings of the i6th century." 



407 

ERT Johnson Miller, of Burke county, has come to this 
Conventiou iu the capacity of a delegate from the German 
and English Lutheran Synod of North Carolina, and for 
the purpose of efifecting as far as practicable, intercourse 
and union between the Episcopalians and some of the 
Lutheran congregations : 

^^ Resolved^ That the Rev. Mr. Miller be cordially re- 
ceived in the above capacity and admitted to a seat in this 
Convention.'' 

Mr. Miller being thus admitted presented a formal com- 
munication from the Synod, and upon the recommenda- 
tion of the committee upon the state of the church, the 
Revs. Adam Empie and G. T. Bedell and the Hon. Dun- 
can Cameron were appointed a committee to attend the 
Lutheran Synod, and **to consider of and agree upon such 
terms of union, as may tend to the mutual advantage and 
welfare of both Churches, not inconsistent with the Con- 
stitution and Canons of this Church.'' 

This committee attended the meeting of the Synod held 
at Lau's Church, Guilford county, June 17th, 182 1, with a 
letter from Bishop Moore, conveying to that body informa- 
tion concerning the above action of the Convention. The 
minutes of the Synod record that this committee **were all 
aflFectionately received," and a committee appointed to 
confer with them, namely : the Revs. G. Shober, and 
Michael Ranch, and Henry Ratz, Esq. The result of the 
conference between the two committees was a series of 
Resolutions, to be found on page 1 1 of the Journal of the 
Convention of 1822. They declare that it is deemed ''ex- 
pedient and desirable that the Lutheran Synod, and the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of North Carolina, should be 
united together in the closest bonds of friendship," they 
therefore provide that each of these bodies ''may send a 
delegation of one or more persons," to the other, and that 
these delegates shall be entitled to speak and to vote "iu 
all cases except when a division is called for, in which 



case tlicN >liall not xotc;'' and tlu-y furtlier provide that 
all ministers of either body shall he entitled to honorary 
seats in the other. These resolntions were at once adopted 
1)\ the vSynod, and the Revs. (i. Shoher and Jacol) Scherer, 
and Henr\ Ratz, lisq., were appointed delegates to the 
Convention appointed to meet at Raleigli in April, 1822. 

Xone o\ the Lntheran delegates attended this Conven- 
tion of i(S22, hnt onr committee presented the report and 
resolntions agreed nj)on in C(mference with the Lutherans, 
and adopted by the vSynod, together with a letter from the 
Rev. (xottlieb Shober; and the resolntions were nnani- 
nionsly adopted. At the same meeting Messrs. Miller, 
Wright, and Davis, of the clergy, and Messrs. Alexander 
Caldcleugh and Dnncan Cameron, of the laity, weie 
appointed delegates to the Synod. 

In the Jonrnal of the Convention held at Salisbnry in 
1823, among the names of the attending members, we find 
the following : ''The Rev. (i. vShober, the Rev. Daniel 
Slierer, (icn. Panl Harrin<'er and Col. Henrv Ratzf' and 
on a snbseijnent page we find that the Revs. Messrs. Mil- 
ler and Davis of the clergy and Messrs. \Vm. R. Holt and 
Alexander Caldcleugh, of the lait\ , were appointed dele- 
i^ates to the next meeting of the Svnod. 

With the Convention of 1S23 all mention of delegates to 
or from the Lntheran Synod disappears (nm\ onr records, 
thongh no formal action was taken to rejx*al the ''Frater- 
nal Union/' and under it a delegation from either bodv 
might still ])rol)al)l\' be entitled to a seat in the other. 
Hut the Lutherans and the Kpisco|)alians were mostly set- 
tled in (liffereut and distant sections of the State, and each 
body held its uueliugs in towns usualh' inconvenient for 
the attendance of the other. There were therefore difficul- 
ties in carr\ iug out this arrangement, while no C()rresi)ond- 
injj beuelUs seemed likc*l\- to arise. The Convention of 
1S2 ^ was held in Salisburx : hence the full attendance ot 
the Lutheran delegation at that Convention. It was not 



409 

until 1840 that another Convention met so far west, with 
one exception ; and we hear no more of delegations from 
Synod or Convention. 

But though this may be a sufficient reason for the fact 
of the interchange of delegations having ceased, yet there 
were probably other causes lying deeper, which even 
under more favorable circumstances would have made the 
result not less sure. By the consecration of a Bishop for 
North Carolina, and 4)y the clear and positive teaching 
of Bishop Ravenscroft, the dififerences between Luth- 
erans and Episcopalians must have come out with a dis- 
tinctness unknowu before. Although several of the Luth- 
eran Churches in Europe had preserved the Episcopate, 
and the old Swedish Churches in Pennsylvania and in Del- 
aware had united with the Church in those Dioceses and 
acknowledged the pastoral government of the Bishop, the 
North Carolina Lutherans were not at all inclined to such a 
union as this. They had drawn their pastors and teachers 
mostly from Hanover, and, as has been already pointed 
out, they had fallen off very much from the purity of early 
Lutheranism. The Augsburg Confession had been brand- 
ed by the North Carolina Synod as tainted with Roman- 
ism, and for some years they had allowed unordained men 
to administer both sacraments. Liturgical services had 
very generally fallen into disuse among them, and at this 
very time the most acrimonious controversy was raging, 
and a schism had already been made in their body, caused 
chiefly by this back -sliding from their old principles. The 
leading man in the Synod was the Rev. Gottlieb Shober, 
not a Lutheran at all in doctrine, but a professed Moravian, 
who seems to have had little or no respect for the ancient 
Lutheran position. The fact that two of their most emi- 
nent preachers, Mr. Shober and Mr. Miller, were professed 
believers in and adherents of a different ecclesiastical 
polity, and were of different doctrinal views from those 
peculiar to Lutheranism, is a sufficient commentary upon 



4IO 

the condition of Lutheranism in North Carolina at that 
time. 

It is beyond all question that Mr. Miller's amiable desire 
for a closer union with the Lutherans had involved his 
own people in the same defection from those principles 
which they held in common, besides weaning them fkom 
the distinctive doctrines of the Church. Bishop Ravens- 
croft's great work was to sound the trumpet with so cer- 
tain and distinct a blast that no one^could mistake it; and 
to find out who in North Carolina was on the side of the 
Church as a matter of conscience and with intelligent 
convictions of truth and duty. Even had the principles 
of Churchmen and of Lutherans been much more in accord 
than they were, there could have been no sort of sympathy 
between the spirit which under the new administration 
began to animate the Church in this State, and that which 
prevailed among their Lutheran brethren. 

But again, the fundamental principle of the Church 
being the maintenance, not only of primitive truth, but of 
Apostolic Order as well, it was hardly to be expected that 
those who had so far departed from this latter as to allow 
the sacraments to be administered by men who had no 
kind of ordination whatever, could remain in such perfect 
accord with the Church under Bishop Ravenscroft, as to 
take part in her councils and legislation. It is pleasant to 
remember this long co-operation and friendship, and we 
trust that the good will, implied in it all, continues to 
animate both our Lutheran brethren and ourselves; but 
such a union as the one attempted was in the nature of 
the case impracticable. 



411 

NOTE ON THE REV. HATCH DENT. 

In a list of **Names and Places of the Clergy" among 
the Pettigrew MSS. given in connection with the pro- 
ceedings of the Tarborough Conventions of 1790—94, after 
the names of seven Clergymen, numbered consecutively, 
and their fields of labor designated, there is added, ' 'the Rev. 
Mr. Dent, near the Yadkin river.'' This was the Rev. 
Hatch Dent, of Maryland. He was ordered Deacon by 
Bishop Seabury at the same time with William Duke, 
October i6th, 1785. Both these names occur in the earli- 
est list furnished the General Convention of the Clergy of 
Maryland, in 1792. His name is absent from the list of 
1795, but re-appears in that of 1799. In Rumple' s History 
of Rowan county, page 408, Mr. Henderson states that the 
Rev. Mr. Dent came from Maryland to Rowan county with 
quite a Colony of Churchmen about the year 1794, and 
purchased a farm, but remained only a few years. He 
was an uncle of two clergymen of North Carolina, Richard 
W. Barber and Samuel S. Barber. In a biographical 
sketch of Wm. Wirt, prefixed to an edition of The British 
Spy, I have seen it stated that William Wirt about the 
year 1780 went to a classical school taught by Hatch Dent 
in Charles county, Maryland, about forty miles from 
Bladensburg. His school room was **the vestry-house of 
Newport Church." He is said to have been '*a most ex- 
cellent man, very good-tempered" — certainly high praise 
ior a school-master in those days. Many of his pupils 
afterwards became eminent men. 



APPENDIX. 



THE 



CONVENTIONS OF 1790, 1793 AND 1794, 



■WITH THK 



Constitution Adopted for the Church 



IN- 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



IN 1794, 



AND THR- 



Testimoniai. of THE Rev. Chari.ES Pettigrew as 



Bishop-elect. 



mn NAMES AND PLACES OP TflE CLERGY. 



[The followmg list of the Clergy of North Carolina is 
without date, but is certainly of the year 1795. It is given 
just as it appears in the Pettigrew Manuscript The name 
of the Rev. Mr. Pettigrew is omitted, probably because 
this was only a private memorandum of his own.] 

ist Rev. JOHNSTON MILLER, 

Lincoln Co., White Haven Parish. 
2d. " SOLM. HALLING, 

Rector Christ Church, Newbem. 
3d. '' JAMES L. WILSON, 

of Martin and Edgecombe. 
4th. ** NATANIEL BLOUNT, 

of Pitt and Edgecombe. 
5th. '' GEORGE MICKLEJOHN, 

of Granville. 
6th. '' JOSEPH GURLEY, 

of Hertford. 
7th. '' STEPHEN JOHNSTON, 

ot Northampton. 
The Rev. Mr. DENT, 

. near the Yadkin river. 

P. S.— The Rev. Robert Johnston Miller, White Haven 
Parish, Lincoln county, a Lutheran minister. 



THE PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

First Convention of the Clergy [and Laity], 

held at tarborough. 



At a meeting of the Protestant Episcopal Clergy and 
Laity of North Carolina, held at Tarborough, on the 5th 
of June, 1790, pursuant to a previous agreement entered 
into by the clergy of the said State in consequence of a 
circular letter addressed to them from the Committee of 
Correspondence at Philadelphia, the following proceedings 
were entered into : 

I St Resolved^ That we do approve of and accede to the 
Constitution adopted by a Convention] of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church held at Philadelphia in the year 1789. 

2d Resolved^ That the Rev. Charles Pettigrew, Rev. 
James L. Wilsjon, and John Leigh, Esq., be, and they are 
hereby, appointed a Committee to draw up and send for- 
ward an answer to the circular letter written by the Cor- 
responding Committee of Philadelphia to the Episcopal 
Clergy of this State, expressing the high sense we have of 
the proceedings of the last General Convention of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church held in that city. 

3d Resolved^ That the Laity of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in this State are entitled to elect and send. one 
member from each of their respective counties to represent 
them at a general convention of the Protestant Episcopal 
Clergy and Laity of this State. 

4th Resolved^ That when there is a regularly ordained 
Clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church, he shall 
represent the county in which he resides, and procure 



4i8 

[produce ?] his orders at Convention. But when there is 
no such resident in a county, a layman shall be chosen by 
the people as their representative. 

5th Resolved^ That the Clergy and Laity thus elected 
shall convene on the 12th November next at Tarborough, 
to deliberate on the affairs of their Church, and to choose 
a representative to the next General Convention of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in America, to be held at the 
city of Philadelphia. 

6th Resolved That the Rev. James Iv. Wilson and John 

Ivcigh, Esq., be, and [they] are hereby, appointed to make 

the same known by advertisement in the public papers 

printed in this State; fixing the time and mode for electing 

such representatives of the people. 

CHARLES PETTIGREW, 

Chairman. 
William Cl5:ments, Secretary. 

[We learn from a letter of Mr. Pettigrew to Bishop 
White, of date June 6th, 1790, that this Convention was 
composed of only one clergyman, besides himself, and two 
laymen, ''gentlemen of distinguished merit and reputa- 
tion. ' ^ The other clergyman must have been tlie Rev. James 
L. Wilson, and the two laymen, Dr. John Leigh and Wil- 
liam Clements, Esq., since the names of these three per- 
sons appear in the proceedings.] 



[address of the convention of JUNE, 1790, TO THE 
GENERAL CONVENTION, DRAWN UP IN ACCORDANCE WITH 
THE SECOND RESOLUTION OF SAID CONVENTION.] 

Tarborough, N. C, 5th June, 1790. 

Right Rev. Brethren and Gentlemen of the Laity : 

In answer to your zealous and friendly letter last Fall, addressed to the 
Episcopal Clergy of this State, we beg leave to say in behalf of ourselves 
and absent brethren, there is nothing we more ardently wash than strict 
union with onr brethren of the Clergy of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in America. But your letter reached the hand of Dr. Cutting too late to 



419 

procure that representation of our Church, which would have been highly 
proper, at your Convention of last September in Philadelphia. We have 
seen your journal and have the pleasure to say that we highly approve of 
the business done [on that] and the preceeding occasion; particularly of 
your Constitution and Canons, and cheerfully subscribe and accede to 
the union. The necessity of this our accession is to us so obvious that 
we reflect with pain [on] the non-attendance of our clerical brethren who 
were to meet us in Convention at this juncture — particularly the Rev. 
Mr. Cutting, from whom we expected your letter, and neceesary informa- 
tion; but we charitably conclude that indisposition or unavoidable acci- 
dent must have prevented. This puts it out of our power to answer the 
particulars in your letter with that precision we could wish, which we 
hope your candor will excuse. 

We transmit you a copy of our imperfect proceedings, in which you 
will find that we have resolved on the election of members for a more 
general convention for the purpose of choosing a delegate to represent 
our Church constitutionally at the next General Convention to be held 
in your city. 

The state of our Church in this Commonwealth is truly deplorable 
from the paucity of its clergy and the multiplicity of opposing sectarians 
who are using every possible exertion to seduce its members to their 
diflferent communions. This grievance, however, we hope will be reduced 
in time by the energy of its faithful labourers; and we esteem it a most 
fortunate circumstance that Providence has advanced a gentleman of so 
well known integrity and zeal for the interest of the Church and religion 
in general, as the Right Rev. Dr. Whiter of Philadelphia, to preside in 
the Episcopal chair. 

We have the honor to be, with sentiments of the truest respect and es- 
teem. Brethren and Gentlemen, your sincere friends and Brethren. 



MINUTES OE A CONVENTION 

OF THE 

CLERGY AND LAITY OF THE STATE OF 

NORTH CAROLINA, 

HELD IN p 

Tarborough on the 12th and 13th of Nov., A. D. 1790. 



[From the North Carolina Chronicle^ or Fayetteville Gazette^ of date 
November 22d, 1790. The paper, from which the following extract is 
taken, is in the possession of the Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D., Presi- 
dent of the University of Nortli Carolina.] 

At a meeting of the Episcopal Clergy and Laity of the 
State of North Carolina, held at Tarborough, on the 12th 
day of November, 1790 : 

The Reverend Dr. Micklejohn was unanimously chosen 
President. 

Resolved^ That the Clergy and Laity present do form 
themselves into a Committee of the Whole, for the pur- 
pose of preparing business necessary to be proceeded on by 
the Convention of to-morrow. 

Adjourned until to-morrow morning, 9 o'clock. 



Saturday, November 13th, 1790. 

The Convention met according to adjournment. 

The Committee appointed yesterday for the purpose of 
preparing business for the Convention, reported the follow- 
ing resolutions, which were agreed to : 

Resolved^ That the Reverend Doctor Micklejohn, the 
Rev. Charles Pettigrew, the Rev. James L. Wilson, of the 



421 

clero^% and John Leigh, William IMcKenzie, and Joseph 
Leech. Esquires, of the laity, be, and they are hereby, 
appointed deputies to represent the Clergy and Laity of 
this State in the next General Episcopal Convention, to 
be held in New York, in September, 1792. Provided^ 
That if any of the lay deputies should fail to attend the 
said Convention, the said clerical deputies shall have 
power to nominate and appoint others in their stead. 

Resolved^ That the Reverend Doctors Micklejohn and 
Cutting, the Rev. Messrs. Blount, Pettigrew, AIcDougal 
and Wilson, of the Clergy, and Jonathan Kitterell, of 
Granville; James Mills, of Warren; Henry Hill, of Frank- 
lin; William McKinzie, of Martin; Esquires; Doctors Leigh, 
of Tarborough, and Dickinson, of Edenton; and Colonels 
Long, of Halifax, and Leech, of Newbern; of the Laity; be 
appointed a Standing Committee of the Episcopal Church 
in this State. Any two of the Clergy, with two of the 
Laity, aforCvSaid, may receive applications from, and give 
recommendations to, all candidates for Holy Orders, which 
recommendation shall be a sufficient voucher to said can- 
didate to obtain the signatures of a majority of the whole 
Committee, agreeably to the sixth Canon agreed to and 
ratified in General Convention, held in Philadelphia on the 
1 6th of October, 1789. 

Resolved^ That there be an annual meeting of the Epis- 
copal Clergy and 'Laity of North Carolina, under the name 
of the State Convention of the Episcopal Clergy and Laity. 

Resolved^ That in all General and State Conventions, 
the Laity have a right to representation of their own order, 
and until some future regulations take place, it is recom- 
mended to the Laity to choose one for every county and 
one for every district town* in this State. 

Resolved^ That the Episcopal Convention of this State 



*See Article 4 of the Constitution of 1794, page 431 post, and note on 
that Article. 



\. 



,422 

do appoint the stated time and place of their meeting and 
direct the same to be advertised. 

Resolved^ That in case of emergency, during the recess 
of the Convention, a majority of the State [Standing?] 
Committee be empowered to call the State Convention. 
That in all such, not less than three months^ notice shall 
be given in the public papers of the State, or advertised at 
the court house in each county. 

Resolved^ That the Laity hold their election for repre- 
sentatives to the next State Convention at the court house 
in each county, on the first Saturday in September next. 

Convention adjourned to meet again at Tarborough on 
the fourth Wednesday in October next. 

JOHN NORWOOD, Sec. C. 
Tarborough, Nov. 13th, 1790. 

[The Convention which by the action of the above body 
was called to meet at Tarborough in October, 1791, seems 
not to have been held. The most important result of the 
Convention of 1790 was the ordination of the Rev. S. Hal- 
ling, who was recommended for Holy Orders by the Stand- 
ing Committee, and was ordained by Bishop Madison, of 
Virginia. He succeeded the Rev. Dr. Cutting as Rector 
of Christ Church, Newbern, in 1792. In Bishop Burgess's 
**IvisT OF Persons Ordained Deacons'' Dr. Halling's 
ordination is put in the year 1792, and his death in 1813. 

The Rev. James Iv. Wilson, one of the deputies appointed 
to attend the General Convention of 1792, proceeded to 
New York for that purpose, but was so delayed on his voy- 
age that he did not arrive until some days after its adjourn- 
ment, as will be seen by a note appended the journal of 
the General Convention of 1782.] 



CONVENTION 

HEI.D AT 

TARBOROUGH, NOVEMBER 2ist, 1793, 

BEING THE SECOND ATTEMPT TO ORGANIZE THE CHURCH 

IN NORTH CAROLINA. 



[Heretofore the only record of the proceedings of this in- 
formal meeting was the mention of it in Parson Miller's 
letter to Dr. Hawks. As Parson Miller was not present, 
and spoke only from hear-say, and after the lapse of many 
years, his account is not here inserted. 

The following extract from a letter of the Rev. Dr. 
Hailing, of Newbern, to the Rev. Charles Pettigiew, is the 
fullest account we have of the proceedings of this Conven- 
tion. The letter is dated at Newbern, December loth, 1793]: 

**It will exceed the bounds of a letter to acquaint you with all the bus- 
iness we went through, but I hope the following short abstract of our 
proceedings will afford you some idea of our actions : 

'•I am sorry to inform you that only six persons formed the meeting, 
three of the Clergy, viz : Mr. Gurley, of Murfreesborough, Mr. Wilson 
and myself. On the part of the I^aity, Mr. Clements and Dr. Leigh, of 
Tarborough, the former of the Presbyterian Church, who was our Secre- 
tary, and Mr. F. Green, whom I desired the Vestry of Newbern to ap- 
point as deputy for Craven county. 

'•You may reasonably suppose that it would have been unadvisable in us 
to appoint a Bishop-elect; Ihe smallness of our number would have sub- 
jected him to reproach, and our Church also. 

*^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^u 

^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

**I proposed we should send another advertisement, accompanied with 
a circular letter, to one or more respectable and popular characters in 
every county, recommending in the most earnest manner a convention ot 
the people who profess the Protestant Episcopal religion of the American 
Church, to choose immediately a Vestry, to appoint Readers, where a 
regularly ordained Clergyman could not be procured; and we resolved 



424 

that this Vestry, the Readers, and whoever they might elect in addition 
as deputies, should meet at Tarborough the last Wednesday in May, 
^794» to form a Constitution and elect one of the Clergy to be consecrated 
as Bishop of this State. 

'This is the sum of our proceedings." 

[We learn from Parson Miller's letter to Dr. Hawks, 
that the Rev. James L. Wilson was President of this Con- 
vention, and William Clements, Esq., Secretary; also that 
the Convention dJ)pointed a Standing Committee, and pub- 
lished a general notice of the meeting called for May, 1794. 
The Rev. Dr. Hailing, of Newbern, seems to have been the 
moving spirit in this second eflFort at organization. There 
is a long and most earnest letter from him to Mr. Petti- 
grew, in which he urges the importance of the meeting to 
be held in May, 1794; and probably it was his exertions 
which caused so good an attendance. ] 



The Convention sent lorth the following printed Cir- 
cular : 

Dkarly Bkj^ovkd : — 

The Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church of America, for 
the State of North Carolina, at its meeting held in Tarborough on the 
2 1st day of November, 1793 : 

Resolvedy That in consideration of the great apparent decay of virtue 
and vital religion, every exertion is necessary to awaken and animate the 
zeal of those professors of Christianity, who call themselves members of 
said Church, we have therefore, thought proper to address a circular let- 
ter to those of the same persuasion in each county of the State; and to 
request that you would convene, at the Church or Court House, or some 
other public place, at an early day, those of the inhabitants who are de- 
sirous of worshipping God according to the Rules and Ceremonies as set 
forth in the Book of Common Prayer. 

That order and good government may be restored, it is warmly recom- 
mended to you by the Convention, to select from among yourselves per- 
sons of good morals and unexceptional characters, to act as Vestry. It 
shall be the duty of this Vestry to procure the services of a neighboring 
Clergyman, who has been regularly ordained according to the Forms ot 
the Protestant Episcopal Church. He is to preach as often as conve- 
nient, considering the distance that his residence may be from you. He 



425 

is to administer the Holy Ordinances at proper times; but especially the 
Blessed Sacrament of the Lord's Supper — at least thrice every year. On 
those Sabbaths, on which he cannot attend in consequence of his other 
appointments, indisposition, or any other cause, one of the Vestry will 
be expected to read the service of the day, and some religious discourse 
to the people. 

By this means, it appears probable, that the members of our Church 
may again be called together, many of whom, it is to be lamented, wan- 
der as sheep without a shepherd. 

And may Almighty God, in his mercy, bless your endeavours, that the 
happy purpose — the salvation of souls — may be eflfected, for which we 
recommend these things to your practice. We commit you to the safe 
keeping and kind protection of our Heavenly Father; and shall always 
present our humble, but fervent addresses at a Throne of Grace, for your 
temporal prosperity, and everlasting happiness. 

With sentiments of affection and charity, we are your Brethren in Our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

Signed in behalf of the Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
for the State of North Carolina. 

James L. Wii^on, 
WiiviyiAM CiyEMENTS, President. 

Secretary. 



THE JOURNAL 

OF THE 

CONVENTION OF THE PROTESTANT EPISCO- 
PAL CHURCH, 

HELD IN 

TARBOROUGH, IN MAY, 1794. 



The Episcopal State Convention of North Carolina con- 
vened in the town of Tarborough, on the last Wednesday 
in May, 1794, agreeably to adjournment 
Present: — 

The Rev'd CHARLES PETTIGREW, 
JAMES L. WILSON, 
SOLOMON HALLING, 
ROBERT J. MILLER,* 
» On the part of the Clergy, 

Present on the part of the laity : — 

LEONARD DESSEAUX, for Beaufort county, 
JOSEPH PERKINS, for Lincoln county, 
ISAAC GUION, for Newbern, 
JOHN LEIGH, one of the Standing Committee. 

The necessary certificates were produced by the lay depu- 
ties of their appointment. 

The Rev. Mr. Gurley, who was appointed by the last 
Convention to open the business of the present by preach- 
ing a sermon, having failed to appear: 



*At this time the Rev. Mr Miller had received only L,utheran ordi- 
nation. He was ordained to the Diaconate and Priesthood by Bishop 
• '* in 1 82 1. [See Journal of that year.] 



427 

The Rev. Mr. Charles Pettigrew was appointed by the 
Convention to officiate in his place. 
Adjourned until 7 o'clock P. M. 



The Rev. Mr. Pettigrew officiated in the afternoon ac- 
cording to the appointment of the Convention. 

Wednesday, 7 o'clock, P. M. 

Mr. Robert White appeared and produced a certificate of 
his election as a lay deputy to represent the town of Tar- 
borough. 

The Rev. Messrs. Wilson and Hailing, on the part of the 
Clergy, and Mr. White, on the part of the Laity, were ap- 
pointed a Committee to draw up a Constitution for the gov- 
ernment of the Protestant Episcopal Church in this State, 
and report the same to-morrow. 

Resolved^ That the Convention proceed to-morrow, at 
the hour of twelve, for the purpose of taking into considera- 
tion that part of the public advertisement which relates to 
the appointment of a Bishop-elect for the State. 

The Convention adjourned till nine o'clock to-morrow. 



Thursday, May 29th, 1794. 

The Convention met according to adjournment, and the 
morning service was read by the Rev. Mr. Miller. 

On motion. Resolved^ That the business of each day 
commence with prayer. 

On motion. Resolved^ That Mr. William Clements be ap- 
pointed Secretary of the Convention. 

The Rev. Mr. Blount produced his orders and took his seat. 

Mr. Wood, a member of the Standing Committee, ap- 
peared this morning, produced his certficate, and took his 
seat. 

The committee appointed yesterday for drawing up a 
Constitution for the government [of the Church in this 
State] delivered their report. [See Appendix A.] 

On motion, the Convention formed itself into a Commit- 



428 

tee of the Whole, to take into consideration the Constitu- 
tion as reported by the Committee, Dr. Guion in the chair. 
After some progress made the Committee rose. 

Mr. James Adams, lay deputy from the county of Edge- 
combe, produced his certificate and took his seat accord- 
ingly. 

The Convention conceived it necessary to proceed to ap- 
point a Bishop-elect. Resolved^ That this Convention do 
proceed, on Saturday next, to appoint by ballot a Bishop- 
elect. 

The Convention then adjourned till 4 o'clock P. M. 
Thursday. 

Thursday, 4 o'clock P. M. 

The Convention met according to adjournment. 

The General Constitution and Canons, as published by 
order of the General Convention, were, on motion, read. 

The Convention adjourned until to-morrow at 8 o'clock. 



Friday, 30th May, 1794. 

The Convention met according to adjournment, and 
opened with prayer by the Rev. Mr. Blount. 

Mr. Grimes, member of the Standing Committee from 
Pitt county, appeared this morning and took his seat. 

The RevMs Messrs. Blount, Wilson and Hailing were ap- 
pointed a Committee to draw a form of recommendation 
for the Bishop-elect to the General Convention. , 

The Convention resolved itself into a Committee of the 
Whole, Dr. Guion in the chair. The Committee reported 
progress and asked leave to sit again. 

The Convention adjourned until 4 o'clock P. M. 



Friday, 4 o'clock P. M. 
The Convention met according to adjournment and re- 
solved itself into a Committee of the Whole, Dr. Guion in 
the chair. The Committee rose and the President resumed 



429 

his seat. The chairman of the Committee reported pro- 
gress and asked leave to sit again. 

The Convention adjourned until to-morrow morning at 
7 o'clock. 



Saturday, 31st May, 1794. 
The Convention met according to adjournment, prayers 
being read by the Rev. Mr. Gurley. 

The Committee presented a form of recommendation for 
the Bishop-elect. [See Appendix B.] 

The Convention adjourned to meet at 12 o'clock. 

Saturday, 12 o'clock M. 
The Convention met at 12 o'clock, according to adjourn- 
ment. 

The appointment of a Bishop-elect, agreeable to a reso- 
lution entered into on Thursday last, took place, when it 
appeared that the Rev. Mr. Pettegrew was duly elected. 

Resolved^ That the Clergy choose lay members of the 
Standing Committee, and that the laity choose the clerical 
members, and in consequence of this resolution the follow- 
ing persons were chosen, viz- 

The Rev. Messrs. Nath. B1.0UNT, 

James L. Wii^son, 
Robert J. Miu.er, 
Solomon Haujng, 
Joseph Gurley, 
George Micklejohn, 

Of the Clergy. 

And of the laity: 

Messrs. McKenzie, Moore, Hardy, Murfree, Dr. Guion, 
David Turner, and Joseph Blount. 

The Rev. Messrs. S. Hailing and J. L. Wilson were ap- 
pointed as clerical deputies, and W. Clements, as lay deputy 
to the next General Convention of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church. 

Resolved^ That the thanks of the Convention be render- 



430 

ed to the President of the Convention, and the Secretary. 
The Convention adjourned to meet in Tarbot;ough on 
the third Wednesday in October, 1795. 

' [The above is the journal of the Convention of 1794, as 
given in the Pettigrew Manuscript It is in the handwriting 
of Mr. William Clements, the Secretary, and is evidently 
the official record transmitted by him to the President, Mr. 
Pettigrew, for preservation. It is defective in one or two 
points. It does not mention the election of any President, 
nor does it show that any disposition was made of the 
report of the Committee of the Whole on the Constitution 
for the Church in this State. Immediately after the jour- 
nal, in the Manuscript, follows a copy of the Constitution, 
and, as it is signed by all the members of the Convention, 
it must have been adopted by the Convention, although no 
mention was made in the journal of such action. A copy 
of the Constitution is given and is marked "Appendix A."] 



[APPENDIX A.] 

A COPY OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE PROTESTANT EPIS- 
COPAL CHURCH IN THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



Preamble. 

Whereas, There are numbers of good people in this State who have 
been educated in the faith of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and many 
religious and well-disposed persons who appear to be desirous to worship 
God according to the forms used in said Church; We, the Clergy and lay 
deputies in Convention met, have thought it advisable to frame a Consti- 
tution for the future government of said Church; and humbly pray at the 
throne of Heavenly Giace that our endeavors may prove effectual to the 
promotion of virtue and true religion. 

ArTici^E I St. That the Church be denominated the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church in the State of North Carolina. 

Art. 2d. That there shall be a Bishop in the said Church, who shall 
be elected by ballot by the Convention, and that two-thirds of the mem- 
bers present at the time of election shall be a majority for that purpose. 



431 

Art. 3d. There shall be a Convention of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the State of North Carolina, on the third Wednesday in Octo- 
ber annually, in such place as may be determined upon by every preced- 
ing Convention. 

Art. 4th. That the Convention shall be, or may consist of the Clergy 
regularly ordained and settled in this State, of the members of the Standing 
Committee, one of the Vestry of each Parish, two delegates from each 
county, and one from each town"*^ in the State, to be elected by the people. 

Art. 5th. One-third of the Clergy and an equal number of the lay 
deputies shall constitute a quorum for transacting business, but a smaller 
number may adjourn. 

Art. 6th. A Standing Committee, consisting of twelve persons, shall 
be chosen or appointed by the Convention, whose office it shall be to per- 
form the duties laid down in the Canons and General Constitution of the 
Church; and the vacancies shall be filled up during the recess by the 
Bishop, which appointment shall count until the meeting of the next 
Convention. 

Art. 7th. That as speedily as possible after it is known in each coun- 
ty what numbers are desirious of becoming members of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, they be convened and elect a Vestry consisting of 
twelve persons; to form the people into a regular society, and to procure 
a clergyman, who has been regularly ordained according to the rites and 
ceremonies of said Church, to officiate among as frequently as it is in his 
power to do so, and duly to administer the Holy Ordinances. The Ves- 
try shall be chosen annually. 

Art. 8th. That there shall be no fee or reward demanded for the ad- 
ministration of the Holy Ordinance of Baptism. 

Art. 9th. All the Clergy shall be amenable to the Convention for 
any immorality or misbehavior, and for countenancing and encouraging 
any doctrines contrary to the Holy Scriptures comprehended in the Arti- 
cles of our Church. 

Art. loth. Any Church or Parish in this State not represented at the 
time of ordaining this Constitution, shall be entitled to the benefit thereof, 
as soon as the members shall signify their ratification in writing, or by a 
deputy to the State Convention. 

Art. I ith. That no person professing himself to be a Clergyman of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, shall be permitted to preach in any of 
the churches or Chapels in the State, until he shall produce his Orders to 
the rector or minister of said church or chapel, or the vestry. 

Art. 12th. The Bishop or President during the recess of the annual 
Convention shall have the power of calling an especial Convention on any 
urgent occasion, at such time as to him may appear most convenient, and 
at the place to which the preceding Convention adjourned itself. 



•This refers, no doubt, to the old borough towns of Edenton, Halifax, Newbern, Wil- 
mington, Hillsboro and Salisbury, which, under the Constitution of 1776, were entitled 
to one Representative each in the General Assembly. 



43« 

AitT. 13th. This Constitation shall remain pefmasetit until it maj be 
deemed necessaiy by thfee-fourths of any future Convention to aher or 
amend the same. 

Done and ratified in Convention in Tarborough May 3i8t, 1794, and 
signed by 

Chari,ss Peti^i&rkw, 

President of the Convention. 

J. I/KIGH, NaTHANIKI, BI^UNT, 

I. OuioN, Joseph Guri^by, 

R. Whytb, James I/. Wh^on, 

Benj. Woods, Solomon Halting, 

Joseph Perkins, R. Johnston Miller, 

I/. Desseaux, 
William Grimes, 
Robert Godley, 
William Clements. 



[APPENDIX B.] 

TESTIMONIAL OF THE RKV. CHARI^KS PETTIGREW. 

We, the subscribers, having met in Convention, at Tarborough, in 
North Carolina,^ on the 28th* day of May, 1794, for the purpose of con- 
sidering the declining situation of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 
this State, and having chosen the Rev. Charles Pettigrew as a person fit 
to be our Bishop, and worthy to be recommended for consecration to that 
holy office — but being sensible that the great distance at which the laity, 
as well as the clergy of this State live from each other deprives us of 
sufficient personal acquaintance with one another to subscribe a testimo- 
nial in the words prescribed by the General Convention of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, have thought it necessary and proper to make some 
deviation therefrom, which we presume to hope will be no obstacle to our 
laudable pursuit. We therefore do hereby recommend to be consecrated 
to the office of a Bishop, the said Reverend Charles Pettigrew, whom, 
from his morality, religious principles, piety of life, from his general 
reputation in a clerical character, from the personal knowledge we have 
of him, and from his sufficiency in good learning, and soimdness in faith, 
we are induced to believe worthy of being consecrated to that important 
office. We hereby promise and engage to receive him as such when 
canonically consecrated and invested therewith, and to render that 
canonical obedience which we believe to be necessary to the due and 



♦This Testimonial could not have been actually signed before Saturday, May 31st, 
the day on which the election was made; but the old rule of law refers every act of a 
legislative assembly to the first day of the session, and so this paper is dated May 28th 
Wednesday, the day on which the Convention met 



433 

proper discharge of so important a trust in the Church of Christ And we 
now address the Right Reverend the Bishops in the several United States, 
praying their united assistance in consecrating this our said brother and 
canonically investing him with the Apostolic office and powers. 

In testimony wherof, we hereto subscribe our names, the day and year 
above written. 

J. Leigh, M. D. N. Blount, 

I. GuiON, M. D., J. L. Wilson, 

R. Whytb, \ T awvers J' GurlEY, 

B. Woods, /lawyers, g Halling, 

W. Clements, R. J. Miller, 

L. Desseaux, (Ofthe Clergy.) 

W. Grimes, 
R. GoDLEY, {Ofthe Laity.) 



UST OF BOOKS II,I,USTRATINO THE HISTORY OF THE 

CHURCH IN NORTH CAROI^INA, 

OR ASSOCIATED THEREWITH, EXHIBITED DURING THE 

JOINT CONVENTION AT TARBOROUOH. 



TITI^E OP BOOKS. NAME OF OWNER. 

I. — Collection of I^ws of the Province of 
North Carolina; Swann. The "Yellow Jacket," 
printed by James Davis, Newbem, 1752; the 
first book printed in North Carolina. Jos. Blount Cheshire, Jr, 

2, — Collection of I^ws of the Province of 
North Carolina, James Davis, Newbem; * 'Davis's 
1st Revisal," 1764 " " 

3. — Revisal of the I^ws of North Carolina, 
James Davis, Newbem, 1773. ''Davis's 2d Revi- 
sal." (Contains autographs of Judge Richard 
Henderson, Jesse Benton, Maj. Pleasant Hen- 
derson, and others) Wm. H. Bailey, LLD. 

4. — Sermon before Gov. Try on and the Troops 
at Hillsboro' in 1768, by I^ev, Geo. Micklefohn, 
S. T, D.y printed by James Davis, Newbem, 1768. Hon. Wm h. Saunders. 

5. — '^Admiranda Narration Fida tamen^^^ 
&c. (Latin copy of Hariot's "Brief and True 
Report;" with Jno. White's drawings of the 
Natives. &c. DeBry : Frankfort, 1 590 Jos. Blount Cheshire, Jr. 

6. — The Bible of George Durante the first set- 
tler in Albemarle — Old Testament, Geneva ver- 
sion. New Testament by Tomsony I^ondon, 1599. State Historical Society. 

7, — Family Bible of George Durant, son of the 
preceding — containing family records of the 
Durant, Blount, Littlejohn, and Reed families. 
King James's Version, I^ondon, 1713 Mrs. Fred. Nash. 

8. — An Application of the Church Catechism, 
&c., by Gabriel Towerson\hondon, 1685. From 
Dr. Bray's Library at Bath Diocese of East Caroiina. 



435 

IJST OK BOOKS. NAMK OF OWNRK. 

9. — Book of Coninioii Prayi-r; London, 1749. 
I'^'onnerly belonj^ed to the R«.*\ . Thos. Hiirges ot" 
Kdgecombe Parish, Halifax county Mrs. Melissa Lonj^. 

10. — Rook of Conimon Prayer. I'ornierly be- 
longed to Jiio. Nicholls, of Hcrlie I>ioccsc u\' Ivist Carolina. 

II. — X'^niversity Sermons, /iVr'. Heiny Ada ins. 
Published by Henry Sacheverell. London. \~\h. 
Formerly belonged to Rev. Chas. Iv Taylor. <.)f 
Northampton and Halifax, one of the Chap- The Rev. Jos. 

lams of the Provincial Congress of 1775. at hlonnt Cheshire, I). I)., 
Hillslx)ro Tarl x )r()ugli, 

12. — Bishop Barlow's Remains; London, 1795: 
printed by the i'AWiow*^ John Duntov. Helonjjt-d 
to Rev. Chas. K.Taylor 

13. — Burnett on the XXXIX .Xriieles. Fonn- 
erly belonged to the Rev. Wni. Holt, minister 
to St. Mary's, Edgecombe county, rmv/. r7.S.s... Jos. Blount Cheshire, Jr. 

14. — Sennons, &c., by the Rev. Henry I\xt- 
tillo, an eminent Presbyterian niiuisler ofCrran- 
ville county; Wilmington, James .\danis. 178X... •' •' 

15. — The book called *'Luther." ])ublished by 
the Lutheran vSvnodof North Carolina in i.SiS... " " 



INDEX. 



[This Index is only to the Addresses, &c. , and does not include the 
proceedings of the Conventions in the first part of this volume.] 



Abbott, Henry 244 

Abemathy Family; 376 

Academy, at Edenton; 171, 178-9, 255 — 7 

atNewbem; 85, 151, 169—179, 258-9, 275 f 

at Wilmington ("The Innes"); 143-4, 164, 261 

Act of Assembly relating to the Church: 

of 1701, 52, 95; of 1708, 56; of 171 1, 53, 56, 57; of 
I7i5> 63, 64; of 1729, 67; of 1741, 67; of 1762, 76; 

of 1764, 77 

Concerning Marriage ; by Clergymen of the Church, 68 

by Dissenting Ministers,.... 69, 79 

of S. C. Assembly falsely attributed to N. C... 53, 54 

Adams. Rev. James; 50, 53, 55, 97, 125, 126, 164 

James; 264, see also Appendix 

Albemarle, Duke of. 93 

Alexander, Rev. John 166-7 

Ambrose, Philip; 173 

Amidas, Philip; 92. Amidas and Barlow's Narrative, 91 

Anderson's Hist., of the Church of England in the Colonies; 71 

Andrews, Sam'l., exempted from Act of Pardon and Oblivion; 153, nole 

Archdale, Gov.; 97. Precinct of; 162 

Ardem, John; 120 

Arendt, Rev. Johan Gottfriedt, a Lutheran Minister; 385 

Asbury, Rev. Francis; 381 

Ashe Family; i33— 5» 181, 193, 249. 

John (1703); 133- Jo^ (2d), "5, 133-4; John 

Baptista, 107, 128, 133 

Judge Samuel, 134; Sam'l. A., 97, 127 

William S., 135; Judge Thomas S., 136 

Asheville, Bishop Ravenscrofl's firstvisit to; 319 

Atkinson, Rt. Rev. Thomas; 

292—5, 304, 309, 323, 324, 332, 333, 337, 342, 343 

Attamuskeet Indians; 73, 167 

Avery, Rev. John, 179, 213, 249, 256—8 



438 

Babbitt, Rev. P. T...... 303,304 

Badham, William; 153 

Bailey, Rev. Thomas; 65 

Baker Family; ; 150 

Judge Blake, 264. Henry, 150 

Dr. Simmons J., 84, 150, (and Mrs. Baker) 273 

Banbury (or Benbury), Wm; ....' ;. 52, 118,120 

Thomas, John A% and Lemuel C;... ............:.. lab 

Baptists; 66, 82,243 

alleged persecution of; 61 

Barbour, Rev. John Humphrey; , .157 

Barker, Thomas; 146 

Barlow, Arthur; Amidas and Barlow 's Expedition ; 91 

Bamett, Hev. John; 74, 116 

Barrenger, Genl. Paul; 401, 408. Genl. Rufus;.... 375 

Bath, the oldest town in N. C; (see also "St, Thomas' 

Church," Bath) 209 

Battle, Hon. KempP.;.... 91. See also Appendix 

Kemp P. Jr., 32S. Richard H.; 328 

Judge William Hi; 151 

Bagley, Ambrose Cox; '. 173 

Beard,. John Lewis; ...; 403 

Bedell, Rev. G. T.; 401, 4117 

Berkeley, Bishop; 88 

Parish, Perquimans County: 84 

Sir William, Governor of Virj^inia; 47 

Bernhardt, Rev. Christopher, a LutlKran Minister; 385 

Rernheini, Rev. G. I)., a Lutheran Minister; 398, 406 

His History ot" the Lutheran Churches and Ger- 
man Settlements in the Carolinas;.... 378, 379; 385, 389-90, 404 

Berry, Chief Justice Charles; 139 

Revis, Rev. Christopher; 69 

Blacknall, Rev. John; 69 

Blair, George ; 1 79 

Rev. John, sent to Albemarle in 1704, the first 

Missionary of the S. P. G. to N. C; 52,. 55, 161 

Blinn, Rev Peter; 73, 83, 84 

Blount Family; 122 — 3, 249 275 

James, 122. John, 52, 118, 120, 122, 123, James, 
Jr., 154. Jacob. 122, 154, 17 ^\, 272. John Gray, 

122. Col. John, 123, 219. 230, 232. Joseph, 

123. 179. Joseph, Jr.. 123. (see also Appendix). 
Mrs. Mary Sumner, ("Jacky"). 264; her bequest 
to l)iiilrl a Church in Raleigli. 276. Rev. Nathaniel, 
73. •'^4, «'><'>. 183, 184, 200, 202, 208, 213, 216, 252, 
254, 261-2, 272-3, (see also Ajipendix.) Maj. Read- 



439 

ing, 122. Genl. Thomas, 122, 264, 276. Maj. 
Thomas H., 273. Thomas, 52, 118, 122. Gov. 
William, 122, 273. Wm. Augustus, 122. Gov. 

Willie, 122 

**Bloimt's Chapel" (Trinity Church, Chocowinity) 212-13, 261, 272 

Blythe Family, 376. Frank 369-70 

Bonner's (/. e Bennett's) Creek, 48 

Bonner, Henry, 120. James, 154 

Boyd, Rev. Adam, 249, 259 — 61 

Rev John 67 

Brainerd, (spelled in the text Brainard), Rev. C. C, 212 

Branch Family, 265 

'*Bray's Associates," 73, 167-8 

Rev. Dr. Thomas, Commissary of the Bishop of 

Ivondon 51, 95 

sends Books to Albemarle, and a Minister, 52 

establishes the Society called "Bray's Associ- 
ates," for the education of slaves, 167-8 

Brett, Rev. Daniel, first Minister in Albemarle, 52 

Brevard, Mrs. R. J., 325 

Bronson, Rev. Benjamin S., 323, 329, 331. "Bronson Hall," 

in the Thompson Orphanage, 331 

Brownrigg, Richard, 179 

Bryan, A. P , 328 

Buel. Rev. D. H., D. D., 310, 311 

Buncombe, Col. Edward, 145, i8r 

Burges, Dr. A. S. H., 276. Rev. Henry John, 83, 84, 276. 

Rev. Thomas. 75, 83, 246, 252, 262, 273. 

Burgess, Bishop, his "List of persons ordained Deacons".... See Appendix 
Burgwin, or Burgpvyn. 

John Burgwin, 140. Geo. B. Burgwin, 140. Hill 
Burgwin, 140. Jno. F. Burgwyn, 140. Wm. H. S. 

Burgwyn, 140 

Burrington, Gov. George, 65, 67, 100, 103, 104, 105, 107 

Burton Family, 376 Col. Robert 207, 376 

Bute County (now Franklyn and Warren); 150, 227 

Court House 229 

Butler, Bishop, 88 

Buxton, Rev. Jarvis, D. D., 297, 311; Rector of Parish at 

Asheville," 309 

Bynum, Rev. William S., 315-6 

Caldcleugh, Alexander, 408 

Caldwell, Rev. David, ti6, 179, 238. His Life by Caruthers, 177, J78 

Rev. Joseph, 238 

Calvary Church, Tarborough, 270, 274 



440 

Calvaxy Church, Wadeebpro*, » « 969, 970, 974 

Catnenm Fitnily, 968. Hon Dnncaii, .1^, .376, 401, 407, 408 

CssnpbcUi Johfii • p% •• •••••• •••••••••••^ 154 

GwicHdatet lor Holy Ofdtn, - r—*^9 83, 84, 949 

.Their Difliculttoi uiq 0iiigcfii,«««*««««««.«.»««.«»«**«»««*- , 84r~7 

*'Cap€ V^aat Hercviy, ThCy" a ngw apap er, , . 959 

Carey, Od lluMiiaa, -. ....^.56, 6a, 97. S<li!99 

Caiolina; The naine of part of North Asncrica, .when and why «. 

gl^'^tt* - V....... ,. , .43 

Carteret, Lord, «.,., 99 

Cartwiight (or Carteret) Got. Feter,.^ •.. .. .'94 

Gamthera, Rer. B. W., hia errm in matten eccleajaatiqii 

and religioiia, , .' ,. 177^178 

'K!aatanea," Pre a h y ter i aa Chorch, *. 369 

Dwwell, Gov. Riduod, 115,^49, 154, 181, 189 

Cathcart, Dr., ...« .,.,.. 146 

Oiarlea I, hk grant to 8ir Robert Heath, ^ .....^..•.,.. ^ 43, 44 

n, hia two Charten, ....<,..,. ,....,.....,...^14, 46^ 57, 81, 93 

Cherc&ee Boundary, Gov. Tryon'a eztravaganoe jnTnmung-it . 1 14, 1 15 
Cheshire, Rev. Joa. Bloiint, 193, (aee alao Appendix). . Joa. . 

Konnt, Jr., 194^ 153, 157, 170, 943, 33a, 369, aee ahio Append 

Chevin, Nathaniel, ,^,...^^, ., 53, 118, lao 

Childa, Thomas, « ^. 150 

Christ Church. Newberii, 74, 169, 179, 948, 949, 958-^ 367, 

(see also Appendix), its Communion Serviced 19 

Christ Church, Raleigh, , ,... 269,, 270, 276 

Christ Church, Rowan, 269, 270, 274, 390. 394, 398, 399 

Christian, Rev. Nicholas, 74 

Chowan Parish — see "St. PauPs Church, Edenton. 
''Church Messenger, the'' 378, *'Chufch Review, ihe'^ 378. 

''Churchman, the'' , 13 

Churton, Richard, the first lay-reader in St. PauPs Church, 

Edenton, 119 

Clark Family, 264,27s 

Christopher, 264; Gov. Henry T., 263 note\ Hon. 

James W., 264; Rev. Wm.. M., 327, 328 

Clarkson, Mrs. T. S., 325, 329 

Clay, Rev. Jehu Curtis, 249 

Clear, Timothy, , 173 

Clements, William 152, 183, 189, 190, 264, see also Appendix 

Clergy during the provincial period, their character, 89, 90 252 

Clitherall, John, 173 

Closs, Rev. William, a Methodist Preacher, 217 

Coffin, Miss J., 328 

Cogdell, Richard, 172, 173 

Cogswell, Joseph G., , 501 



441 

Coke, the Rev. Thomas 266, 380, 381 

Collett, Capt 86 

Collins Family 249 

Josiah, 239, 258; Josiah, Jr 288 

Colonial Records, the North Carolina, 55, 105 

Communion, the Holy Communion, its first administration 

in the Province of North Carolina 124 

Compton, Spencer, Earl of Wilmington 106 

Conacarara Chapel, Halifax County 72, 273 

Confirmation, administered by Rev. Robt. J. Miller 394 

Congress, Provincial, of North Carolina. At Hillsboro*, 

August, 1775, (sse Appendix). At Halifax, 1776, 83, 271 
Convention of the vStateof N C, July, 1788, held its Sessions 

in old St. Matthews' Church, Hillsboro', 272 

Conventions of 1790, 1793 ^^^ ^794; 1^2 — 93, 243, 246 — 8, 262, 

274, 341, 342, 372-3, 385 — 7; for Journals of same, see Appendix 

Convention of the Diocese of N. C, organized in 18 17 34 f, 342 

Convocational System adopted 316 

Conway, Peter 173 

Corbin, Francis .•. 71, 150 

Cornell, (erroneously Cof nue on page 154). Samuel J54, 173 

Comue, (error for Cornell, as above) 154 

Cornwallis, Lord ^53-4. ^^ote 

Cotten Family 275 

Cotting, Eliu 173 

Covenantees, settlers in Mecklenburg County 78 

Cox, Longfield 173 

Craighead, Rev. Thomas, a Presbyterian Minister, 260; Jane, 260 
Craven Parish; see Christ Church, Newbern. 

Crawford, Rev. Mr., "an Episcopal Minister," 393 

Creecy, Col. R. B 124 

Crisp, Nicholas 52, 118, 120 

Culpepper, Gov. John 94 

Cupples (sometimes Kupples), Rev. Charles 83, 265 

Curratuck Parish 52, 162 

Curtis, Rev. M. A 212, 301 

Cutlar Family 12S 

Cutting, Rev, Leonard 183, 184, 258, (see also Appendix) 

D'Allone. his bequest to Dr. Bray for a fund for the educa- 
tion of Slaves in the English Colonies 168 

Daly, John 173 

Daniel, Gov. Robert 54, 55, 96 

Dare, Virginia, first child born in America of English parents, 92 

Daves, John 152 

Davis, Rev, Samuel, a Presbyterian Minister 226 



443 

Dftvk WmaSfy, of llie Ci^e Fear, 136; of Qrance, 371; Hob. 

Geotge, 134, 136; Jamo^ tibefint printer in Nortli 

Ctfolnui, 83, 147, 173; RcT. Robert, 398^ 40B; . 

Hioinaei iia; Rt. Rer. Thoe. P., of & C, 13161 993; 

WOHam, ^ 154 

Dawson, John end Wm. Johnaton, 146 

Deal, Rev. John A., • 319 

DeFoe, Daniel w 9a, f6 

DeGnUflfenreid, Banm, * 61, 99, 100^ is6 

Dent, Rev. Hatch, « 373, aee also Jkppandax, 

DeRoaaet Family, 142-3, 249; Dr. Armand John (i), 143; 

{«)• 143; (3). '43. 33«; I^ewia, 14a, 154; Moaea Jolm, 142, 160 

Deweanz, Leonard, «aee ^A^ppendiz 

Devereiiz, Jon, Thomaa P., and Franoea, ,«—..• loi 

Dickinaon, Dr. aee Appendix 

Dillon, James, ^ • 336 

Diocese of North Carolina, ofganiiation of^ 967 

Dissenteisin the Province of North Carolina, 59^ 60^ 68, 79, 80, 8a, 344 

Dobb, Got. Arfhnr, 75, jro9 — 14. His Thank^giviiig Hymn, iii 

offers a donation towards teatablisliing a school 

among the Catawba Indiana, 169; E d w ar d Brioe, 

X13-4; County, name changed to Lenoir, X14; 

Parish, the Moravian Settlement, 78, 163 

Dow, Lorenzo, «. an 

Drage, Rev. Theodoras Swain 78,79,403—5 

Drake, Sir Francis, '. '26,92 

Drane, Rev. Robert B, 161 

Dreher, Rev. Godfrey, a Lutheran Minister, 400 

Dromgool, Rev. Edward, a Methodist Preacher, 220 

I>rummond, Gov. William, 47,127 

Dry, William, 154 

Duckenfield, William, 52, 64, 118, 121; Nathaniel, 120; Sir 

Nathaniel 121-2, 154 

Durant, George, first permanent white settler in N. C, 44, 47 

His Bible, see Appendix 

Durant 's Neck, place of first permanent settlement, 44 

Dutch Reform, where settled in N, C, 77 

Kagles Family, 249; Alexander, 173 

Karl, Rev. Daniel, 75. 84, 146, 168-9, 219. 229, 230, 231, 235 

East Carolina, DiocevSe of, 343> 344-5 

Kden, Gov. Charles, 63, 99, roi — 3, 104; Penelope, said to 

have been daughter of the preceeding, 103 

Edenton, 81, 100, 251, 255—7 

Edgecombe County, record concerning dissenting ministers, 60 

Inhabitants originally Churchmen, 263-4 

Parish 72, 75, 163, 246,273 



443 

Edmundson, William, the first Quaker preacher in N. C 47, 149 

Edwards, Jonathan, and Eunice hisdaughter, loi 

Ellis, Richard, 173 

Emmanuel Church, Warrenton, 269, 270 

Empie, Rev. Adam, 251 notey 261, 266, 267, 301, 317, 

386, 389, 394-5,401, 407 

Euens, Will., .*. 173 

Evangelist, Diocesan, 314 — 6 

Everard, Gov. Sir Richard, 65, 103, 104-5, io7 

Falcon, John, 207 

Fanning, David, excepted from the Act of Pardon and 

Oblivion, 153, note\ Edmund 149 

Fenner, Richard, 172, 173 

Ferrers, Earl, his daughter Mary married Charles Tryon, 116 

Fite Family, 376 

Fonville, John, 173 

Forbes, Rev. Edward M 377 

Forney, Family, 376; Daniel M 376 

Fox, George, visits Albemarle 48 — 50, 95 

Mrs. Julia 325, 329 

Franck, John 173 

Free Churches in North Carolina 353 

Freeman, Edmund, 256; Rt. Rev. George W., 256; Rev. 

Jonathan Otis, a Presbyterian Minister 179, 239, 256 

French Settlers at Newbem 61 

French, Rev. Wm. G 317 

Frohock (erroneously Frobock in text) , John 149 

Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina 45, 57 

Gale, Chief Justice Christopher, 100, 137 — 8; Edmund 153 

Garden, Commissary, of S. C 66, 67 

Garzia, Rev. John 12, 69, 70 

Gaston, Alexander 173 

Geer, Rev. Edwin 212 

Geprge II, 12, 87 

George III, 12, 76, 87, 88 

George, Rev. T. M. N 321 

German Settlers in North Carolina 61, 77, 78 

Gerrard, Rev. Henry 120, 123 

Gilliam, Thomas 118 

Glebes, 207; In some instances sold and the price appropri- 
ated for county purposes 209 

Glover, Gov. William, 55, 56, 96. 97, 99, loi, 124, 164 

Good Friday, a public fast-day by order of the Assembly in 

17 1 1 62 



444 

Gordon, Pat, 173; Rev. William, 55, 56, 96, 97, 99, 101, 121, I24> ^*5- J«7 

Grace Chapel, Pitt County 269,3^0 

Graham, George, a Baptist Minister » 60 

Granberry, Mrs 145 

Granville, Earl of, 71; Rev. Bevel. 66; Parish, 83, i^ 

Grassy Creek, (Presbyterian Church) 226 

Gray, Thomas 154 

Green, F., 190, (see also Appendix); James, Jr., 154; John, 
173; Roger, "Clark", of Va., attempts a settle- 
ment in N. C, 44; Rt. Rev. William M 211, 212 

Grenville, Sir Richard 91 

Griffin, Charles 124 — ^5, 164 

Griffith, Rev. David 218 

Grosnenduyk, Cornelius 173 

Groves, Rev. (?) 212 

Guion, Dr. Isaac 249, see also Appendix 

Gurley, Rev. Stephen 190, see also Appendix 

Hager Family 376 

Hall Family, 128; Rev. Clement, 70 — 2, 74, 252; Edward, 

154; Judge Enoch, 139; Moses,. 154 

Hailing, Rev. Solomon, 189, 190 — j, 199, 201, 203, 208, 249, 

252, 258, 261, (see also Appendix) 

Hampden Sidney College 292 

Hardy, Benjamin, 154; Robert, 179; Rev. William, a Meth- 
odist preacher 214 

. Harell, error for Hasell, which see. 
Hariot, Thomas,' 91; His "Brief and True Report," &c.,...(see Appendix) 

Harrison, President Wm. H 84 

Harvey Family, 144—5, 233; Gov. John, 94, 138, 144—5; 

John 144—5, 181 

Hasell, (given erroneously Harell on page 139), James 139, 154 

Haslen, Thomas , 172 

Hatch, Rev. Frederick W., 256 

Hatteras Indians, school for them 73 

Hawkins Family, 148, 265; Benjamin, 227 — 9; Philemon, 148, 154, 229 

Hawks, Rev. Francis Iv., his History of N. C.,...53, loi, 189, 378, 380, 389 
Haywood Family, 148, 152, 264. 275; Egbert, 148; John, 148; 

Judge John, 148; Treasurer John, 148; Sherwood, 

14S; Sherwood, Jr., 148; William, 60, 148, 154; 

William H., Jr., 148, 276 

Heath, Sir Robert, his grant of Carolina from Charles I; 43, 44 

Henderson Family^ 138, 271; Archibald, 139; David, 120; 

John S., 139, Chief Justice I^eonard, 139, 151, 210, 

211; Judge Richard, 139; William F 210, 212 

Henkel, Rev David, a Lutheran Minister 374 — 5, 396 



445 

Henkelites, a IvUtlieran party or sect 374 — 5 

Henly, Chief Justice Peter 139 

Henry Family 238 

Henshaw, Rt. Rev J. P. K 293 

Herritage, William 153 

Hewes, Joseph, signer of the Declaration of Independence, 

• 123, 146, 154, I79» 181 

Highlanders, Settlers in North Carolina 82 

Joined by the Regulators and Parson Micklejohn 

in the battle of Moore's Creek 82 — 3, 265, 268 

Hill Family of Bute (Franklin) County.... 265 

Charles N., 128; Jos. A , William and William H., 
142; Mrs. Thos. B., 273; Green, first Methodist 
Conference in N. C. held at his house, 380, 381; 

Henry see Appendix 

Hines Family, 275, Francis G., 128; Dr. P. E., 327, 328; 

Thomas, 154; Rev. Richard 212 

Hoke, Hon, Wm. A 332 

Holmes, Rev. Lucian 311 

Holt. Rev. William, 263, (see also Appendix); Mrs. Wm. E., 

329; Dr. William R 408 

"Holy Cross," Order of the, at Valle Crucis ,^ 318 

Hooper Family, 249, William, signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, 153, 181; Rev. William. 276; John 

DeBernier 301 

Hospitals in North Carolina 321 

St. Peter's Home and Hospital, Charlotte 323 — 5 

St. John's Hospital, Raleigh 325 — 8 

Good Samaritan Hospital for Negroes, Charlotte, 328 — 9 

Howard, Chief Justice Martin 139 

Howe, Job, 140; Gen. Robert, 115, 141 — 2, 154; Thomas 

Cliflford 172, 173 

Howell, Joseph 60 

Hubbard, Rev. Fordyce M., D. D., 303 

Hughes, Rev. N. Collin, D. D., 31, 305 

Huguenots gave the name Carolina to Coast of America 43 

a Colony settled near Bath 56, 66 

Humphrey's History of the S. P. G., 166 

Hunt, William 211 

Huske Family, 268; Rev. Joseph C, D. D 377 

Hyde, Gov. Edward, 56, 58, 62, 97, 98; Parish, 162; Testi- 
mony of Vestry in favor of Rev. Mr. Bailey 65 

Indians: Massacre and War of 171 1; 62, 99; September 22d, 
a public fast-day in memory thereof, 64; Schools 

for Indians, 73, 165, 167, 169; Indian Slaves, 99; , 

Indian blood in many negro slaves 100 



446 

Innes, Col. James, tmdthe "ittnes Academy'* f43 — 4, i€6 

Iredell, Judge James, 115, 159, 145, 181, 249; Got. James.'..... 299 

Irving, Rev. Thomas P. 249, ^5^^ 

Irwin (on pages 264 and 275 spelled incorrectly Irvin) ■ 

Family 152, 264,275 

Ives, Rt. Rev. Levi S.. 287—92, 293, 297, 305, 306, 307, 3fi«, 

3i«. 337. 342, 376. 377 

Jarratt, Rev. Deverenx 381 

Jenkins, Gov. John 94 

Johnson Family, of Chowan, 146 — 7; i^harles, 146—7, 249; 
Charles Bad (i), 146; Br. Charles B. (2), r46; 

Charles B. (3), 147, 328 

Johnston, Commissarjr of^ 8. C 64 

Family, of Bdgecombe, 152, 264; Rev. F^rancis, 
83, 84; Gov. Gabriel, 67, 75, 103; 105— «; Isabella, 
146; James C, 146; John, 145; Maj. Jonas, 150; 
Mrs. Nancy, (ne^ Forney) 376 fwi^; Sir Nathaniel, 
Gov. of S. C, 53, 54, 96; Gov. Samuel, 115, 123, 
128, 145—6, 179, ^^ i8«. 183, 184, 186, 220, 249; 

Dr. William 376 

Jone^^Family, of Halifoz i8i 

Rev. Bir., of Va. , 66; Bdward, of Warren County, 
207; Rev. Bdward, 83, 84, 85—7, 211; Mrs. H. C. 
Jones. 325; Dr. Johnson B., 153 note; Joseph, 173, 
Marmaduke, 154; Rev. Stephen, (see Appendix); 
Mrs. Richard L/., 329; Thomas, of Cape Fear, 128; 

Thomas, of Edenton 123, 146, 179 

Judd, Rev. Bethel 261, 268 

Kehukee Chapel 151, 262 273 

Kent Family 4<X) 

Kimbelle, Burchatt, grave of. 370 

Kittrell, Jonathan ...see Appendix 

Knight Family, of Edgecombe 152, 263, 264 

Tobias loi 

Knox, Andrew, 154; Dr. A. W 328 

Kollock, Rev. vSheplierd, a Presbyterian Minister 226 

Lanion, Duncan 60 

Lane, Joel, 152; Ralph, 91,92 

Lapierre, Rev. John 66,69 

Lardner, Mrs. Annie L 329 

Latta Family, of Orange County, 271; C. G., 328 

Lau'S Church (Lutheran), Guilford County 407 

Lawson, John 126 



447 

Ivay-Readers 119, 124-5, ^3^, 150, 164, 178,^206, 244 

Layrle, Christopher 404 

Leech, Col. Joseph 74, 154, 172, 249, see also Appendix 

Leigh. Dr. John, 152, 185, 187, 190, 198, 250, 251, 264, see also Appendix 

Lenoir, Thomas, Leah, and Gen'l. William 150 

Lewis, Homell, 226; Dr. R. H 326, 328 

Lewistown, Bertie County; Old Chapel there 214 

Libraries, l^blic, in the Province of N. C 52, 129, 157 

Lillington Family, 135-6, 193; Gov. Alexander, 94, 96, 127; 

Gen'l. Alexander J15, 192 

Linnington, John 120 

Little, Chief Justice William 138 

Littlejohn, William 249 

Lloyd, Rev. Mr. and his wife, a sister to Gov. Eden 103 

Joseph R 275 

Locke, John, author of the Fundamental Constitutions 46, 161 

Lockhart, James, 192, 236; Mrs. Elizabeth, 236; Mary 222, 235, 236 

I^ng, James, (omitted by mistake from Chowan Vestr\' on 

page 52), 118; Colonel, see Appendix 

Lord Family 128 

Ivovick, John 103 

Lowe, Emmanuel 56 

Lowry, Mrs. R. W 273 

Ludwell, Gov. Philip 94 

Lu ten, Thomas 52, 118, 120, 129, 209 

Lutherans, in N. C, 77, 78, 116, 193, 220, 372—5, 382—5, 
389 — 93, 396; their relations with Churchmen, 
397-8, 400 — 10; relations w4th the Anglican 
Church, 361, 363-4, 383, 402; overtures in reign of 
Queen Anne looking to the Consecration by tli« 
English Bishops of Bishops for the Lutherans of 
Prussia, 402; their first congregation, minister and 
teacher in N. C, 404-5; the first ordination by the 

Lutheran Ministeriutn in N. C 382-3, 387, 3S8-9 

Lyman, Rt. Rev. Theodore B 34, 304, 332, 343 

McAden, Rev. Hugh, a Presbyterian Minister 116 

Macartney, Rev. James, 83, 21 1, note, (in this note the name 
Edward Jones is an error: it should be James 
Macartney.) ' 

McCorkle, Rev. Dr., hisschool 179 

McCullock, Alexander 154 

McDonald, Donald, 82; Ronald 312 

McDougal, Rev. (Sam'l, ?) see Appendix 

McDowell, Rev, John 74 

McKee, Dr. James 328 



448 • 

McKenzie, William .................see Appendix 

MacKilwean, Francis..... ...: I. ' 154 

McKiniie, William, ».........'...... 1 54, (printed erroneously McKinnon) 

Maclaine, Archibald ....'... :...{.'.. 155, iBi, 249 

McLeod, Rev. CD :.,...............'. ..;:'......:......'.......:;; 21% 

McLester/Miss M.... :..........^ ..'..; * ' . 328 

McMasters, Rev. Sterling Y....... .'. ..; ....::.......... 212 

Macon, John, 207; Nathaniel......... 227, 228,229 

McRee, Griffith J., 218, 222; His Life of Judge Iredell...*..... 272 

Madison, Bishop .........;...i ........see Appendix 

Mallett Family........ ...:. 268 

Peter, curious circumstance of his being' accused 
of treason during the Revolution , with explanation 

of the facts...!.... .."..■..153, and note 

Marsden, Rev. RichiEwd .66, 69, 124, 164 

Marshall, Rev. Matthias M., D. D :.... .".327, 328, 341 

Martin, Gov. Alexander, 118; Gov. Josiah, 87, 117-8, 154, 176, 
2x9. 227; F. X., his "Private Statutes of N. C.,*' 

258; County, named after Gov. Josiah Martin. .118 

Mashbum, Mr , his school at Sarum »•. 164, 165 

Meade, Bishop, his "Old Churches and Families of Va., *'.... 125 

Medley, Bishop, of Frederickton 293 

Methodists, 243, 379 — 8r; counted as Churchmen, 82; Mr. . 
Pettigrew's relations with them, 2 r 7-18; their re- 

lation to the Church 361, 362, 380-1 

Micklejolin, Rev. George, 76, <S2, 83, 85, 116, 183, 211, 212, 

..265-6, 270-1, see also Appendix 

Miller, EHsha P., 379, 400; George and Margaret, parents 
of Rev. Robtert J., 379; Gov. Thomas, 94; Rev. 
Robert Johnston, 189,193, 245, 250, 251, 266, 267, 
273-4; Sketches of his life and work, 369 — 400, 
401, 405, 407; His Ordination by the I^utheran 

Ministerium^ and his Letters o if Orders 384-5 

Mills Family, of Iredell Coinity, 399; Charles, 399; James, see Appendix 
Rev. John, on page 74 is an error for Rev. John Wills, 

Missionary Society, Diocesan 313-4 

Moir, Rev. James 69, 71, 166 

Montfort, Joseph , 154 

Moore ramily, of Cape Fear 131-3, 193, 249 

r'aniily ot Mount Tirza, Person County, 205; 
Judge Alfred, 133; Baxter H., 332; Charles, his ■ 
correspondence with Parson Pettigrew, 205 — 8, 
246; Miss Hattie, 325. Gov. James, 131; Col. 
James, Sr., 131; Col. James, Jr., 132-3, 140, 154; 
John, 173; Maurice, Sr., loi, 102, 131— 3. I35; 
Judge Maurice, 115, 133, 139, 154; Nathaniel and 



449 

Roger, 132; Geii'l. Stephen, 205, 206; Rt. Rev. 

Richard Channing, 275, 278, 2S5, 342. 396-7, 406, 

407, see also Appendix 

Moravians in N. C. 78, 163, 392; Their separate parish, 

''Dobbs Parish'' 78, 163 

Morgan, Rev. John 400 

Morson , Hugh 328 

Morton, Rev. Andrew 78, 116 

Moseley, Edw^ard, 12, 55, 56, 65, 96, 100, loi, 102, U)7, 120, 

121, 128 — 31, 157; Sampson, 131 

Muhlenberg, Rev. Dr., 297 

Murdoch, Rev, Francis J 310, 311, 357, 404 

Nantz Family, 376; Clement and Martha 371 

Nash Family 152, 249 

Gov. Abner, 74, 115, 152, 154, 18]; Gen'l. Francis, 

115, 152, 181; Mrs. Frederick, 434; Thomas, 152 

Neale, Christopher j 73 

Negro Slaves, efforts to Christianize them 64, 73, S3 

New Pearth Church (afterwards St. Michael's), Iredell 

County 396 

Newbern, (In some places in this Volume this name is spelled 
New Berne by an inadvertence of the Editor and 
proof-reader.) Settled by Swiss, Germans, and 
French, 61 ; see also "Christ Church," and "Craven 
Parish." 

"New-Lights," 76 

Newman, Rev. John 65, 74, 121 

Nicholson, Gov. Francis, of Va 95 

"North Carolina Chronicle and Fayetteville Gazette," a 

news-paper see Appendix 

North West Parish, Bertie 67, 163 

Norwood Family. 150, 265; John, 150, 270-1, see also Appen- 
dix; Judge William, 271; Rev. William 212, 214 

Nussman, Rev. A., the first Lutheran Minister in N. C, 373, 385, 405 

Oaths, of Allegiance tendered the Quakers, 54; Test, recjuired 

of Dissenting Ministers, 59, 60; the same recjuired 
of Civil Officers and of the Clergy of the Estab- 
lished Church 60 

Olmstead, Rev. A. F 377 

"Organ Church," Rowan 404 

Orphanage, The Thomp.son 329—32 

O.sborne, Col. Adlai, [ 15; Rev. Edwin A., 330, 332; Mrs. Iv. A., 325 

Otey. Rt. Rev. James H 212 

Packer, Miss S 273 

Paine Family 257 

Palatines under DeGraffenreid settle at Newbern 61, 100 

They desire to be received as members of^the 

Church 61 



450 

Palmer, Paul, first Baptist preacher in N. C 66 

Pamplico (or Pamptico) Parish, afterwards St. Thomas's 

Bath 52, 162 

Papists and Unitarians not included in the Act 'of Toleration, 59 
Parishes first established in N. C, in 1701, 52; List of, in 

the Province 163 

Parker Family, 275; Hajrwood, 312 

Parkinson, Bernard 123 

Parrott, Mr., teacher in the Newbem Academy 176 

Passmore, Rev. William... 317 

Pasquotank (afterward St. John's) Parish, 52, 162 

Pattillo, Rev. Henry, a Presbyterian Minister, 82 noUy 83, 116, 179, 219, 226 

Pender Family, 152, 264 

Perkins, John. 388; Joseph, 387, see also Appendix; Mary, 388 
Perquimans County, earliest settled in N, C.j 44; Parish 

(afterwards Berkely Parish) 52, 162 

Perry Family 265 

Person, Gen'l. Thomas 152, 207 

County, Proceedings of Churchmen of 206-7 

Pettigrew Family, 218, 224 — 6 

Rev. Charles, Bishop-elect in 1794, 84, 123, 179, 
181—241, 248, 249, 250, 252, 254, 255, 274, 341, 
373-4» 386, see also Appendix; Kbenezer, 222, 230, 
233, 234, 236, 238, 239; James, "the Emigrant," 
225—7; James L., (Pettigru of S. C), 226; Gen'l. 
James Johnston, 218, 223, 238; John, 230, 233, 239; 

William, 22S; Rev. Wm. S 181, 212, 234, 238 

I'ettijrrew's Chapel 192, 202, 215 — 18, 222 

Phelps, Jos., the discoverer of I^ake Phelps 215, 216 

Philips Family 264 

Philli])s, Henry, first Quaker in N. C 48 

Rev. John 249, 259. 263, 274—6 

l»ilmonr, Rev. Joseph 372, 384, 387 

l^indar, John 173 

1 Mnmmer, Thomas 229 

Polk. Rt. Rev. J/eonidas loi 

1 \)llock 1 'amil y 98 — loi 

C'.ov. Tlumias, 52, 56, 98 — loi, 118, 119, 120, J23, 
129, 172; Cullen. George and Thomas, Jr., sons of 
the ])receding, lou; Thomas, Cnllen (see also 173), 
and Georj^e, sons of Thomas, Jr., 100; Thomas, 

and Frances, children of Thomas (3) above loi 

Porter l-'aniily, Connections and Descendants M6-7 

J«hn 56, 119 

Presbyterians, marriages by their ministers 69, 79, 80 

Their ministers support Gov. Try on in the Regu- 



451 

lation troubles of 1768; their letter to the (lOvernor 

aiui the Pastoral to their ])eople. 72, 82, 8^, 1 16; 

their number in N. C, after the Revolution, 243-4; 

their relation to the Anj<lican Church 361-2 

Presentation to Churcheii and Parishes, Rijfht of. Si 

Preston, John S. and William Hallard 292 

Prince, Ilenrv A 7. w > 

Prn])erty of the Church in N. C., secured by Ordiance of the 

vState Congress of 1776 271 

Proprietors of CaroHna 44, 45. 46, 59, Si. 92. 93, 94, 96 

They jjive /.'2(K) towards the Church in Ivlenton, 75 

Provost, Rt. Rev. Samuel 34 

Prout, Rev. II. H 212. 306, 307, 317 — 20 

Provincial System 3^ S-9 

Quakers, their first appearance in N. C 47-S 

their numbers in Albemarle, 50, 55, 56; the 

Ouaker troubles of 1 704-1 1, 54. see also ])ajj^es 59, 76, 95, 99 

Rail, Hishop, (])robably A'aii, which see) 379 

Rainsford, Rev. Ciiles, 63, 98; his interest in the Indians 63. 165 

Rait, Rev. James, liisho]) of Hrechin 379 ffo/r 

Raleigh, vSir Walter 27, 44, 91 

Ratz, Col. Henry 401, 407, 40S 

Ranch, Michael 407, 4(yS 

Ravenscrofl, Rt. Rev. John Stark, 192, 210, 211, 212. 245, 

265, 271, 274, 279—87,298.312,319,342,376,377 

Rebecca, "a slave" 273 

Reed, Rev. James, 74, 82. 252; Mr. Reed and the Xewbern 

Academy 169-70, 172 — 8, 258 

Regulators, The 75, 82, .114, 115 

Rice, (tOv. Nathaniel 109 

Rich, Rev. Edward R .326. 328 

Ridley, Rev. Jos. J 212 

Riggs, Edward 233 

Rintelmann, Christopher 404 

Roanoke Indians 73 

Robards, Col. William 212 

Robertson, Mrs. T. R 325 

Robinson Family, 376; John, a Methodist preacher 283 

Roschen, Rev. Arnold, a lAitheran minister 385 

Rose, Richard I2(j 

Rowan, Rev. Andrew, 109, (jOv. Matthew, 109; County T09, J 11, 366 

Rumple. Rev. Jethro, I). I)., his History of Rowan county... 403, 411 

Rutherford, John 154 

vSt. Andrew's Church, lUirke 269, 270, 395, 398 

St. Andrew's Parish, Tyrell 163 



452 

St. Barnabas Parish, Hertford County.. „ 163 

St. Bartholomew's Parish, Chatham..... , 163 

St. David*s Parish, Cumberland „ 163 

St. David's Church, Scuppemong , 216 

St. Dennis's Parish, (Huguenot). S. C «^. 66 

St. Gabriel's Parish, Duplin...., 163 

St. George's Parish, Anson..., „ ' 163 

St. George's Parish, Northampton, (erroneously put in Ber- 
tie on page 78) , 72,78,163 

St. James's Church, Greenville 269, 270 

St. James's Church. Iredell 399 

St. James's Church, I^noir 399 

St. James's Parish, New Hanover, 69, 70, 74, 163, 245. 249, 

•••• • 259—61, 267, 332. 333, 335 

St. James's Home, Wilmington '. 332 — ^5 

St'john's Parish, Bute 83 

St. John's Church, Cabarrus (Lutheran) 375, 384, 404 

Rev. Robt. J. Miller ordained there by the lyUth- 

eran Ministerium 384-5 

St. John's Church, Fayetteville „ 267-8 

St. John's Parish, Onslow 163 

St. John's Parish, Pasquotank..., , 163 

St. John's Church, Williamsboro' 151, 163, 210 — 12, 266, 269, 270 

St. Jude's Chapel, Stony Creek, Orange county... 269, 270,271 

St. Jude's Parish, Surry 163 

St. Luke's Parish, Rowan 78, 163, 269, 270, 399, 403 

St. Margaret's Parish, Wake 163 

St. Mark's Church, Halifax 269, 270, 273 

SI. Martin's Parish, Bladen 163 

St. Martin's Parish, Mecklenburg 78, 163 

St. Mary's Parish, Edgecombe, 72, 84, 163, 263, 264, 275, 276, 

Parish Register 263 and note 

Bible and Prayer Book belonging to 263 and note 

St. Mary's Chapel, Orange 269, 270 

"St. Mary's Chapel" White Haven, so called b}^ Bishop Ives, 377 

vSt. Matthew's Church, Kinston 269, 270 

St. Matthew's Parish, Orange 82, 163, 269, 270, 271-2 

vSt. Michael's Church, Iredell 269, 270, 274, 390, 396, 399 

St. Michael's Parish, Pitt 163 

St. Patrick's Parish, Johnston 163 

vSt. Paul's Parish, Chowan, 52, 66, 118—24, 152, 162, 164, 209, 
245, 249, 254-8, 267; First Church in N. C, built 
in this Parish, 119; Communion plate belonging to 12 

St. Paul's Church, vSwift Creek 272-3 

vSt. Peter's Church, Charlotte 323, 325, 329 

vSt. Peter's Church. I^exington 269, 270, 398 

vSt. Peter's Church, l^incoln 269, 270, 390, 395, 398 



453 

St. Peter's Parish, Pasquotank 162, 163 

St. Peter's Church, Washington 269, 270, 273 

vSt. Philip's Parish, Brunswick 70, 74, 116, 163, 255 

St. vStephen's Parish, Johnston «^4, «^7, 163 

St. Stephen's Church, Oxford 269, 270 

St. Thomas's Parish, Bath, (formerly Pantplico), 65, 69, 70, 

73> 162, 209, 214, 255, 26r, 269, 270 

St. Thomas's Chapel, Bertie 213 

St* Thomas's Parish, Tryon, now Ivincoln 163 

vSalem, The Moravian School at 392 

Salisbury, St. Luke's Rowan 78-9 

Samson, John 115, 154 

Saunderson , Richard 1 25 

Saruni, Chowan county, Mr. Mashburn's School 164 

Chapel, St. Paul's Parish, Chowan 165 

Saunders, Rev. Jos. H., 212; Hon. Wm. L 55, 97, 104, 105, 117, 150 

Scherer, Rev. Daniel, a IvUtheran minister 392, 400 

Schoenberger, John 31 1 

vSchools, Church Schools in the Province of N. C 163 — 179 

Mr. Griffin's school in Pasquotank, 164; Mr. 
Mashburn's school at Sarum, 164-5; Mr. Moir's 
school in New Hanover, 166; The Innes Academy, 
Wilmington, 143-4, 164; Rev. Mr. Alexander's 
provisional bequest, 166; Rev. Mr. Stewart's school 
for Indians and Negroes in Hyde county, 73, 167; 
Rev. Mr. Earl's school in Chowan, 168 9; Gov. 
Dobbs proposes a school for the Catawba Indians, 

and the vS. P. G. favors it, 169; The Newbeni Acad- 
emy, 169 — 179; The Hdenton Academy 171, 178-9 

Church Schools in the Diocese of N. C. : 

"The Episcopal vSchool" at Raleigh, 298—302; St. 

Mary's School, Raleigh, 302-3; Trinity School, 

Wake county, 303-4; St. Augustin's, Raleigh, 

304-5; Trinity vSchool, Chocowiuity, 305; The 

Valle Crucis School, 305 — 8; Ravenscroft School, 

Asheville, 308 — 12, 319, 337; Parochial schools... 312 

Scott P'amily, 400; Andrew 173 

Seabury, Bishop 259, 387 

Seawell Family 265 

"Seceders," a sort of Presbyterians 78 

Seeker, Archbishop 88 

"Separatists" <x 76 

Shaw, Rev. Robert 212 

Shepard Family, 249; Miss Hannah B., 239; Wm- B 235 

Shepherd, Jacob 154, 173 

Shipp F'amily 376 

Shober, Rev. Gotlieb 396, 400, 407, 408 

Simpson, John 154 



% 



454 

Sisterhood of St Mary's, N. Y « 332-3 

Sitgreaves. Thomas 173 

Skiles, Rev. Wm. W 290* 306, 309. 317, 318 

Skinner Family, 249; Joshua, 233; Rev. Thomas, a Baptist 

minister ♦ 233 

Skinuersville Chapel 214 

Smedes, Rev. Aldert, 302, 303; Rev. Bennett, 327, 328; Rev. 

John R. C 305 

Smith, Nicholas, of Scotland Neck, and his Descendants 151 

Rev. J. Brinton, 304, 305; John, 173; Richard H., 

151; Robert, 146; Chief Justice William, 106, 138-9; 

Wm. A., 332; William R. Smith, Sr., and Mrs. 

Smith 273 

Smithwick, Edward 52, 118, 119^ 126 

Smyrna, Lincoln county 269, 270, 390, 393. 399 

Sneed, Stephen 211 

Snoddy, lliomas 393 

Society Parish, Bertie 84, 162 

Society for promoting Christian Knowledge; founded by 

Dr. Bray :., 51 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 51-2, 54, 56 

It aided in procuring a minister and a teacher for 

the first Lutheran congregation formed in N, C .. 405 

Sothell, (or Southwell) Gov. Seth „ 94 

Spaight (misspelled Speight on pages 74 and 249), family... 249 

Richard, 114; Gov. Richard Dobbs 74, 114 

vSpencer, Bishop, of Madras, 293; Judge Samuel 115 

Spottiswood, Gov. Alexander, of Va 98 

vSpruill Family 249 

Stanly Family, 249; John W 153 

Starkey, John, 107, 148; Edward 149 

Stephens, Gov. Samuel 94 

Stewart, Rev. Alexander, 73, 84, 166, 167, 252; Andrew 173 

Storch, Rev. Charles, a Lutheran minister 385 

vStrange Family 268 

Strebeck, Rev. George 259, 275 

Strudwick, Samuel 153 

Succession of Bishops from the Church of England before 
the Reformation preserved in the Anglican Com- 
munion only 359 — 61 

vSugg Family, 152, 264; Aquilla 60, 154 

Sumner Family, 265; CTcnl. Jethro 264, 270 

Sutton, Rev. Robt B 305 

Swann, Elizabeth and Sarah, 12S; Samuel, 56, 107, 126—8, 
131; Samuel, Jr., 127-8; Thomas, 127; Thomas, Jr., 

also another Thomas, 128; William, 126; William, Jr., 12S 

Swiss settlers at ' Newbern 61, 100 



455 

Taliaferro, Mrs. W. R 325 

Tarborougli, 72, 75, 183, 185, 187, 189, 274-5; old Churcli in 
which the ConventionvS of 1790 — 94 were probably 

held 9, 263-4 

Taylor, Rev. Ebenezer, 64, 65; Family of Granville, 271; Rev. 

Lewis, 212; Col. Joseph, 207; Chief Justice John L., 276 

Thomas, Dr. Wm. George, 334; Jonathan, a Baptist preacher, 60 

Thompson, Mrs. Lewis 330 

Thompson Orphanage ^^^- 32 

Thurston, Rev. William • 212 

Tillinghast Family 268 

Todd. Rev, r»^r ^ 392 

Toleration, Acts of. 59. 60, 61 

TomliUvSon, Thomas, the first teacher in the Newbern 

Academy 151, 169, 172 — 7 

Toole Family 152, 264, 275 

Toomer, Judge John D 143 

Tories 82, 265, 268 

Trinity Church, Asheville 319 

Trinity Church, Burke county {?), 390 

Trinity Church, Chocowinity see ''JUounVs Chapelt 

Trinity Church, Scotland Neck 273 

Trinity Church, Tarborougli, (afterwards Gz/z^rtrr Church) ...269-70, 274-5 

Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut 157, 293 

Tryon, Charles, j 16; "Lady Tryon," wife of (iov. Tryon, 1 16, 
117;' The Hon. Miss Tryon," sister to the (Gover- 
nor, 86, 116, 117, 405; William and Thomas, mer- 
chants. Treasurers of the S. V. G., 76, 116; Gov. 
William, 75, 76, 78, 79, 8t), 81, 82, 83, 86, 87, 89, 

114—17, 169, 173. 4"3» 4<M. 4"5 

*'Tryon's Palace" 255, 259 

Turn er , I )avid see A ])pen<li x 

Tynte, (»ov. Kdward, of S. C 97 

Unitarians and PapivSts not included in Act of Toleration 59 

Unitas Fratrum, The Moravians 78, 163 

I'nity Parish, Guilford \ 163 

University of N. C, 293; Mr. Pettigrew's interest in it J89. 220 

Trmstone, Rev. John 61 — 65,98, 102, 162 

" Valle Crticis^' 289-90, 317-8, 337 

Vaughan, Rev. Maurice U 212 

Vestry, members of first Vestry in N. C 52, 118 

Virginia, Rev. R. J, Miller's account of the state of religion in, 392-4 

Voluntary vSubscriptions to support the Church 57-8, 120 

Wacho\'ia, the Moravian settlement 163 



456 



\ 



Waddell, Hugh, 115, 134, 139-40, 154; Hon. Alfred M., 17, 
136, 139; Rev. James, Wm. Wirt's famoiu "Blind 
Preacher" 219, 226, 392 

Wake, Archbishop, 116; Mi^ Esther, sister to * *Lady Tryon, * * 1 16, 1 1 7 

Walcher, Daniel ,... 396 

Walker Family, of Cape Fear. 249; Gov. Henderson, 49, 52, 

56, 94, 95, 100, 118; His death , 54 

Walpole. Sir Robert 87 

Ward, Richard 154 

Wardens of the Poor — a continuation of the old "Church 

Wardens" > i^tnote; 26^ note 

Washington, George 30, 81 

Watson, Rt. Rev. Alfred A., 34, 279, 333, 334, 335; John 229 

Webb, Lorenzo 213, 214 

Wesley, John, 214; His Prayer Book, 380; His twelve reasons 

why Methodists should not leave the Church 381 

Wetmore, Rev. Wm R 332 

Weymouth, Lord, his "Bounty" 52 

Wheeler, John H : 101 

White, Gov. John, of the Roanoke Island Colony of 1587..... 9i» 92 

Robert,- 264, see also Appendix; Rt. Rev. William, 

Bishop of Pennsylvania, 34, see also Appendix; 

His correspondence with Parson Pettigrew, 182 — 9, 

204; His Memoirs of the American Church 251 no/e^ 262 

White Haven Church... 266, 269, 270, 369 — 400, see also Appendix; 

Called "St. Mary's Chapel" once by Bishop Ives, 377 

Whitefield, Rev. George, preaches in Newbern, 82; is said 

to have preached also in St Thomas's, Bath 

Whitford, William B 

Wickham, Precinct of 

Wilkes, Mrs. John 

Wilkinson, Gov. Henry, 94; William 

William and Mary College 

Williams, Robert, William and Robert, 151; Judge John, of 

Ciranville, and his family, 15 1-2, 211; John 

Wills (printed erroneously as Mills), Rev. John 

Wilnier, Rev. George, D. I), 

Wilmington 74, 251; (see also St. James's Church, New Hanover,) 

Wilson, Rev. James L., 1S3, 185, 187, 189, 190, 249, 262, see also Appendix. 

Wilton, William 173 

Winslow, Edward, 268; John 268 

Woods, H see AppeiKiix 

\V^H)lcott, William 328 

Wrii^dit I-'amily, 12S, 268; Rev. Tlumias 398, 399, 408 

Veamans, (iov, vSir John 94, 131, 132 

" Yellow Jacket,'' the first book printed in N. C....147, see also Appendix. 

Zion Church, Beafort county 1 269, 270 



209, 


214 




174 




162 


325, 


329 


52, 


118 


J 25, 


280 


172, 


173 




74 


3»o, 


311 



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JUL 1 I94C